Chapter 4

Report
Lone Star: The Story of Texas
Chapter 4
Spanish Rule in Texas:
1682 - 1821
Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Lone Star: The Story of Texas
Chapter 4: Spanish Rule in Texas: 1682 - 1821
Section 1:
Missions and Presidios
Section 2:
Life in the Missions
Section 3:
Filibusters and Unrest in Texas
Section 4:
Mexican Independence
Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
Missions and Presidios
Chapter 4, Section 1
• What was the purpose of the missionpresidio system?
• How successful was the Tejas mission in
East Texas?
• How did St. Denis help the Spanish
mission system grow?
• Why did the Spanish build missions for
the Lipan Apaches in Central Texas?
The Mission-Presidio System
Chapter 4, Section 1
• Mission - a settlement in Indian territory
• The goal of the mission was to transform Native
Americans into Christians and loyal Spanish
subjects.
• Friars ran the missions. They invited Indians to
live there, then taught them about Christianity
and the language and customs of Spain. They
also taught them Spanish farming methods.
• Presidio - a fort designed to protect the mission
from unfriendly Indians and to help control the
Native Americans inside the mission
The First Missions in Texas
Chapter 4, Section 1
The First Missions
• Alonso de León and Father
Damian Massanet
established the first
mission in East Texas,
called San Francisco de los
Tejas.
• Shortly after, friars started a
second mission in East
Texas named Santísimo
Nombre de María.
At first the local Tejas
Indians welcomed the
Spanish and their missions.
But that quickly changed.
Mission Failure
• The Tejas Indians never
fully accepted the friars’
teachings. Spanish soldiers
treated them with contempt.
Many Indians became sick
with diseases carried by the
Spanish.
• When floods destroyed the
Indians’ crops, they blamed
the Spanish and plotted to
kill them. The Spanish
abandoned the missions
and headed west.
Missions in the 1700s
Chapter 4, Section 1
• A Frenchman named St. Denis, worked with a Spanish
missionary, Father Hidalgo, to help build more missions
among the Caddo Indians in East Texas.
• They established six missions and a presidio. One of these
missions, Los Adaes, became the capital of the province of
Texas. In 1719, the French raided Los Adaes in an attack
known as the Chicken War. This attack forced the Spanish
to abandon their East Texas missions once again.
• They retreated to San Antonio de Valero, a mission located
halfway between the Rio Grande and East Texas.
• When the war between Spain and France ended, the
Marqués de San Miguel de Aguayo helped Spain regain
control of East Texas. He rebuilt old missions and founded
new ones, including La Bahía.
Missions in Central Texas
Chapter 4, Section 1
• Spanish missions in Central Texas were often raided
by Lipan Apaches, Comanches, Wichitas, and
Tonkawas.
• In 1749, the Lipans and the Spanish made peace. The
Lipans agreed to convert to Christianity if the Spanish
would protect them from the Comanches.
• The Spanish built a mission, Santa Cruz de San Sabá,
for the Lipans. They did not realize it was in
Comanche territory. The Lipans had told them to build
there, hoping to start a war between the Comanches
and the Spanish.
• In 1758, Comanches, Wichitas, and Tonkawas burned
down the mission and killed the missionaries.
Missions and Presidios - Assessment
Chapter 4, Section 1
What is the purpose of a presidio?
(A) To protect settlers’ land rights
(B) To teach Christianity to local peoples
(C) To provide a place for settlers to trade goods
(D) To protect a mission
Why did the Lipans want Santa Cruz de San Sabá Mission built on
Comanche land?
(A) They believed the land truly belonged to the Lipan Apaches.
(B) They wanted to start a war between the Spanish and the
Comanches.
(C) They wanted to convert the Comanches to Christianity.
(D) They did not know the land belonged to the Comanches.
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Missions and Presidios - Assessment
Chapter 4, Section 1
What is the purpose of a presidio?
(A) To protect settlers’ land rights
(B) To teach Christianity to local peoples
(C) To provide a place for settlers to trade goods
(D) To protect a mission
Why did the Lipans want Santa Cruz de San Sabá Mission built on
Comanche land?
(A) They believed the land truly belonged to the Lipan Apaches.
(B) They wanted to start a war between the Spanish and the
Comanches.
(C) They wanted to convert the Comanches to Christianity.
(D) They did not know the land belonged to the Comanches.
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Life in the Missions
Chapter 4, Section 2
• What was daily life like for residents of the
missions and presidios?
• What major problems challenged the
missions and presidios?
• Why did the mission-presidio system
decline?
• How did a unique blend of cultures arise
in Texas?
Native Americans and Soldiers in the Missions
Chapter 4, Section 2
Recruiting Native Americans
• Most Indians who lived in the
missions joined by choice.
• Friars sometimes offered gifts
to draw in the Indians.
• Some came for a steady
supply of food or for
protection from their enemies.
The Indians were controlled
once they entered the mission.
They were punished for bad
behavior, and those that ran
off were captured and
returned.
