Concerto Ritornello Form Bach Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 Vivaldi, Concerto for Violin and Orchestra (“Spring”) SELF-GUIDED STUDY Concerto combines 2 highly contrasting groups: Orchestra (aka tutti) 15-25 strings + harpsichord louder dynamics simpler music Soloist(s) 1 to 5 players may feature woodwinds, brass softer dynamics technical, virtuosic Most concertos have 3 or 4 movements. Movement 1 Ritornello form fast, energetic (always) Ritornello sections Solo sections played by tutti played by soloist(s) returning theme or New melody (ies) in each part of it Unity Solo section Contrast Contrast Time 0:00 R1 U U C S1 C R2 C C S2 U U C R3 C C S3 Time ?:?? C R4 C C S4 etc RX 1. Ritornello theme (R) has two identification components: melodic contour double tone motive 2. Some R sections use both the melodic contour and motive; others employ only the motive. 3. Listen to each R section using Connect Kamien and indicate on the lines below what identifies it. NOTE: Kamien uses “Tutti” to refer to “Ritornello”. R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ ______ _____ Connect Kamien Some Solo sections include bits of the Ritornello theme in the background or as a brief part of the solo melody. Which of these excerpts do this? 1 2 3 4 When you have mastered this and the previous slide, you are ready to listen to the entire movement. 5 6 Bach Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 in D Maj, Mvt. 1 Concerto Grosso I= ritornello form soloists= flute, violin, harpsichord long harpsichord cadenza a technical “tour de force” much drive toward final ritornello Connect Kamien VLC—hasten audio -0.500s R1 R2 R3 = Unity R S R = Contrast S1 S2 S3 = Contrast Vivaldi Concerto for Violin & Orchestra, Op. 8, No. 1, (Spring from the Four Seasons ), Mvt. 1 Concerto I= Ritornello form Program music Connect Kamien Listen to movement 1 of Vivaldi’s Violin Concerto. using Connect Kamien, my formal analysis (next slide) and the Kamien text. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Can you identify each recurrence of R? Who is supposed to play in a ritornello form’s S sections? Who plays in Vivaldi’s S1 S2 S4 sections? (Check the book!!) Do you agree that Vivaldi is “breaking” ritornello formal rules? Explain how S1 and S4 can produce both contrast and unity. Compare and contrast the Vivaldi and Bach movements: How many formal sections in each movement? Which movement’s structure is more consistent with ritornello form? Which is longer? Which has the greater energy? (This is somewhat subjective. What is “program music”? Use Kamien or VA Tech Music Dictionary Why is the “Spring” Concerto said to be programmatic? Vivaldi’s Concerto, Mvt 1 Ritornello form R1 S1 Song birds R2 S2 R3 S3 Murmuring streams Thunder, lightning R4 S4 Song birds Connect Kamien R5 S5 R6 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Vivaldi wrote >450 concertos for strings, woodwinds, and brasses. Why did he and his contemporaries write so much music? Google “Stradivari” and/or “Stradivari violin” and scan several items to get an idea of Stradivari’s life span, work, and place in the history of violin making. Describe the quality of string instruments made in Italy during Vivaldi’s life. Vivaldi wrote more than 300 concertos for strings (>230 for violin). Vivaldi and the string instrument makers, Stradivari, Amati, Guarnerius were nearly contemporaries. See a connection? Remember program music? In what musical era or century is program music particularly popular? Can you cite elements of Vivaldi’s Violin Concerto that make it programmatic? Does Vivaldi compose at the beginning, middle, or end of the Baroque era? When did Vivaldi compose his “Spring” concerto? As musical eras draw to a close it is common for composers to experiment and innovate. Might this phenomenon have influenced Vivaldi? What, then, is Vivaldi’s role in the development of music?