ASIA*3000 B.C to 1000 A.D.

• Which two factors contributed to the failure of Kublai Khan’s invasion of Japan in
1272 and 1281?
• What were Japanese warriors who devoted themselves to nobles and lived by a
strict code called? What code did they live by? What religion or philosophy
borrowed from the Chinese became intertwined with this code?:
• On which island of Japan were most of the larger cities found?
• Name the locations of the first four major civilizations, specifically by naming the
river locations they were founded near.
ASIA—3000 B.C to 1400 A.D.
Geography: India, Nepal, South Central Asia
Monsoons, or
seasonal wind
patterns, bring heavy
rain to western parts
of India during the
summer months.
During the Winter, the
winds reverse,
bringing wetter cooler
air to the eastern side
of India
The Himalaya
Mountains, tallest
mountains in the
world—(Nepal—(1)-Mount Everest)
Indian Ocean
India—Early Civilizations
1. Similar to Egypt and Mesopotamia, India’s early civilization began in a fertile
river valley, the Indus River. ~3000 B.C. to 1500 B.C.
• Two well planned cities, Harappa, and Mohenjo Daro, were established in the
river valley.
• The early Indus civilizations ended around 1500 B.C,
probably due to new civilizations moving in.
• ~ 2000 B.C. the Aryans' (an Indo European people),
moved in to India. They merged with other Indian
civilizations and became the dominate culture.
• The Aryan’s brought new technology, including:
• Iron—(plows for farming)
• Written language—(Sanskrit)
• Earliest Sanskrit writing: 1500 B.C.—the “Vedas”
Indus River
Ancient Indian Society
2. Indian civilization centered on family life, an oldest male dominated family.
Grandparents, parents, and children often lived together.
• Women had very little power, and marriages of daughters were often arranged by parents.
In ancient India, when men died, the ritual of Suttee required women to throw themselves
on the burning pyre of their deceased husbands!
• Indian culture also divided society into 4 parts,
called “varnas”. People were born into their
place---(based on religious purity)
Leaders or teachers
Merchants or farmers
Also---Untouchables—lowest of the low.
• India’s system evolved into the “caste system”.
Ancient Indian Religions: Hinduism
3. Ancient India developed two important religions: Hinduism and Buddhism.
• Hinduism believed in the existence of a single force, or reality, in the universe,
called Brahman. A Hindu's spiritual goal is to join with Brahman.
• The practice of Yoga was developed to train the mind and body to reach a state
of union with Brahman.
• Hindu’s developed other gods in addition to Brahma
to express ideals of their beliefs, including Vishnu and Shiva.
Ancient Indian Religions: Hinduism
• Hindu also practice the concept of reincarnation, the idea that the soul is reborn
after death in another form.
• The process of reincarnation is built around the idea
of Karma. According to Karma, what people do in
their current life dictates what their next life will be.
• To the Hindu, dharma is the divine law people live by,
it dictates how they should live and act according to their social
Rich King
Ancient Indian Religions: Buddhism
4. The religion Buddhism was founded in 563 B.C. by Siddhartha Gautama, who
became known as the Buddha, or “enlightened one”
• The Buddha was raised a wealthy noble, but chose to live a life of poverty in
order to find the “true meaning of life”. Buddha believed he reached
enlightenment through meditation.
• Key to Buddhism is reaching Nirvana, an ultimate reality and reunion the Great
World Soul.
• Buddha rejected rigid caste systems of the Hindu. He also
rejected the multiple gods of Hindu. Many see Buddhism as
more a philosophy than a religion.
• Buddha died in 480 B.C. in Nepal, after which followers spread
his message throughout India and Asia.
Contributions of early Indian Civilization
• Indian culture had several achievements that influenced
• Religion: Hinduism and Buddhism
• Algebra created by Aryabhata
• Chess
• ‘Arabic’ numerals, including ‘zero’.
East Asia: Geography
1. Himalayan Mountains
2. Mongolia
3. Yellow River
4. Yangtze River
5. Japan
6. India
7. Taklimakan Desert
8. Gobi Desert
China: Early Civilizations
5. Civilization in China and East Asia began in the fertile area between the Yellow
and Yangtze Rivers. China is surrounded by both deserts and mountains, which
provided it natural protection from outside invasion.
• Early Chinese civilizations included the Xia, the Shang, and the Zhou
Dynasties. The early Chinese Dynasties were ruled by kings and
wealthy aristocrats who served in a complex bureaucracy.
• Zhou kings claimed to rule by a “Mandate of Heaven”, meaning
kings linked the natural world to the great powers of the universe, (heaven).
This system mandated that ineffective kings should be replaced by better rulers.
China would be ruled by a series of dynasties for over 2000 years.
Early Chinese culture
6. The Chinese developed a language based on picture symbols called Pictographs.
They combined Pictographs to represent broader ideas in ideographs.
• The Chinese developed Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism, all very important
to early Chinese culture and government.