Soldiers’ Lives
Presidio soldiers had many duties:
• Guard the mission livestock
• Carry messages
• Protect supply wagon trains
• Keep order in the missions
• Protect the mission from hostile
Indians
Daily Life in the Mission
Chapter 4, Section 2
• Native Americans in the missions studied the
catechism, a set of questions and answers about
Catholic beliefs.
• Many were converted and baptized.
• Native Americans had to work in the missions. In
addition to daily chores, they made goods that could
be traded.
• The Spanish appointed some mission Indians to be
local chiefs. These local chiefs carried out the orders
of the missionaries.
• Indians were not allowed to use guns. They could
vote in local elections and hold public office.
Problems With the Mission-Presidio System
Chapter 4, Section 2
• Disease - Indians had no defense against Spanish
diseases. Epidemics, the rapid spread of diseases in a
short time, killed thousands of Native Americans in
Texas.
• Indian rejection of mission life - Many Indians rejected
life in the missions.
• Different uses of the missions - Many joined the
missions for protection against their enemies or for
food, not because they wanted to follow the Christian
faith.
• Problems at the presidio - Soldiers were underpaid and
poorly treated by officers. The friars and the soldiers
often argued over how to treat the Indians.
Decline of the Mission-Presidio System
Chapter 4, Section 2
• When France lost the Seven Years’ War against
Great Britain, it ceded the territory of Louisiana to
Spain. Spain sent the Marqués de Rubí to Texas in
1767 to review its colonies in North America.
• Rubí reported that Spanish power was spread too
thin in Texas to be effective.
• On the basis of that report, Spain closed most of
the missions and presidios in Texas. By the 1770s,
only those in the area of San Antonio and La Bahía
remained. Spanish settlers were directed to move to
those outposts.
• Cede - to give up formal ownership of something
Legacy of the Missions and Presidios
Chapter 4, Section 2
• Parts of the Spanish culture took root in Texas.
The unique blend of cultures found in Texas is
termed Tejano.
• The Spanish introduced the ranching industry to
Texas.
• Many places in Texas received Spanish names
that are still in use today. Every major river in
Texas, except for one, has a Spanish name.
• The Spanish outposts of San Antonio and La
Bahía, along with the town of Nacogdoches,
remained major Spanish settlements in Texas.
Life in the Missions - Assessment
Chapter 4, Section 2
Why did Native Americans join the missions?
(A) They wanted a steady food supply and protection from their
enemies.
(B) They wanted to feel closer to God.
(C) They had no other choice.
(D) They wanted to fit in with their new Anglo neighbors.
Why did France cede Louisiana to Spain?
(A) To improve relations between the two countries
(B) To keep Spain from attacking their forts
(C) It was a trade for San Antonio.
(D) To keep it from falling into British hands
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Life in the Missions - Assessment
Chapter 4, Section 2
Why did Native Americans join the missions?
(A) They wanted a steady food supply and protection from their
enemies.
(B) They wanted to feel closer to God.
(C) They had no other choice.
(D) They wanted to fit in with their new Anglo neighbors.
Why did France cede Louisiana to Spain?
(A) To improve relations between the two countries
(B) To keep Spain from attacking their forts
(C) It was a trade for San Antonio.
(D) To keep it from falling into British hands
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Filibusters and Unrest in Texas
Chapter 4, Section 3
• Why was Spanish control over Texas weak
in the early 1800s?
• Who were the filibusters?
• Why did people in Mexico begin to rebel
against Spanish rule?
• How did filibusters take advantage of this
rebellion for their own purpose?
Threats to Spanish Control
Chapter 4, Section 3
Several factors weakened Spain’s control over
Texas:
• In the early 1800s, Comanches, Apaches, and
other tribes controlled most of Texas, except for
the Spanish cities of Nacogdoches, San Antonio,
and La Bahía.
• In 1803, France sold Louisiana to the United
States. For years, the United States and Spain
argued over whether or not Texas was part of the
Louisiana Territory.
• In 1810, Mexico began a ten-year struggle with
Spain over its independence.
Early Filibusters
Chapter 4, Section 3
• Filibuster - a person who wages an unofficial war on
a country for his own benefit:
• Philip Nolan - Nolan claimed he was capturing and
selling wild horses in Texas for the Spanish
government. The Spanish worried about Nolan’s
ties to the United States. They attacked and killed
Nolan.
• General James Wilkinson - Spain hired Wilkinson, a
United States Army general, as a double agent.
Wilkinson plotted with Aaron Burr to take Kentucky
and Louisiana from the United States and start an
independent country. The plot failed.
Unrest in Mexico
Chapter 4, Section 3
New Spain (Mexico) resented
Spain’s control:
•
•
Taxes - Residents of New
Spain did not like paying
taxes to support the king and
his many wars.
Poverty - Spain’s class
system kept most New Spain
residents in poverty.
The Cry of Dolores
A priest from Dolores, Miguel
Hidalgo y Costilla, began a revolt
to end the power of the
peninsulares (upper class,
Spaniards born in Europe) in
New Spain. The criollos,
(Spaniards born in America)
refused to support the revolt.
The lower classes, the mestizos
(mixed Spanish and Native
American heritage) and the
Native Americans joined Hidalgo
in the revolt. Though this revolt
failed, it led to other uprisings in
New Spain.
