Developing the Logical Frame Work Matrix

Report
Developing the
Logical Frame Work …………….
Murali Krishna
Public Health Foundation of India
Learning objectives
• After this lecture participants will be able to
– Understand the difference between LFA and LFM
– build a logical framework matrix/PPM/Log frame
Are we speaking like this ?
Logical frame work
Analysis
Log frame
Are we making u like this?
LFA and Logical Framework Matrix
• LFA is a project preparation
methodology
• LFM is a document with a special
structure, produced as the result of
LFA.
• LFA is the process and LFM is the
product.
• LFM is sometimes called Project
Planning Matrix (PPM)/ Log Frame
Why LFA in projects?
• It takes the planners through a series of steps to define
clearly what the project or program will accomplish and
how
• It provides in-depth analysis of project objectives,
outputs, and activities.
• It provides a structured, logical approach to setting
priorities and determining the intended results and
activities of a project.
• It helps to identify possible risks to project
implementation.
• It uses Quantity, Quality and Time indicators FOR
measuring achievement of objectives
• It provides a useful basis for project appraisal
Steps in LFA
LFA consists of 4 steps:
1. Situation analysis
2. Strategy Analysis
3. Project Planning Matrix
4. Implementation
Participation of the stakeholders is a
prerequisite
1. Situation Analysis
The analysis phase is the most critical, yet most difficult, phase
of the log frame approach. The analysis phase consists of three
stages
a. Stakeholder analysis: Identify biases, expectations, and
concerns of the people, groups, or organizations that
may influence or be influenced by the problem or a
potential solution to the problem.
b. Problem analysis
c. Objective analysis
b. Problem Analysis
Identify the root cause and effects of the problem:
Cause and effect link
•
Problem Tree Method
Effect
Cause
Effect
Main
Problem
Cause
Cause
Cause
Cause
c. Objective Analysis
Build on ‘Problem Tree’: The negative
statements
– It is ‘Objective Tree’: The positive
statements
– ‘Means-Ends’ relationship
2. Strategy Analysis
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Strategy Analysis
•
A strategy analysis (also known as or alternatives
analysis) involves an analysis of the ‘objective tree’.
•
Each of the ‘roots’ is examined as a possible means of
strategy for achieving the core objective of the project.
•
Criteria are selected by which each possible strategy is
to be judged and, either through a ‘ranking system’ or
a consensus through discussion,
12
3. LFM: Introduction
• The logical framework Matrix was developed in the
late 1960s to assist the US Agency of International
Development (USAID) as a tool for:
– Detailed planning with clearly defined objectives that can
be monitored
– Clear management responsibility
– Pre-determined evaluation process
Terminology
• Inputs
• Process
• Outcome (output,
effect & impact)
• Objectives and goal
System framework
Inputs
Process
Outcomes
Output
Effect
Targets
(immediate results in
numbers)
Objectives
(Coverage)
Impact
Goal
(planned impacts)
The M & E framework (logic model)
Monitoring and Evaluation
Monitoring
Evaluation if we can
attribute of inputs/process
INPUT
Resources
put into a
program
PROCESS
Activities which
convert program
inputs to outputs
OUTPUT
Products or
services
produced by
program
EFFECT
OBJECTIVE
The logical framework matrix
• Also known as the log frame
• Provides the documented product of the analytical process
• It consists of a matrix with four columns and four rows (or
more), which summarize the key elements of a project plan
– The project's hierarchy of objectives
• Project description or intervention logic
– The key external factors critical to the project’s success
• Assumptions
– How the project’s achievements will be monitored and evaluated
• Indicators and sources of verification
The Goal refers to
the overall
problem we are
trying to address
The Summary outlines the project’s objectives:
what it hopes to achieve and how.
What outputs are needed to
achieve the Purpose?
What change or benefit
we want the project to
achieve so that the goal
can be reached
How will the outputs be
delivered or produced
General sequence of completion
Log Frame – Filling the matrix
Filling tips:
• There should be only one or two purposes
• The main problem gives the project Purpose
• The “causes” help in identifying the Outputs and Activities
• Eg. What causes (outputs) increased immunization
coverage (Purpose)
• Use the “If Then” test to ensure logical links
• Working from Activities as IF the activity was carried out
THEN will the output be produced/result.
• Similarly for other levels
Log Frame – Filling the matrix
(e g Measles immunization)
SUMMARY
GOAL
Decrease incidence
and mortality from
measles
OBJECTIVE
Increased coverage of
measles immunization
(MV)
OUTPUTS
(1) Increased
awareness about MV
(2) Increased number
of vaccination days
(3) Increased
availability of MV at
health centers
INDICATORS
EVIDENCE / SOURCE
OF VERIFICATION
ASSUMPTIONS
Log Frame – Filling the matrix
Assumptions/Risks:
• We can never be 100% sure that the activities we plan or outputs the
project will produce will actually happen. This because we live in a world
of uncertainties. The log frame explicitly acknowledges this.
• Risks which can affect planned activities and expected outcomes
include:
• Climate changes (floods, rain, drought etc.)
• Health worker strikes or bandhs
• Fluctuations in the economy or changes in economic policy
• Changes in government policy
• Contractors not fulfilling obligations
Log Frame – Filling the matrix
Assumptions/Risks:
• Starting with each activity, list the potential and plausible risks which
might prevent it from being carried out.
• Rank the risks in order of importance and select only the most important
ones (e.g. top two or three)
• Write these risks into the Assumption column. Since risks are typically
negatively worded, you might consider writing it as a positive statement
such that it reads like an assumption.
• For example – Risk : Health workers are not willing to work
Assumption: Health workers are willing to work
• If there is a risk reducing measure available then it is important to include
it as an activity since this will ensure greater success of the project.
• Check the logic of your assumptions using the “IF – AND – THEN’
technique
Assessment of assumptions
Log Frame – Filling the matrix
SUMMARY
ACTIVITIES
INDICATORS
EVIDENCE
ASSUMPTIONS
1.1 Train CHW about
importance of MV
CHW apply the training
1.2 Conduct IEC
campaign for MV
Community responds to
IEC
2.1 Recruit CHWs
CHWs come regularly to
work
Incentives adequate for
accepting job
2.2 Inform
community about
additional
vaccination day
Community responds to
additional day
3.1 Establish
functional cold chain
Cold chain is maintained
3.2 Train health
center staff in better
logistic mgmt.
Health workers apply the
training
AND
Log Frame – Filling the matrix
SUMMARY
INDICATORS
EVIDENCE
ASSUMPTIONS
GOAL
Decrease incidence and
mortality from measles
PURPOSE
Increased coverage of
measles immunization
(MV)
Mortality due to
measles
MV are effective
OUTPUTS
(1) Increased awareness
about MV
(2) Increased number of
vaccination days
(3) Increased
availability of MV at
health centers
MV is culturally
acceptable
THEN
Additional vaccination
days made use of by
communities
Additional vaccines
used
Log Frame – Filling the matrix
Indicators
• COVERED IN EARLIER
Evidence (Means of Verification)
• the type of data needed, such as a survey
• the source of the data – whether secondary (collected by
someone else) or primary (collected by our organisation)
• frequency and dates of data collection. For example, monthly,
quarterly, annually.
Data sources
Source: Adapted from MEASURE Evaluation( 2007). M&E Fundamentals - A Self-Guided Minicourse.
Exercise

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