Small-scale family pond aquaculture for rural household nutrition Madhav K Shrestha and Sunila Rai Aquaculture and Fisheries Department, Agriculture and Forestry University, Nepal ABSTRACT OUTCOME IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS Malnutrition especially to the children and women in the rural populations has been the major issues to be addressed since long time in Nepal. Promotion of small-scale family pond aquaculture can be the one of the way to overcome this problem in rural Nepal. Several small grant projects were conducted in selected villages of Chitwan, Nawalparasi, Lamjung and Gorkha with a family pond concept (one household one pond) during the period of 2000– 2012. Project initiated with carp polyculture and moved to pond dike vegetable farming then carp-small indigenous fish species polyculture with pond dike farming with the prime emphasis on household nutrition and if surplus sale for supplemental income. Project results have shown that household ponds are mostly managed by family woman and about 50% fish are consumed in family. Incorporation of small indigenous fish which are eaten whole and have very high nutritional value with high vitamins and micro-nutrients have increased household consumption of those species. We assume increase in fish consumption has improved nutrition to woman and children of the project areas. However, it needs assessment to measure improvement in nutrition. Key words: rural poor, family pond-aquaculture, malnutrition, children and woman nutrition Table 2. Outcome of Women in Aquaculture project phase I (2000-2002) Chitwan. • Selection of technically feasible sites – villages; Particulars • Identification of appropriate rural society • Formation of homogenous fish farmers groups; • Registration of these groups with District Agriculture Development Office; • Involvement of household heads (both male and female) in training and other activities; • Providing technical and input support for one culture cycle; • Organizing regular monthly meetings of fish farmers’ groups to discuss ongoing and up-coming activities with an emphasis on household women; • Establishment of fish farmer’s cooperative and its registration with District Cooperative Office. BACKGROUND Aquaculture in Nepal expanded and developed during the decade of nineties with aquaculture development projects. However, this project supported only large/bigger farmers with bigger size ponds and small-scale farmers were excluded. Though the production of fish increased in country, it did not contribute to improve the nutritional status of the rural poor family. Malnutrition especially to the children and women in the rural populations has been the major problems due to lack of nutritious food in regular diet. Promotion of small-scale family pond aquaculture wherever possible could be the one of the way to overcome this problem in rural Nepal. Small-scale family pond aquaculture has increased household fish consumption improving nutrition and income of a family and in women empowerment (Bhujel et al., 2008; Pant et al., 2012; Shrestha et al., 2012, Pandey et al., 2012. The small indigenous fishes (SIS), which are usually eaten whole with the organs and bones, contain large amounts of minerals like calcium, phosphorus, iron, iodine, zinc, etc. and vitamin-A and vitamin-D. The carp species promoted in current aquaculture do not contribute significantly to mineral intake. Unlike large fish, SIS is eaten whole, without loss of nutrients from cleaning or as plate waste. The bones of SIS are very rich in calcium. Likewise, the eyes, head, organs and viscera of some SIS, such as Puntius (Pothi), Esomus (Deduwa) and Amblypharyngodon (Mara/Dhawai) are rich in vitamins and minerals, especially vitamin A, iron and zinc (Roos et al., 2006). These nutrients in fish are found to be highly bio-available. Moreover, SIS are selfrecruiting and therefore can be harvested weekly and fortnightly, favoring household consumption. Most of the Nepalese farmers have been consuming SIS fish by harvesting from the rivers, lake and swamp areas. However, over fishing and deterioration of natural habitats have resulted in a decline in SIS. Inclusion of SIS in carp ponds increases production, profit and household consumption as compared to normal carp culture, (Gupta, 2011; Yadav, 2011; Rai et al., 2012). Therefore, small-scale family pond aquaculture in rural areas wherever possible may help to improve nutrition and food security in children and women of the household. • Awareness on role of SIS in nutrition – Vitamins and micronutrients: Table 1: Vitamin and micro-nutrient contents in small indigenous fish species and carps (Roos et al., 2006) Fish Species Esomus denricus (Deduwa) Amblypharyngodon mola (Mara/Dhawai) Puntius sophore (Pothi/Sidhre) Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Silver carp) Cirrhinus mrigala (Naini/ Mrigal) Vitamin A (RAE/100 g cleaned & edible part) 880 2680 60 Calcium (RAE/100 g cleaned & edible part) 775 Iron (RAE/100 g cleaned & edible part) 12 776 784 4.4 < 30 < 10 2.5 RAE = retinol activity equivalents • Species Selection and identification: values Pond constructed (No.) Pond size (m2) Total area (m2) Total Fish production (kg) Mean fish productivity (ton/ha) Production range (kg/pond) Total home consumption (kg) Consumption range (kg/household) Total Fish sales (kg) Sales range (kg/household) Total