Chinese Education - East Asia Institute | The University of Oklahoma

Report
East Asia Institute
at the University
of Oklahoma
Brief History of Chinese
Education
Brief History
Education has played an
important role in China’s long
cultural tradition.
Many scholars believe that the
history of China can be traced
back to the Xia Dynasty in
1500 B.C.
Who was educated at this
time?
During the imperial period
only the educated
intellectuals….
Classification of
Education
Official School
1. Whole sets of education
systems.
2. It’s goal was to…
Private Schools
1. Local official schools
2. Opposite of the official
education system.
3. Central official schoolInstitutions of highest learning.
3. Initiated by Confucius
• 156 BC -1911 AD
156 BC- 1911 AD
4. Private schools were in the
urban and rural areas
Confucius
• Confucianism’s impact on
China.
• Han Dynasty (202 BC- 220
BC) a public education
system established.
• Common man could also
use this path.
• Become a Gentleman or
Chun Tzu was the goal.
Confucius Quotes
• “Education breeds
confidence. Confidence
breeds hope. Hope breeds
peace.”
-Confucius
“You cannot open a book
without learning something.”
-Confucius
• “I hear and I forget. I see
and I remember. I do and I
understand.” -Confucius
• “If I am walking with two
other men, each of them
will serve as my teacher. I
will pick out the good points
of the one and imitate them,
and the bad points of the
other and correct them in
myself.” -Confucius
Confucius says…
Cult figure
1. Bicycle can’t stand on its
own because it is two tired.
2. Man who run in front of car
get tired.
3. Man who run in back of car
get exhausted.
4. Man who lives in glass
house must get changed in
basement
5. Man who sits on tack gets
point.
6. Man with one chopstick go
hungry.
Civil Service Exams
Ke Ju 科举
1. Select government officials.
( 581-618 AD)
2. Education system
3. Talent
4. Different types of exams:
County level, provincial level,
palace level.
Mao ZeDong
1893-1976
• The intellectuals will
accomplish nothing if they
fail to integrate themselves
with the workers and
peasants. In the final analysis,
the dividing line between
revolutionary intellectuals and
non-revolutionary or counterrevolutionary intellectuals is
whether or not they are
willing to integrate themselves
with the workers and peasants
and actually do so. - "The
May 4th Movement", May
1939
The educational doctrine
of Mao Zedong
• Marxist, protagonist,
strategist, and theoretician.
• Important education to the
proletariat.
• Socialized form of socialist
education
• Mass education
3 Main Building Blocks
• 1. Personal teaching
experience
• 2. Marxism
• 3. Culture heritage of
China
Current Education
System in China
1. Synopsis of public schools
in the U.S. and China.
2. Comparisons of teachers
and teaching strategies.
3. Comparisons of test taking
and tracking.
4. Parental involvement
5. Math and reading scores
6. Strengths and Weaknesses
Tiger Mother
Tiger mom
Tiger mom
Stereotypes that
can ring true
Comparisons
(There are exceptions)
China 中国
1.
Grades- 1-9
(6 primary and 3 secondary)
U.S. 美国
1.
Grades 1-12
2.
5 days a week
(6 primary, 2/3 middle
school, and 3-4 high school)
3.
Two semesters
2.
5 days a week
4.
Classroom size 40-70 avg.
3.
2 semesters
NOTE: Grades 10-12 are
considered higher education and are
not free.
4.
Classroom size-20-30 avg.
5.
60-70% education focused
6.
Added element of social
relationships.
90% education focused
Social relationships also but focus is
different.
Primary Curriculum
China 中国
U.S. 美国
1.
Chinese, math, P.E., music,
art, science, and society.
1.
Liberal arts focused-well
rounded
2.
Importance of teamwork
2.
3.
The “Big 2”
English, math, science,
social studies, music, art,
gym, and other electives.
4.
Most time allocated to these
two subjects.
3.
Extra curricular activities:
sports, band, clubs,
volunteer work,
cheerleading, etc.
NOTE: Grades 10-12 are
considered higher education and
are not free.
Secondary
Education
China中国
• 1. Competition
• 2. Stress
U.S.美国
1.
Limited competition
2.
Less stress
3.
Multiple children
4.
Lower expectations..allow
me to explain
5.
More options.
• 3. Only child
• 4. Expectations
• 5. Options limited
• Yearly test to advance to the next
grade.
• Only 1/3 of the students who
take the Gao Kao(College
Entrance Exams) are admitted.
Entrance
Examinations
China
1. End of every year.
2. National College Entrance
Exam (GaoKao-高考)
3.
Purpose-higher education
and leadership.
4.
Recruits top students
5.
Admitted in 3 different
quotas:
6.
You can retake, but must
repeat your senior year.
U.S.
1. Every year and throughout
the year.
2.
SAT and ACT-Junior and
Senior years-no limit
3.
Purpose-higher education
4.
More options(Best
universities in the world
are in the U.S.)
Other points
China
• 1. 25% drop out rate in
China.
