SoyBeans and Fava Beans

Report
SOYBEANS AND
FAVA BEANS
By Brian Fischer
Overview
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History of both plants
Their production worldwide and in the U.S.
Uses of both plants
Soybeans
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Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Rosidae
Order Fabales
Family Fabaceae – pea family
Genus Glycine Willd. – soybean
Species Glycine max (L.) Merr. – soybean
http://plants.usda.gov/
General Info about soybeans
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The height of the plant varies
from below 20 cm (7.9 in) up to
2 meters (6.6 ft)
Soybeans occur in various sizes,
and in many hull or seed coat
colors, including black, brown,
blue, yellow, green and mottled.
The seed contains about 38%
protein, 18% oil, 15% soluble
carbohydrates, 15% insoluble
carbohydrates, and 14%
moisture/ash/other.
http://www.nsrl.uiuc.edu/aboutsoy/production02.html
http://www.amnh.org/learn/biodiversity_counts/ident_help/Parts_Plants/soybean_seedling.htm#Axilla
ry
Agricultural Origins
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North China in the eleventh century B.C.
It is thought that soybean was first introduced into
the American Colonies in 1765 as "Chinese vetches"
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Soybean has been one of the five
main plant foods of China along
with rice, wheat, barley and millet.
http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/life/botany/soybean-info.htm
http://www.agron.iastate.edu/courses/agron212/Readings/Soy_history.htm
Worldwide Production
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In 2007, 216 million
tons of soybeans were
produced worldwide.
The world’s leading
soybean producers
are the United States
(33%), Brazil (27%),
Argentina (21%), and
China (7%). India and
Paraguay are also
noteworthy soybean
producers.
http://www.gmocompass.org/eng/grocery_shopping/crops/19.genetically_modified_soyb
ean.html
http://www.ers.usda.gov/briefing/soybeansoilc
rops/2007baseline.htm
Production in the U.S.
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The United States is the largest producer of soybeans in the
world, averaging a production of 69,682 TMT of beans.
The United States is also the world's largest consumer of
soybeans, sitting at an average annual consumption of
45,313 TMT. In the importing arena, the United States, on
average, imports 132 TMT, which is a relatively insignificant
amount. However, the United States exports 24,168 TMT,
ranking the U.S. as the world's largest exporter of soybeans.
The U.S. also has the highest average ending stock in the
world with 6,933 TMT.
http://www.spectrumcommodities.com/education/commodity/statistics
/soybeans.html
Production in the U.S. continued
http://bioweb.sungrant.org/Technical/Biomass+Resources/Agricultural+Resources/Existing
+Crops/Soybeans/Default.htm
Soybean as a GM plant
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Over half of the world's 2007 soybean crop
(58.6%) was genetically modified, a higher
percentage than for any other crop.
The first genetically modified soybeans were
planted in the United States in 1996. More than ten
years later, GM soybeans are planted in
nine countries covering more than 60 million
hectares.
http://www.gmocompass.org/eng/grocery_shopping/crops/19.genetically_modified_soyb
ean.html
Threats to the Soybean Crop
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Fungi
Insects (Homoptera: Aphididae)
Weeds
http://ddr.nal.usda.gov/bitstream/10113/9372/1/IND43634353.pdf
http://www.leopold.iastate.edu/pubs/other/files/SA11.pdf
http://agronomyday.cropsci.illinois.edu/2010/tours/b1blight/
George Washington Carver
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1864-1943 Inventor
Among Carver's many
inventions were a way of
turning soybeans into
plastic
Worked with Henry Ford
to use soy based products
http://www.buzzle.com/articles/george-washington-carvers-inventions.html
http://www.kshs.org/kansapedia/georgewashington-carver/12004
Other Uses
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Livestock feed
Biodiesel
Oil extracted from soybeans is made into
shortening, margarine, cooking oil, and salad
dressings.