supplemental income (NRs) Suppl. income range (NRs/household) Parameter Total pond constructed (No.) Pond size (m2) Total pond area (m2) Total fish production (kg) Mean fish productivity (ton/ha) Production range (kg/pond) Total home consumption (kg) Consumption range (kg/HH) Total fish sales (kg) Sales range (kg/HH) Total suppl. income (NRs) Suppl. Income range (NRs/HH) Puntius sophore (Pothi) Regular partial harvesting of SIS (weekly/Fortnightly) RESEARCH POSTER PRESENTATION DESIGN © 2011 www.PosterPresentations.com Improvement in nutrition of Children & Women Kawasoti, Nawalparasi Total 57 50-398 8173 2712 3.3 5-205 820 5-40 1892 0-180 227,040 0-21,600 30 30-135 2667 534 2.0 7-35 166 1–15 368 5-25 44,140 600-3,000 77 30-398 10840 3246 2.99 5-205 986 1-40 2260 0-180 271,200 0-21,600 Table 4. Outcome of Community fish production project phase III (20042007) Chitwan and Nawalparasi. Parameter Total pond constructed (No.) Pond size (m2) Total pond area (m2) Total fish production (kg) Mean fish productivity (ton/ha) Production range (kg/pond) Total home consumption (kg) Consumption range (kg/HH) Total fish sales (kg) Sales range (kg/HH) Total suppl. income (NRs) Suppl. Income range (NRs/HH) Kathar, Chitwan Kawasoti, Nawalparasi Total 33 63-696 7419 2557 3.45 20-340 1258 4-135 1300 5-205 156,000 600-24,000 28 40-255 3242 762 2.35 12-90 227 3-23 536 4-67 64,320 480-8,040 61 40-696 10661 3319 3.11 12-340 1485 3-135 1836 4-205 220,320 480-24,600 Description/particulars Ponds (no.) Area of ponds (sq. m.) No. of families Primary School Direct beneficiaries (no.) Total fish prod (kg) Consumption (kg) Sale (kg) Figures 70 3,112 70 1 300 634 504 130 Amblypharyngogodon mola (Mara / Dhawai) Mean NFY (mt/ha/yr) Carps only 3.3 Carps + SIS 4.0 80% 20% Increment (%) 17.5% REFERENCES Bhujel R.C., M.K. Shrestha, J. Pant and S. Buranrom (2008). Ethnic women in aquaculture in Nepal. Development, 51: 259-264. Gupta, M. C. 2011. Comparision of performance of Dedhuwa (Esomus danricus), Mara (Amblypharyagodon mola) and Pothi (Puntius sophore) in carp-prawn polyculture ponds in Chitwan, Nepal. MSc Thesis. Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal. 24-44 pp. Pant, J., M.K. Shrestha, R.C. Bhujel. 2012. Aquaculture and resilience: Women in aquaculture in Nepal. In: Shrestha, M.K. and J. Pant (eds.) Smallscale Aquaculture for Rural Livelihoods: Proceedings of the National Symposium on Small-scale Aquaculture for Increasing Resilience of Rural Livelihoods in Nepal. 19-24 pp. Pandey,R.P., L.A. Colavito, S. Khatiwada. 2012. Small-scale fish farming in Mid- and Far-western Regions of Nepal. In: Shrestha, M.K. and J. Pant (eds.) Small-scale Aquaculture for Rural Livelihoods: Proceedings of the National Symposium on Small-scale Aquaculture for Increasing Resilience of Rural Livelihoods in Nepal.. 53-59 pp. Rai, S., S.H.Thilsted. M.K.Shrestha, MD A. Wahab and K.Gharti. 2012. Gender in aquaculture and fisheries moving the agenda forward. The Journal of the Asian Fisheries Society Special Issue (2012):218-223. Roos, N., M. A. Wahab., C. Chamman and S.H. Thilsted. 2006. Understanding the links between agriculture and health. International Food Policy Research Institute. pp. 44-49. Shrestha, M.K., J. Pant, R.C. Bhujel. 2012. Small-scale aquaculture development model for rural Nepal. In: Shrestha, M.K. and J. Pant (eds.) Small-scale Aquaculture for Rural Livelihoods: Proceedings of the National Symposium on Small-scale Aquaculture for Increasing Resilience of Rural Livelihoods in Nepal. Yadav, S. 2011. Production potential of Carp-SIS-Prawn polyculture in Chitwan, Nepal. MSc Thesis. Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal. 22-38 pp. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Table 6. Outcome of Carp-SIS (DANIDA) project (2010-2012) Chitwan Species combination Household consumption Kathar, Chitwan Table 5. Outcome of Aquaculture without Frontier (AwF) project (20082010) Lamjung and Gorkha. Esomus denricus (Deduwa) Surplus Sale & income 21 60 – 395 3683 1096 2.98 28.5 - 97 436 10 – 45 660 9 – 67 53,455 630 - 6030 • Small-scale family pond aquaculture is an effective tool for food security, household nutrition and supplemental income for rural poor. • 25-50% produced fish (carps) were used for household consumption. • Nutrient dense SIS were consumed regularly in family. • Family pond aquaculture helped to empower women through women fish cooperative. • Application of this strategy is likely to benefit a large number of resource poor small-scale households. Table 3. Outcome of Women in Aquaculture project phase II (2002-2004) Chitwan and Nawalparasi. 3.0 36 Family pond (100-200 m2) Culture of Carps + SIS 5.7 < 30 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Harvest of large carps CONCLUSIONS Project funding were - Women in Aquaculture Project by German NGO; Community Fish production Project by Canadian Cooperation Office; Smallscale mid hills project by Aquaculture without Frontier (AwF UK); Small indigenous fish species (SIS) project by DANIDA. Collaborating partners were – Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand; Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh; Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Nepal; Local NGO – Rural Integrated Development Society, Kathar. Agriculture and Forestry University, Nepal and AquaFish Innovation Lab supported to participate this workshop.