Hospitality Past_ Present_ _ Future

Hospitality Past, Present, &
Chapter 3
Early History
• The hospitality industry probably began with the
▫ 4000 BC lived in a region near the Persian Gulf
▫ Sumerians built taverns and served beer to people
in the surrounding areas (some of the first
hospitality businesses)
• Traders traveled from region to region to trade
spices, gold, and other exotic goods. People
began to build inns and taverns along the routes
Early History (Continued)
• 3 countries played an important role in the early
days of hospitality
• Egypt, Greece, and the Roman Empire
• Ancient Egypt began the tourism trade
▫ 2700 BC pyramids were built and began attracting
▫ Base of pyramids great place for festivals
▫ Souvenir sales began here; tourists wanted to take
home a reminder of their visit
▫ Egyptians also organized the first cruises
 Cruise: pleasure trip taken by boat or ship
Greece and Early History
• Loved to travel
• Traveled all over Europe and established many
• Greece made 2 major contributions to the
hospitality industry
1. Language- first universally accepted language of
international trade
2. Greek money became the standard of exchange for
monetary transactions
Common currency made travel and business easier
Greeks were defeated by the Romans in 146 BC
Romans and Early Hospitality
• Romans developed roads throughout their
empire. Made travel quicker and easier.
• Travel became dangerous. Travel and tourism
virtually stopped during this period.
• Renaissance created a rebirth of travel and
artistic interests.
▫ Travel again became safe and popular. Taverns
and inns were once again open for tourists.
Development in the United States
• US has made great contributions to the
hospitality industry.
• Grand hotels, motels, restaurant chains, fast
food businesses, and franchises all originated in
the US.
• Hospitality grew along with new modes of
transportation (stagecoaches, railroads,
automobile, and commercial airlines)
Inns for Stagecoach Travelers
• 1600s stagecoach routes were established in the US
▫ Inns began to develop along these routes
▫ Could exchange a tired horse for a rested one
 Switching horses took about 30 minutes and would allow time
for a meal
▫ Stagecoaches usually arrived at a set time and the
innkeeper would have everything ready for arrival.
▫ Inns & Taverns were popular gathering places
▫ The first building designed specifically as a hotel was
probably New York City’s City Hotel
 5 story hotel built in 1794
 Guests paid $2 (included breakfast, lunch , tea, and dinner)
 Hotel had 73 rooms
Grand Hotels for Railroad Travelers
1800s railroad travel developed and spread
Much more comfortable than a stagecoach
Travel long distances in a shorter time period.
Inns, saloons, and restaurants were built close to railway
• Tremont House in Boston was the first Grand Hotel in 1828
▫ Grand hotel: offers luxury accommodations
▫ Tremont House was 4 stories tall, 170 private rooms, 6 meeting
rooms, and 200 seat dining room
▫ No elevators (had not been invented yet) this is where the bellhop
was born
 Bellhop: person who when they heard the bell ring, they had to
hop to help the guests (it was their job to carry the heavy luggage
• Hotelier: owner or manager of a hotel
Grand Hotels for Railroad Travelers
• In Europe, Cezar Ritz was raising the standards of luxury hotels.
▫ Put Auguste Escoffier in charge of the kitchen (created modern
organization of hotel kitchen and created new and exciting dishes)
▫ Made dining a luxurious experience
• Ritz was built the world famous Ritz Hotel in 1898. He was the first
to give each guest room a private bath, built in closets, and
• In the US, Ellsworth Statler was developing his chain of hotels
▫ First to develop uniform standards for hotels.
▫ Featured telephones in every room, modern plumbing, full size closets
with lights, radios, and free morning newspapers
▫ Also developed a list of service rules called the Statler Service Code.
(Each employee had to learn, memorize, and follow the code).
Motels for Automobile Travelers
• Motels: combines basic hotel service with convenience for the
automobile traveler. Located near the highway, parking is
free and located right outside the rooms.
▫ Often called Tourists Courts or Motor Courts
▫ Did not have facilities as hotels such as restaurants, room service,
and bell attendants. Guests had to carry own luggage.
• 1952 Kemmons Wilson took his family on vacation and was
disappointed by the lack of places to stay. He developed his
own chain as a result
▫ Developed the Holiday Inn
 Family friendly where children stay free, swimming pools, and
 Guaranteed reliability clean and comfortable rooms
 Created a large, distinctive sign which could be easily seen from
the road
Motels for Automobile Travelers
• Motels soon became larger and began to offer more
• Business travelers liked having coffee shops, cocktail
lounges, and meeting rooms
• Swimming pools were important
• Usually built at the edge of towns
• Most were one or two stories tall.