Crayons, Inks, Paints
Hydraulic fluid
Soybeans account for 80 percent or more of the
edible fats and oils consumed in the United States.
http://www.soyworld.com/
http://www.ncsoy.org/ABOUT-SOYBEANS/Uses-of-Soybeans.aspx
Nutritional Value
Soybean, mature seeds, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy
1,866 kJ (446 kcal)
Carbohydrates
30.16 g
Sugars
7.33 g
Dietary fiber
9.3 g
Fat
19.94 g
saturated
2.884 g
monounsaturated
4.404 g
polyunsaturated
11.255 g
Protein
36.49 g
Tryptophan
0.591 g
Threonine
1.766 g
Isoleucine
1.971 g
Leucine
3.309 g
Lysine
2.706 g
Methionine
0.547 g
Phenylalanine
2.122 g
Tyrosine
1.539 g
Valine
2.029 g
Arginine
3.153 g
Histidine
1.097 g
Alanine
1.915 g
Aspartic acid
5.112 g
Glutamic acid
7.874 g
Glycine
1.880 g
Proline
2.379 g
Serine
2.357 g
Water
8.54 g
Vitamin A equiv.
1 μg (0%)
Vitamin B6
0.377 mg (29%)
Vitamin B12
0 μg (0%)
Vitamin C
6.0 mg (10%)
Vitamin K
47 μg (45%)
Calcium
277 mg (28%)
Iron
15.70 mg (126%)
Magnesium
280 mg (76%)
Phosphorus
704 mg (101%)
Potassium
1797 mg (38%)
Sodium
2 mg (0%)
Zinc
4.89 mg (49%)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soybean
Fava Beans(Broad Bean)
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Kingdom Plantae – Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
Subclass Rosidae
Order Fabales
Family Fabaceae – Pea family
Genus Vicia L. – vetch
Species Vicia faba L. – horse bean
http://plants.usda.gov
General Info
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It is a rigid, erect plant 0.5-1.8 m tall
Flowers 1-2.5 cm long
Fruit is in the pod which can contain 3-8 seeds
Faba bean requires a cool season for best
development. Growing seasons should have little or
no excessive heat, optimum temperatures for
production range from 65-85°F.
Broad beans have a very short season (roughly two
weeks.)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vicia_faba
Agricultural Origins
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Eastern Mediterranean around 6000 B.C.
Like the Soybean they fix nitrogen to the soil
Has many names including Broad Bean, Fava
Bean, Field Bean, Bell Bean or Tic Bean
Worldwide Production
In ancient Rome, they began to be cultivated in order to feed livestock as well
as for humans. In recent times, they have become less important as a human food
and are mainly grown for animal feed. China is the largest grower today,
producing about 60 percent of the world's supply. Europe and North Africa are
also centers of broad bean cultivation
http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Bean
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Broadbean_Yield.png
Main Uses
Mostly used as livestock feed (Horse bean)
 It is a good source of protein (25%)
 Can be used to
treat Parkinson’s
disease
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http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://lh4.ggpht.com/_hTt7ulSkLpI/R5yp
AZTe5TI/AAAAAAAAPqA/9LmOm_VN1Fs/vicia_faba_8.jpg&imgrefurl=http://lu
irig.altervista.org/schedeit/pz/vicia_faba.htm&usg=__fMp8dyUxey6_nQe8cGe
mLbkVpI=&h=500&w=750&sz=67&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=bEqOouXDhRiDM
M:&tbnh=163&tbnw=192&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dvicia%2Bfaba%26um%3D1
%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DX%26biw%3D1024%26bih%3D513%26tbs%3Disch:1
&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=538&vpy=133&dur=1906&hovh=183&hovw=2
75&tx=107&ty=89&ei=nA0tTZKpG8L58Ab7mI26Cg&oei=nA0tTZKpG8L58Ab7
mI26Cg&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=10&ved=1t:429,r:3,s:0
http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/878593/health_benefits_and_nutrition_of
_fava.html
Nutritional Value
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High in fiber
High in iron
No cholesterol
Low in sodium and fat
http://www.neuroformulas.com/pages/Nutritional-Facts-of-Vicia-Faba.html
Final thoughts…
Productive crops
 High nutritional value
 Multiple uses for soy
 Fava bean old world crop
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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iVlkZVAw8
Gc

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