D 2 /d 2 + D 1 /d 1

Report
TETRA-project: SMART DATA CLOUDS (2014 – 2016) .
Flemish Agency for Innovation by Science and Technology
Contact persons:
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
Website: https://www.uantwerpen.be/op3mech/
TETRA: Smart Data Clouds (2014-2016):
a. Security, track and trace
b. Traffic control and classifications
c. (Smart) Navigation
d. Dynamic 3D body scan
industrial cases
[Haven van Antwerpen].
[Macq, LMS, Melexis]
[Wheelshairs, PIAM, mo-Vis, Automotive LMS]
[RSscan, ICRealisations, ODOS]
Data Fusion: ind. Vision linked with CAE.
Data from RGB, IR, ToF and HS cameras.
TETRA: Smart Data Clouds (2014-2016):
a. Wheelchair control - navigation:
b. Gesture & Body-analysis:
healthcare applications
[mo-Vis, PIAM, Absolid]
[RSScan, ICrealisation, Phaer, ODOS]
‘Data Fusion’ usable for future Healthcare .
03D2xx-cameras
IFM-Electronics
64x50 pix.
PMD[Vision]CamCube 3.0
352 x 288 pix!
Recent: pmd PhotonICs® 19k-S3
Swiss Ranger 4500 MESA
176 x 144 pix.
BV-ToF
128x120 pix.
DepthSense 325
( 320 x 240 pix )
Fotonic RGB_C-Series
160 x 120 pixel
Previous models: P – E series.
Melexis: EVK75301
80x60 pix.
Near Future: MLX75023 automotive
QVGA ToF sensor .
ODOS: 1024x1248 pix.
Real.iZ-1K vision system
ToF VISION: world to image, image to world - conversion
1
1
P = [ tg(φ) tg(ψ) 1 d/D ] ,
j
J/2
i
P’ = [ tg(φ) tg(ψ) 1 ] . ( f can be chosen to be
the unit.)
j0
J
φ
i0
I/2
(0,0,f)
f=1
z
I
x
y
ψ
R
A
u.ku
r
D
v.kv
d
D/d = x/uk = y/vk = z/f
Every world point is unique with respect to
a lot important coordinates:
x, y, z, Nx, Ny, Nz, kr, kc, R, G, B, NR , NG , NB , t° , t ...
The basis of our TETRA-project: ‘Smart Data Clouds’
kr ,kc
N
u = j – j0 ; uk = ku*u
v = i – i0 ; vk = kv*v
tg φ = uk/f
tg ψ = vk/f
r = √(uk²+f²)
d = √(uk²+vk²+f²)
D/d-related calculations. (1)
For navigation purposes, the free floor area can easily be found from:
di/Di = e/E = [ f.sin(a0) + vi.cos(a0) ] / E = [ tg(a0) + tg(ψi) ].f.cos(a0)/E .
Since (d/D)i = f /zi this is equivalent with: zi . [ tg(a0) + tg(ψi) ] = E/cos(a0) .
Camera sensor
Camera
inclination = a0 .
f
di e ψi
vi
Di
Camera bounded
parallel to the floor.
a0
E
zi
Floor.
D/d-related calculations. (2)
Fast calculations !!
1
D
The world normal vector n ,
at a random image position (v,u) .
4
3
d
v
d² = u² + v² + f².
O
n
u
f
nx ~ f.(D4/d4 - D3/d3)/(D4/d4 + D3/d3) = f.(z4 – z3)/(z4 + z3)
ny ~ f.(D2/d2 - D1/d1)/(D2/d2 + D1/d1) = f.(z2 – z1)/(z2 + z1)
nz ~ - (u.nx + v.ny + 1 ) ▪
2
Coordinate transformations
yPc
1. Camera x // World x // Robot x
2. World (yw , zw) = Robot (yr , zr) + ty
vt
3. yPw = - (z0 – zPc).sin(a) + yPc.cos(a) = yPr + ty
f
4. zPw = (z0 – zPc).cos(a) + yPc.sin(a) = zPr
a
zw
P
zPc
A camera re-calibration
for ToF cameras is easy
and straightforward !!
zr
a
yw
Work plane = reference.
yr
ty
Pepper handling
First image = empthy world plane
Next images = random pepper
collections.
Connected peppers can be
distinguished by means of local
gradients. Gradients can easily
be derived from D/d-ratios.
Thickness in millimeter
Calculations are ‘distance’ driven,
x, y and z aren’t necessary.
Fast calculations !
YouTube: KdGiVL
Bin picking & 3D-OCR
Analyse ‘blobs’ one by one.
Find the centre of gravity XYZ, the normal direction components Nx, Ny, Nz ,
the so called ‘Tool Centre Point’ and the WPS coordinates.
Beer barrel inspection.
IDS uEye
UI-1240SE-C
O3D2xx
x
y
x y z
ToF - RGB
correspondency
vc,P/F – kv.vt/f = tx.√(z²P+y²P)
uc/F = ku.ut/F .
