Chapter 4 Motivation and Values Motivation 4-2 Motivation refers to the processes that cause people to behave as they do. Once a need is aroused, a state of tension exists that drives the consumer to attempt to reduce or eliminate the need. Needs can be: – Utilitarian: a desire to achieve some functional or practical benefit. – Hedonic: an experiential need, involving emotional responses or fantasies. The Motivation Process Tension Drive Strength Drive Direction Behavior Want Goal 4-3 4-4 Motivational Strength The Degree to Which a Person is Willing to Expend Energy to Reach One Goal as Opposed to Another. Biological Vs. Learned Needs (Instinct Drives Behavior) Drive Theory Focuses on Biological Needs that Produce Unpleasant States of Arousal, i.e. Hunger. Homeostasis: Behavior Which Tries to Reduce or Eliminate This Unpleasant State and Return to Balance. Expectancy Theory Behavior is Largely Pulled by Expectations of Achieving Desirable Outcomes - Positive Incentives - Rather Than Pushed From Within. Motivational Direction Needs Versus Wants Specific Way a Need is Satisfied Depends on: Individual’s Unique History, Learning Experiences and Cultural Environment. Types of Needs Biogenic Psychogenic Utilitarian Hedonic 4-5 4-6 Motivational Direction Motivational Conflicts Approach-Approach Two Desirable Alternatives (The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance) Approach-Avoidance Negative Consequences Avoidance-Avoidance Two Undesirable Consequences Other Consumer Needs Achievement Affiliation Power Uniqueness Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self Actualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological 4-7 4-8 Consumer Involvement Involvement The Level of Perceived Personal Importance and/or Interest Evoked by a Stimulus Involvement The Motivation to Process Information Levels of Involvement Simple Processing “Inertia” (Habit) Elaboration Conceptualizing Involvement 4-9 The Many Faces of Involvement Product: Related to a Consumer’s Level of Interest in a Particular Product. 4-10 Message (Advertising)Response: Refers to a Consumer’s Interest in Processing Marketing Communications. Purchase Situation: Refers to the Importance of the Situational Context of Buying. Strategies to Increase Involvement Build a Bond With the Consumer Include Celebrity Endorsers Appeal to Hedonic Needs Increasing Consumers’ Attention Use Prominent Stimuli Use Novel Stimuli 4-11 Values 4-12 A belief that some condition is preferable to its opposite. Every culture has a set of values that it imparts to its members called Core Values. The process of learning the beliefs and behaviors endorsed by one’s own culture is Enculturation. Acculturation is the process of learning the value system and behaviors of another culture. 4-13 American Core Values Individualism Freedom Efficiency and Practicality Humanitarianism Youthfulness Fitness and Health Material Comfort Applications of Values to Consumer Behavior 4-14 Research has tended to classify values as being: – Cultural such as security or happiness, – Consumption-specific such as convenient shopping or prompt service, – Product-specific such as ease of use or durability. The Rokeach Value Survey identified: – Terminal Values - desired end-states that apply to many cultures, – Instrumental Values - composed of actions needed to achieve these terminal values. 4-15 Applications of Values to Consumer Behavior List of Values (LOV) Identifies Nine Consumer Segments Based on Values They Endorse Means-End Chain Model Message Elements Consumer Benefit Executional Framework Leverage Point Syndicated Surveys - VALS 2 http://future.sri.com/VALS/VALSindex.shtml Driving Force Means-End Chain Model Suggests that consumers define product attributes in personal, subjective terms – “What does this attribute do for me?” In other words, consumers see a product attribute as a means to some end, which could be a consequence or a value. – That is, consumers create knowledge structures of linked meanings that connect tangible product attributes to more abstract attributes and consequences, which in turn are associated with more subjective, self-relevant values and goals. 4-16 4-17 Means-End Chain Model Attributes Concrete Abstract Consequences Functional Psychosocial Values Instrumental Terminal 4-18 Example of Means-End Chain Model Concrete Hair Spray Pump Dispenser Abstract Light Mist Functional Hair Not Sticky Psychosocial Instrumental Feel More Attractive Impress Others Terminal Self Esteem (Product class level) Scope Mouth Wash (Brand level) Fluoride Avoid Bad Breath Feel Confident In Social Situation Perform Better Social Recognition Materialism 4-19 Materialism refers to the importance people attach to worldly possessions. America is a highly materialistic society. – 40% of all U.S. households have two or more cars, – Over $200 billion is spent on vacations in a year Materialists are more likely to value possessions for their status and appearance-related meanings. However, there are signs that many Americans are developing a different value system that balances work with personal relationships.