• Chinese also developed a method of acquiring silk from silkworms. Silk became a
very important trade item which linked European and Asian civilizations.
7. Confucianism was founded by the Chinese philosopher Confucius in the late 500
century B.C.. It spread quickly after his death in 479 B.C.
• Confucianism is a belief in a natural order of things. It is not necessarily a spiritual religion,
rather a philosophy on how to establish an ethical and harmonies society.
• Confucianism taught the important of family and society
roles, and the duty of each member of family and society.
• Hard work and improving life on earth important!
• Confucianism believed education was connected
to public service. It led to Merit based civil service
test being used by Chinese dynasties.
• This practice would be passed on to today!
Daoism and Legalism
8. Daoism, (Taoism), was based on the teachings of Laozi—(may not have existed).
Daoism believed in living in harmony with the natural world.
• Legalism was a philosophy which rejected both Confucianism and Daoism.
Legalist believed people were evil by nature. Legalist believed only strong leaders
who enforced harsh laws and stiff punishment could maintain an ordered society.
The Silk Road: Trade opens Asia
9. The goods of India and China became highly sought by western civilizations
including Persia, Egypt, and Rome.
• Between 200 B.C. and 100 A.D., the Silk Road
was slowly developed. Asian goods,
especially silk, were traded over a road
that stretched from Constantinople to China,
more than 4000 miles.
• The Silk Road would falter then
be revitalized by the Mongols.
• Movie: (C.C. Silk Road)
Chinese Dynasties: The Qin (221 B.C. to 202 B.C.)
10. The Qin Dynasty, established by Emperor Qin Shihuangdi, conquered
consolidated China in 221 B.C.
• Emperor Qin had roads built throughout China connecting his empire. He also
instituted strict legalism, ruling his empire with fear and punishment.
• Under Qin, the Government was divided into parts, and
people were assigned jobs by merit test.
• Qin faced constant threat from nomads to the north.
Qin tried to strengthen a series of walls to protect the
kingdom. This project began a project called the
Great Wall of China. (project took over 1500 years to
• The wall we see today was built much later! 1500 years later!
Chinese Dynasties: The Han (202 B.C. to 220 A.D.)
11. Liu Pang, who became known as Han Gaozu, established the Han dynasty in
202 B.C. The Han dynasty threw out the legalist philosophy and embraced
Liu Pang
• Over the next 400 years, the Han dynasty expanded the Chinese empire over
much of eastern Asia. Advancements in technology, including iron production,
the development of paper, and the invention of the rudder and advanced sailing
systems improved and expanded trade.
• The Chinese even developed steel! Steel was
not discover in Europe until the 18th Century.
581-1280 A.D.—Sui, Tang, and Song Dynasties
12. The end of the Han dynasty in 220 A.D. would lead to chaos for 300 years in
China, until a series of new dynasties developed.
• Three new dynasties would emerge for the next 700 years: the
Sui, the Tang, and the Song.
• The Sui linked the two great rivers,(Yellow and Yangtze Rivers),
with a great canal.
• The Sui leaders were cruel, leading to rebellion in 618 A.D. by the Tang. The Tang would
rule until 907 A.D.
• The Song dynasty would rule
from 907 to 1280, until the
Mongols conquered all of Asia.
Chinese culture (581-1280)
• During the 700 year rule of the Sui, Tang and Song, Chinese life, economy, and
government systems improved and expanded in complexity.
• New discoveries in metallurgy improved metals used for tools. Steel was used in
swords and farm material. Cotton became a popular crop for clothing. Massive
food production skyrocketed the Chinese population.
• The Silk Road renewed and thrived, and ships carried
trade to Korea, Japan, and Southeast Asian islands.
• Gunpowder was discovered and used for
fireworks and explosives. The Chinese
even developed a flame thrower!
Movie: 20 minute history of China
• (C.C. China)
Rise of the Mongols
• Mongolia is located north of China in central Asia. It was separated from China by the
Gobi desert.
• Mongolia was inhabited by clans of nomads. In 1206 A.D. the clans would be united by
a Temujin, who was elected Genghis Khan of all Mongolian Tribes.
• Genghis Khan conquered an incredible empire in amazing speed, led by his unique
system of a massive traveling army and his brutal tactics. (Examine page 276-277)
• HoM movie—Plague 1:15 to 8:05—
10:10 to 12:45
The Mongol Empire
• Crash Course
Kublai Khan and Marco Polo
• Genghis Khan died in 1227 A.D., leaving his empire divided into Khanates, which
were ruled by his son’s and grandson’s.
• Kublai Khan, a grandson of Genghis, ruled and expanded the Chinese Khanate by
defeating the Song dynasty. Kublai established the Yuan Dynasty in China. Kublai
adapted Chinese technology, government systems, and culture to his own.
• During the reign of Kublai, Marco Polo visited from Europe. His writings about
his trade expedition to the amazing empire of Kublai were brought back to the
western world.
