The History of China Reunification of the country • China is a country that has given us many important invents and discoveries. For example: the inventions of the compass, paper and silk. Thanks to this country we know what is tea and rice. China is an ancient country with a unique culture, which developed in a self-contained civilization. That’s why the history of this country is very interesting. It is full of wars and military conflicts like a history of any other country. No doubt, the most important of them is the war for the unification, the result of which was the emergence of the new great country, the apparent symbol of which is the Great Chinese Wall. • The history of China as a whole country started only in the third century BC after the Qin’s wars of unification. Before that this country did not exist. Instead of it, there were 7 independent kingdoms, that fought with each other. This period is called the Warring States Period. However, the emperor of the Qin dynasty, Ying Zheng, decided to conquer the other six major states (Han, Zhao, Yan, Wei, Chu, Qi) and combine them in the territories that later became China. His dynasty was not the first dynasty to rule China. Shang and Zhou were the two of the dynasties which existed before Qin. • Ying Zheng began his campaign by first conquering the Han state in 230 BC. As the weakest state, Han was the easiest for the King of Qin to conquer. The next state to conquer was Zhao and its capital Handan easily fell to the Qin forces. After Zhao, Ying Zheng conquered the state of Yan in 227 BC, Wei in 225 BC, Chu in 223 BC, Yan in 222 BC, and finally Qi in 221 BC. The victory over Yan was an important victory for Ying Zheng as it allowed him to rule over northeastern China. • Chu was the largest state which controlled southern China and was the hardest to defeat.. The first attempt in 224 BC to conquer the state was a failure. Ying Zheng was finally successful in his second attempt when he ordered more troops to be used. The victory at Chu was indeed decisive for Ying Zheng as it was the largest of the seven states and the conquest of the state allowed Ying Zheng to rule over southern China. The Qi army surrendered to the Qin army without a fight. • When all the states were conquered, Ying Zheng declared himself as the first emperor with the title Shih Huang Ti and the first ruler of the Qin dynasty. • Recently, scientists have found a tomb of Shih Huang Ti and near it there is the Terracotta Army. It is a collection of terracotta sculptures depicting the armies of Qin Shi Huang. It is a form of funerary art. The army was buried with the emperor and it’s purpose was to protect the emperor in his afterlife. • There are many opinions about Ying Zheng in China. Some people say, that he was a cruel dictator, others believe that he was performing a great mission. Nobody can tell the truth, because nobody knows it. There is a legend, that he built the Great Wall on the bones of his enemies. But there is another legend, and I like it more. This legend is very well shown in the film “Hero”. Here is the plot of this film. • In ancient China during the Warring States Period, a nameless prefect of a small jurisdiction arrives at the Qin state's capital city to meet the king of Qin, who has survived an attempt on his life by the assassins Long Sky, Flying Snow, and Broken Sword. Therefore, no visitors are to approach him within 100 paces. 'Nameless' claims that he had slain the three assassins and he displays their weapons in front of the king, who allows Nameless to sit closer to him and tell him his story. • Nameless recounts killing Long Sky; later to meet Flying Snow and Broken Sword at a calligraphy school in the Zhao state, where he set them against each other until Snow killed Sword and was herself slain by Nameless. As the tale concludes, the king expresses disbelief and accuses Nameless of staging the duels with the assassins, who surrendered their lives to allow him to gain the king's trust and take the king's life. • Nameless admits that he is a native of the Zhao state and that his family was killed by Qin soldiers, and confesses that he defeated Sky without killing him and had proposed co-operation to Snow and Sword. After Snow's apparent death, Sword approached Nameless and told him that the only way to achieve peace was to unite the states under a common dynasty; namely that of Qin, which alone has the ability to do so, thus revealing why Sword gave up his earlier assassination attempt. • The king, affected by the tale and by Sword's understanding of his dream to unify China, ceases to fear Nameless. He then tosses his sword to Nameless and examines a scroll drawn by Sword, and understands that it explains the ideal warrior, who, paradoxically, should have no desire to kill. When Nameless realizes the wisdom of these words, he abandons his mission and spares the king. • At the Qin palace, the king reluctantly orders Nameless killed, being urged thereto by his court. As the film ends, Nameless receives a hero's funeral and a closing text identifies the king as Qin Shi Huang. • Qin dynasty lasted only 16 years and collapsed when it was defeated by Liu Bei, the founder of the Han dynasty. Although the Qin dynasty was not the first dynasty in China, it was remembered as the first dynasty to rule over all of China, after its first emperor was the first person to reunite China. • Unification of China by the Qin Dynasty plays an important role in the history of the country. The first emperor of the Qin Dynasty carried out a lot of reforms. He introduced a united system of weights and measures, established a system of centralized administration, held a unification of writing and increased the territory of the state. • So, to sum it up, the reunification of China marked the beginning of China's further development as a whole country.