• Simple construction was easy to build, compared to
downtown high rise expensive hotels.
• Amenities and level of service vary based on the
location and price of the property.
Airport Hospitality for Air Travelers
• Commercial jets began operating in 1958
• Hotels located in downtown areas began to decline and those
located near airports grew along with restaurants
• J.W. Marriott opened hotels near airports
• New vacation areas were developed in locations that were easily
accessible by air
• Jet airline service decreased the time and inconvenience of
international travel
• International travel grew
• As air travel became more common, airports became the location of
new hospitality businesses.
• Hotels, motels, foodservice, and restaurants were designed to meet
the needs of air travel customers
• Shuttle services were designed to transport guests from hotels to
nearby airports
Hospitality Today
• The hospitality industry has several major
challenges. These challenges include:
Delivering consistent service
Diversity of the workforce
Accommodating special needs
Impact of seasons
• Using the paper/poster you are given, list all the
challenges you and your group can think of
regarding the topic given. You will have 7
minutes to complete the assignment.
Delivering Consistent Service
• Hospitality businesses fail or succeed based on
the quality of service guests receive
• Delivering quality service always involves people
• Hospitality is a people serving business
• Managers have 2 ways to ensure good service
▫ Procedures
▫ Training
▫ Employees must be trained to be customer
Diversity in the Workforce
• In the past, white males made up the majority of the workforce; however,
women and minorities are entering in greater numbers
• These people have a variety of cultures, religions, beliefs, and languages
• Diversity: used to describe a large group of people from a variety of
backgrounds, cultures, religions, beliefs, and languages
• In order to be successful, businesses must learn how to meet needs of
employees too
• Many programs help businesses support their employees
Education, career, professional development
Transportation to and from work
Assistance in learning English
Accessibility, career development, and opportunities for advancement for
employees with disabilities
▫ Retraining in job skills for senior employees
▫ Daycare referrals or assistance
▫ Flexible schedules
Accommodating Special Needs
• People with special needs are traveling more and more
• Special needs include
Medical conditions
Physical disabilities
Mental disabilities
Preferences based on religion, health, or circumstances
• Hospitality workers must use problem solving and communication skills to
meet these needs
• Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was passed to make sure people with
disabilities are treated fairly
▫ Requires that public buildings be accessible to people with disabilities
 Accessible: able to be entered and used by a person with a disability
▫ Many have developed special accommodations for people with disabilities
Braille lettering: special language for the blind
Automatic doors
Special bathroom facilities
Impact of Seasons
• The demand for hospitality services varies with the seasons
• Peak Seasons: those with the highest demand (this is when
they are busy)
• Off-peak Seasons: those are seasons with the lowest demand
(the number of customers is very low)
• Timing of peak and off peak seasons depends on the location
of the business
▫ Summer in Florida
▫ Winter in Colorado
• Must find ways to deal with the changes in demand
▫ Managers have to design methods to cope
• Some hospitality businesses lower their prices in off peak
Factors Affecting Success
• Many factors that affect the hospitality industry
Political Conditions
Economic Conditions
• Using the paper/poster you are given, list all the
challenges you and your group can think of
regarding the topic given. You will have 7
minutes to complete the assignment.
• Has a major impact on many hospitality
No Snow
Political Conditions
• Bad or dangerous political conditions discourage
• Countries that have war or unstable political
conditions lose hospitality customers
• 911
▫ Lost BILLIONS of dollars
▫ Why?
▫ Aviation and Transportation Security Act
Economic Conditions
• Many hospitality businesses rise and fall with
the economy
▫ When the economy does well, so does the business
• Recession or Contraction: period when the
economy is slowing down and doing poorly.
▫ People lose jobs and have less money
▫ The first thing they cut is spending on travel,
recreation, and restaurants
▫ First to hurt during a recession and the last to
• Globalization: the process in which economies of
different nations become interconnected
• Global Economy: the worldwide economy composed of
the interconnected economies of all the nations
• Before globalization, each country had an economy that
was separate from others
• Now, an economic problem in one country can effect
economies around the world
• Transnational corporation: has major operations in
several countries
• A sign of the hospitality industry’s economic health is
the continuing development of tourism facilities both
nationally and internationally

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