MESA SR4000
RGBd
DepthSense 311
1. Find the z –discontinuity
2. Look for vertical and
forward oriented regions
3. Check the collineraity
4. Use geometrical laws
in order to find
x, y, z and b.
ToF
IFM O3D2xx.
1. Remove weak defined pixels.
2. Find the z –discontinuity
3. Look for vertical and
forward oriented regions
4. Check the collineraity
5. Use geometrical laws
in order to find
x, y, z and b.
CamBoard Nano
Basic tasks of ToF cameras in order to support Healthcare Applications:
•
Guide an autonomous wheelchair along the wall of a corridor.
•
Avoid collisions between an AGV and unexpected objects.
•
Give warnings about obstacles (‘mind the step’…, ‘kids’, stairs…)
•
Take position in front of a table, a desk or a TV screen.
•
Drive over a ramp at a front door or the door leading to the garden.
•
Drive backwards based on a ToF camera.
•
Automatic parking of a wheelchair (e.g. battery load).
•
Command a wheelchair to reach a given position.
•
Guide a patient in a semi automatic bad room.
•
Support the supervision over elderly people.
•
Fall detection of (elderly) people.
Imagine a wheelchair user likes to reach 8 typical locations at home:
1. Sitting on the table. 2. Watching TV. 3. Looking through the window.
4. Working on a PC. 5. Reaching the corridor 6. Command to park the wheelchair. 7. Finding some books on a shelf. 8. Reaching the kitchen and the garden.
ToF guided navigation for AGV’s. D2 = DP ?
Instant Eigen Motion: translation.
Distance correspondence during a pure translation + horizontal camera.
d1 = sqrt(u1² + v1² + f²)
RMS error.
x1 = u1* D1/d1; y1 = v1* D1/d1; z1 = f* D1/d1
Distance correspondence during a
pure translation + horizontal camera.
D22 = D1² + δ² - 2.δ.D1.cos(A)
D22 = D1² + δ² - 2.δ.z1
u2/f = x2/(z1 - δ);
δ
( x2 = x1 ! )
For every δ there is a D2 .
For one single δ the
error D2 – DP is minimal.
v2/f = y1/(z1 - δ) .
Measurement at (v2,u2)  DP .
δ
d1
Random world
f
f
v1,u1
v2,u2
D1
A
y1
D2 = DP ?
P
Every Random point P can be used in order to estimate de value δ.
More points make a statistical approach possible.
Random points P! (In contrast: Stereo Vision must find edges, so texture is pre-assumed )
ToF guided Navigation of AGV’s.
Instant Eigen Motion: planar rotation.
D2 = DP ?
Image data: tg(β1) = u1/f ; tg(β2) = u2/f .
Next
sensor
position
P
Here:
x<0
R>0.
D1
z1
Previous
sensor
position
Task: find the correspondence β1  β2 ;
Procedure:
With 0 < |α| < α0
z2
D2
DP
With |x| < x0
Projection rules for a random point P :
β2
β1
α
xP 2  D2 .sin(2 )  D1.sin(  1 )  x.cos( )
z P 2  D2 .cos(2 )  D1.cos(  1 )  x.sin( )  
R+
tan(  2 ) 
δ1
α
x
Parallel processing possible!
D1.sin(  1 )  x.cos( )
D1.cos(  1 )  x.sin( )  
D2² = xP2² + zP2²
D22  D12  x2   2  2.D1.sin(1)  2.  D1.cos(  1 )  x.sin( )
ToF guided navigation of AGV’s.
Instant Eigen Motion: planar rotation.
Previous image
Next image
White spots are random selected points
Minimum RMS = 9.4211
e.g. Make use of
100 Random
points.
Minimum RMS = 6.4
R = 1152
alfa = 0.24
ratio = 1
Result = Radius & Angle
30
20
D2,i = DP,i ?
10
0
60
40
20
0
Value x.
0
20
40
60
80
Angle A. CPUtime = 0.11202
100
Research FTI
Master Electromechanics
Info: [email protected] ;
Conrad: DJI Phantom RTF Quadrocopter
[email protected]
Research:
ToF driven Quadrocopters
Combinations with IR/RGB
Security flights
over industrial areas.
TETRA-project 2014-2016
‘Smart Data Clouds’
Quadrocopter navigation based on ToF cameras
z_world
xc
P
zc_camera
α
xc
BV-ToF
128x120 pix.
zc0
x1
x-world
The target is to ‘hover’ above the end point of a
black line. If ‘yaw’ is present it should be
compensated by an overall torque moment.
Area seen by the camera
Camera Horizon
Q(x1,y1)
(vc,uc)P(x,y,z)
P(x,y)
t
(Vc,Uc)
t
Q(x1,y1)
Meanwhile the translation t can be evaluated.
The global effect of the roll and pitch angles represent themselves by means of the points P and Q.
The actual copter speed v is in the direction PQ.
At the end P and Q need to come together without
oscillations, while |t| becomes oriented in the ydirection.
_world
y_world
An efficient path can be followed up by means of
Fuzzy Logic principals.

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