• Why they drop out:
• http://fsi.stanford.edu/sites
/default/files/Exploring_Dr
opout_Rates_and_Causes_o
f_Dropout_in___UpperSecondary_Vocational_Scho
ols_in_China.pdf
U.S.
• 1. Dropout rate highest
among all of the developed
nations.
• 2. Unequal opportunities
according to
socioeconomics, poor
facilities.
• 3. State and local
government provide
funding. Feds-8.5 %.
Daily Schedule
• China
• U.S.
Teachers in China
China
•
Becoming a teacher
1. Two additional training in a
professional institution.
2. Primary school teachers need to
be graduates of secondary schools
3.
Pay is low.
4.
Limited classroom hours. Plan
period for each hour taught.
5.
Teachers rotate classes
6.
RESPECT!!!!
U.S.
• Becoming a teacher
1.
Bachelor’s degree
2.
PASS OPTE, SAT, and OGET
tests
3.
Pay is so high I don’t know why
I am still not teaching.
4.
5-7 classes a day with one plan.
5.
Teachers have their own
classroom.
6.
Conditional respect.
Teaching strategies
China
U.S.
• Standard curriculum from the
Ministry of Education
• Oklahoma Academic
Standards ((State)
1.
Embarrassment
1.
Encouragement
2.
One on one
2.
See you tomorrow
3.
Competitive environment.
Students are numbered…
3.
Only the top and lowest
are known.
4.
Teachers and students work
together
4.
Us against them.
5.
Stop and help the student
5.
So long, farewell
Implications for
success
China
1.
Believe every student has
the ability.
2.
Expect more from their
child
3.
Parents play active role
4.
Parents will go to school
and take notes….!
5.
Their society supports
education.
U.S.
1.
We separate
2.
“That is not their talent”
attitude.
3.
Parents play passive role
4.
I have to work
5.
We do not make education
a priority.
Strengths
China
1.
More respect
2.
No taxes on salary
3.
U.S.
1.
U.S. universities and
colleges are the best in the
world.
Own National HolidayTeacher’s Day Sept. 10th
2.
More latitude with
curriculum development.
4.
Hard work ethic, so students
succeed
3.
Students learn to ask
questions.
5.
Do not segregate high
achieving students
4.
More freedom to engage in
extracurricular activities.
Weaknesses
China
U.S.
1.
High Stakes
1.
Low stakes
2.
Study, study, study
2.
Study, play, play, study, play
3.
Little time to socialize
outside of class.
3.
Plenty of time for kids to
socialize.
4.
Limited extracurricular
activities.
4.
Numerous extracurricular
activities.
5.
Method of learning
involves memorizing.
5.
Methods of learning require
more interaction (back and
forth).
Chinese students
American Students
Teachers
Teacher at heart
Where do we need to
focus?
Hefei No. 2 HS
Why No. 2?
Hefei No. 2 HS
Hefei No. 2 HS
Hefei No. 2 HS
Hefei No. 2 HS
Chinese Summer
Bridge
Chinese Summer
BRidge
Edison HS Exchange
Program
Conclusion
If schools in the U.S. public school
system were to incorporate the positive
aspects that make the Chinese school
system so successful, schools in the U.S.
would in turn be more successful. It is
my personal hope that educators and
school administrators will compare
schools in the U.S. to the successful
schools in other countries, including
China.
DISCUSS recommended changes!!!!!!
References
• Mao Zedong
• Education System in China
• www.ibe.unesco.org/publicati
ons/ThinkersPdf/maoe.pdf
• http://www.classbase.com/C
ountries/china/EducationSystem
• Modern China
• http://sitemaker.umich.edu/
vanschaack.356/synopsis_of_
public_schools_in_china
• Modern China
• http://www.tc.columbia.edu/
faculty/tsang/Files/7.pdf
• Grading System
• http://www.classbase.com/C
ountries/china/GradingSystem
References
• [3] Yuen-Yee, G. C., Watkins,
D. (1994). Classroom
environment and approaches
to learning: an investigation
of the actual and preferred
perceptions of hong kong
secondary students.
Instructional science, 22(3),
233-246.
• [4] Afflerbach, P. (2005).
National reading conference
policy brief: high stakes
testing and reading
assessment. Journal of
Literacy Research, 37(2), 151162.
• http://sitemaker.umich.edu/
vanschaack.356/reference_list
• http://sitemaker.umich.edu/
vanschaack.356/reference_list
References
• [9] Fuligni, A. J., Stevenson,
H. W. (1995). Time use and
mathematics achievement
among american, chinese,
and japanese high school
students. Child Development,
66(3), 830-842.
• [9] Fuligni, A. J., Stevenson,
H. W. (1995). Time use and
mathematics achievement
among american, chinese,
and japanese high school
students. Child Development,
66(3), 830-842.
• [10] Woessmann, L. (2006).
Why students in some
countries do better. Retrieved
december 9, 2006, from
http://www.hoover.org/publi
cations/ednext/3389816.html
• http://sitemaker.umich.edu/
vanschaack.356/reference_list
• http://sitemaker.umich.edu/
vanschaack.356/reference_list

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