Japan and Korea
A. Kyushu (Japan)
B. Shikoku
C. Honshu
D. Hokkaido
E. Sea of Japan
F. Pacific Ocean
14. Japan is a set of four major islands off the east coast of Asia. The total land
area is about the size of Montana. Japan’s culture has been deeply affected by its
natural isolation.
• Japan is very mountainous, only 11% of the land is farmable. Japan’s most
notable geographical feature is Mount Fuji, the largest mountain. It is located
near modern day Tokyo on Honshu.
Japanese History
• Japan’s earliest civilizations began when farmers settled the fertile farmland in
central Honshu. Society of early Japan divided into clans, each ruled by a
aristocratic class.
• In the early 7th century, Shotuku Taishi of the Yamato clan, gained control of
Japan, and created a central government based on the Chinese model. Tax
revenues were paid to the central government instead of the aristocratic clan
leaders. Taishi became the first in a line of emperors.
• Taishi created the idea that the Yamato clan were descended
from gods, securing a divine power of his line.
• Taishi appointed the aristocratic clan leaders as governors
of areas to keep them loyal and happy.
Japan: The Nara and Heian Periods
• Taishi died in 622 A.D., leaving a series of Yamato emperors to rule. The
emperors slowly lost power to various clans who kept taxes for themselves
instead of sending it to capital.
• Over the next 200 years, the capital of Japan was
moved first to Nara, then to Heian-Kyo.
• The decline in central power let to division of power
among powerful clans. Each clan was protected by
its own military servants, called samurai.
• Samurai were fierce well trained soldiers who lived by a
strict code known as the Bushido—”the way of the warrior”
• Quick Video:
• (Sam Rap):
Japan vs. Kublai Khan
15. In the 12th Century, Japan was struggling with constant civil war. A powerful
noble defeated several other rivals and established a new central power called a
shogunate. The shogunate was run by a military leader called a shogun. The
Shogunate lasted from 1192 to 1333.
• The Shogunate established a strong army to protect Japan. In 1272 China, (ruled
by Mongols), attempted to invade Japan, but were caught in a horrible storm. In
1281 Kublai Khan again sent a massive fleet and 150,000 men to defeat Japan.
Japan was saved by another great storm, called a typhoon, which again
destroyed the Chinese fleet.
• The Japanese called these storms kamikaze, or “divine winds”
Japan to the 1800’s
• In the 15th century Japan was eventually unified by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who
used European weapons, (Portuguese firearms), to rule.
• His successor was the brilliant Tokugawa, who ruled by controlling all advanced
weapons, (firearms), limiting the size of armies besides his, and isolating Japan
from all trade except Portugal. Tokugawa’s line ruled till the mid 1800’s, and
Japan enjoyed a lasting peace until 1868.
Japanese Culture and Religion
16. Religion: The Japanese early beliefs centered on spirits of nature called Kami,
and spirits of their ancestors. This was called “Shinto” and is still part of Japanese
beliefs today.
• The Japanese also accepted Buddhism brought by Chinese Monks. Japanese
Buddhism evolved into Zen Buddhism, and was especially embraced by the
17. Korea is a peninsula off Eastern Asia. It is a mountainous country difficult to
• Korea adopted much of its culture from the Chinese, though Korea’s language
and traditions remained their own.
• Koreans adopted Chinese character writing, Confucian ideas, government institutions, and
• After learning farming and bronze technology, three kingdoms, the Koguryo, the
Paekche, and the Silla arose.
• Eventually the Silla allied with the Chinese and gained total power. The Koreans
would be conquered by the Mongols.
• Eventually a Korean warlord defeated the Mongols in 1392 A.D., and the Koreans
would have their ‘independence’ for 500 years under the protection of Chinese
Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
18. Southeast Asia consist of a series of coastal cultures separated by large
mountains running north and south, a large peninsula called the Malay Peninsula,
and series of large islands separating the Indian and Pacific Ocean.
• The first SE Asia culture, Vietnam, emerged ~200 B.C. The Chinese conquered
them in 111 B.C. but struggled to control them.
• Vietnam eventually adopted Chinese Confucianism, Government style, and other cultural
In the 9th Century the Kingdom of Angkor
developed in the region of Cambodia, and
lasted until 1432.
Southeast Asia
• Additional cultures developed in SE Asia in Thailand, Burma, and the Malay
Peninsula. Eventually Islamic and European traders began to settle and establish
coastal trading cities which came to dominate SE Asia.
• The culture of SE Asia slowly became dominated by the Islamic religion, though
certain areas still retain Confucianism, Buddhism, and Hindu.
• Perhaps the most beautiful and magnificent cultural icons of SE Asia is the Hindu
temple the Angkor Wat in Thailand.
• The Angkor Wat was the capital of the Khmer Empire
• Built in 1100 A.D., it took 40 years to construct.
• A three mile wide moat surrounded it.
Angkor Wat

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