Key Filibuster Expeditions
Chapter 4, Section 3
Lieutenant Augustus Magee
•
Left the United States Army and formed an army of men to free
Texas from Spanish rule
Samuel Kemper
•
•
•
Took command of Magee’s army upon his death
Declared the state of Texas independent
Hoped to make Texas part of the United States
Bernardo Gutiérrez
•
•
•
Wanted Texas to be part of Mexico
Created a Mexican state constitution for Texas
Was driven out by Kemper
Dr. James Long
•
•
Disagreed with the U.S. decision to turn Texas over to Spain
Led a group to free Texas from Spanish rule
Filibusters and Unrest in Texas - Assessment
Chapter 4, Section 3
What is a filibuster?
(A) A politician who fights for settlers’ rights
(B) A person who leads settlers into new territory
(C) A person who wages an unofficial war on a country for his or her
own benefit
(D) A person who settles land disputes between countries
How did Spain’s class system contribute to the poverty in New Spain?
(A) The lower class had to pay taxes to the upper class.
(B) Upper class peninsulares and criollos got the best jobs.
(C) Mestizos and Native Americans were not allowed to earn money.
(D) None of the above
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Filibusters and Unrest in Texas - Assessment
Chapter 4, Section 3
What is a filibuster?
(A) A politician who fights for settlers’ rights
(B) A person who leads settlers into new territory
(C) A person who wages an unofficial war on a country for his or her
own benefit
(D) A person who settles land disputes between countries
How did Spain’s class system contribute to the poverty in New Spain?
(A) The lower class had to pay taxes to the upper class.
(B) Upper class peninsulares and criollos got the best jobs.
(C) Mestizos and Native Americans were not allowed to earn money.
(D) None of the above
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Mexican Independence
Chapter 4, Section 4
• How did Father Morelos keep the dream of
Mexican independence alive?
• How did events in Spain lead to Mexican
independence?
• What challenges did Mexico face after
independence?
Mexico Works for Independence
Chapter 4, Section 4
• José María Morelos y Pavón led a movement for
freedom from Spain. In 1814, he issued a declaration
of independence and drew up plans for a Mexican
republic.
• He won control of large areas of southern New Spain.
Most of his supporters were people from the lower
classes.
• He was killed by government forces in 1815.
• It would be several years before Mexico’s rebel spirits
would rise again.
• Republic - In a republic, citizens elect representatives
to make laws.
Spanish Events Influence Mexico
Chapter 4, Section 4
Peace in Spain
When French troops were
driven from Spain, King
Ferdinand IV took back his
throne. For several years,
people in New Spain seemed
willing to accept the old ways
of royal rule. But in 1816, the
king cancelled the
Constitution of 1812. That
constitution limited his power
and gave rights to the
Spanish people.
Changes in Spain
Spanish people demanded
the return of the constitution.
This forced the king to accept
a new system of government
in Spain. Now, some of the
power rested with the people.
The upper classes in New
Spain worried what would
happen if the common people
gained too much power.
These conservatives wanted
to limit changes and keep the
old ways.
The Causes and Effects of the Mission-Presidio System in Texas
Chapter 4, Section 4
Effects
Causes
• Spain wanted
Spanish culture to
spread in Texas.
• The Spanish wanted
to convert Indians
to Christianity.
• The Spanish wanted
to teach Indians the
Spanish way of life.
The missionpresidio system
was born
• Indians became the main labor source
and could be punished for not working.
• Indians were protected from their
enemies.
• Indians had a steady food supply.
• Spanish communities grew around the
missions.
• Indians became sick with European
diseases, causing entire tribes to die
out.
• Spanish culture continued to influence
Texas after Spain closed the missions.
Independent Mexico
Chapter 4, Section 4
The Plan of Iguala - The conservatives’ leader,
Agustín de Iturbide and rebel leader Vicente R.
Guerrero agreed on the Plan of Iguala in 1821.
• Mexico would become an independent nation.
• Peninsulares and criollos would be equal.
• The Catholic Church would keep its power.
With this plan, Spain lost control of New Spain.
On August 24, 1821, the Treaty of Córdoba made
Mexico an independent nation.
Mexican Independence - Assessment
Chapter 4, Section 4
What characteristic fits conservatives?
(A) They like to make changes.
(B) They don’t like changes and prefer the old ways.
(C) They rebel against existing rules.
(D) They will try anything once.
What did the Treaty of Córdoba do?
(A) It made criollos and peninsulares equal.
(B) It ended the mission-presidio system.
(C) It gave more power to the people of Spain.
(D) It made Mexico an independent nation.
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Mexican Independence - Assessment
Chapter 4, Section 4
What characteristic fits conservatives?
(A) They like to make changes.
(B) They don’t like changes and prefer the old ways.
(C) They rebel against existing rules.
(D) They will try anything once.
What did the Treaty of Córdoba do?
(A) It made criollos and peninsulares equal.
(B) It ended the mission-presidio system.
(C) It gave more power to the people of Spain.
(D) It made Mexico an independent nation.
Want to link to the Lone Star Internet activity for this chapter? Click here!

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