people & data - Andreas Weigend

Report
The Networked Economy: Information Management,
Strategy, and Innovation
网络经济:信息管理, 战略, 和创新
(4)
IT Strategy, Business
Processes, and ERP
IT战略,业务流程和ERP
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Andreas S. Weigend, Ph.D. 韦思岸教授
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Agenda
议程

IT strategy and execution (Ross and Weill)
IT 战略和执行(Ross和Weill)

IT governance, management and organization
IT 管理和组织

IT and business processes
IT 和业务流程

ERP
企业资源计划
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Agenda
议程

Introduction to ERP systems
ERP系统的介绍
How they evolved
ERP的发展史
What they do
ERP能做什么

How ERP systems map the organization‘s business processes
ERP如何表示出公司的业务流程

ERP planning and introduction
ERP计划和简介

ERP systems and solutions
ERP系统和解决方案

Example: SAP范例:SAP
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Ross/Weill: Six IT Decisions Your IT People Shouldn’t Make
你的IT人员不应该做的六个IT决策
STRATEGY
战略
EXECUTION
执行
•
•

How much should we spend on IT?
我们应该在IT方面投入多少?



Which business processes should
receive our IT budget?
哪些业务流程应该获得IT预算?
How good do our IT services really
need to be?
我们的IT服务到底需要做到多好?

Which IT capabilities need to be
companywide?
哪些IT能力应该在公司层面上展开?
What security and privacy risks will
we accept?
我们将会承担怎样的安全和隐私风险?

Whom to blame if an IT initiative
fails?
如果我们在IT方面的努力以失败告终,
责任由谁来承担?
Ross and Weill,
哈佛商业评论, 2002年11月
•
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(1) How much should we spend on IT?
我们应该在IT方面投入多少?
Senior Management Role:
高级管理层的角色:
•

Define strategic role that IT will play in the company and then determine the
level of funding needed to achieve that objective
界定IT在公司发展中的战略地位,然后决定实现目标所需要的投入
Consequence of Abdication:
让位的后果:
•

Company fails to develop an IT platform that furthers its strategy despite high IT
spending
尽管公司对IT的投入很大,还是不能够发展一个辅助战略的IT平台
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(2) Which business processes should receive IT budget?
哪些业务流程应该获得IT预算?
Senior Management Role:
高级管理层的角色:
•

Make clear decisions about which IT initiatives will and will not be funded
决定哪些IT努力应该得到资助,哪些不应该得到资助
Consequence of Abdication:
让位的后果:
•

A lack of focus overwhelms the IT unit which tries to deliver many projects that
may have little companywide value or can‘t be implemented well
simultaneously
缺少重点的工作使得IT部门实施的很多项目对公司的整体价值贡献不大或者协同效
应不佳
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(3) Which company-wide IT capabilities?
哪些IT能力应该在公司层面上展开?
Senior Management Role:
高级管理层的角色:
•

Decide which IT capabilities should be provided centrally and which should be
developed by individual businesses
决定哪些IT能力应该由公司集中发展,哪些应该由具体的业务部门来发展
Consequence of Abdication:
让位的后果:
•

Excessive technical and process standardization limits the flexibility of business
units, or frequent exceptions to the standards increas costs and limit business
synergies
过度的技术和流程的标准化限制了业务部门的灵活性,而频繁发生的超标事件增加
了成本并限制了协同效应
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(4) How good do our IT services really need to be?
我们的IT服务到底需要做到多好?
Senior Management Role:
高级管理层的角色:
•

Decide which features – for example, enhanced reliability or response time – are
needed on the basis of their costs and benefits
从成本和收益的角度权衡哪些特性是必须的,例如提升可靠性还是缩短反应时间
Quantitative (service level agreements) vs qualitative (features etc)
定量(服务水平协议)与定性(特色等)
Consequence of Abdication:
让位的后果:
•

The company may pay for service options that, given it‘s priorities, aren‘t worth
the costs
公司很可能为某些服务特色的选择付出代价,因为这些特色的收益不能抵消成本
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(5) What security and privacy risks will we accept?
我们将会承担怎样的安全和隐私风险?
Senior Management Role:
高级管理层的角色:
•

Lead the decision making on the trade-offs between security and privacy on the
one hand, and convenience on the other
通过权衡安全与隐私和易用性来作出决定
Trade-offs depend on the industry
权衡,取决于行业性质
Consequence of Abdication:
让位的后果:
•

An overemphasis on security and privacy may inconvenience customers,
employees and suppliers, an underemphasis may make data vulnerable and lead
to acceptance problems with privacy-sensitive customers
对安全和隐私问题的过分重视可能会给顾客、员工和供应商带来不便,而对此的忽
略又会带来数据的丢失或泄漏以及隐私敏感型顾客的接受问题
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(6) Whom do we blame if an IT initiative fails?
如果我们在IT方面的努力以失败告终,责任由谁来承担?
Senior Management Role :
高级管理层的角色:
•

•
Assign a business executive to be accountable for every IT project, monitor
business metrics including profitability
为每个IT项目指定一个业务主管作为负责人,监控业务的各项度量指标,包括收益
率
Consequence of Abdication:
让位的后果:

The business value of system is not fully realized
永远无法实现系统的业务价值
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Process: Strategic planning and corporate IT architecture
流程:战略计划和公司的IT体系
Business
Planning
业务计划
Business Goals,
Functions, Structure,
Constraints, etc.
业务目标,
公共服务框架,
功能,结构
约束等
Information
Systems
Strategic
Planning
信息系统
战略计划
Business
System
Archit.
业务系统
体系
Information
Archit.
信息体系
IS CSF
Constraints,
Structure, etc
信息系统公共服务
框架约束,结构等
Technical
Archit.
技术体系
Planning
计划
Architecture
体系
Solution and
Application
Architecture
解决方案和
应用体系
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Information hierarchy and information architecture
信息层次和信息体系

Information hierarchy
信息层次

Different information needs in the
organization
组织需要不同层次的信息
Strategic information
战略信息
Tactical information
战术信息
Operational information
运营信息

Information architecture
信息体系
Structure and use of information
within the organization
组织内信息的结构和信息的使用
Alignment of information with the
organization‘s strategic, tactical,
and operational needs.
保持组织的战略、战术和运营相关
信息的一致性
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IT Governance: Definition
IT管理:定义

IT Governance specifies the decision rights and accountability framework to
encourage desirable behavior in the use of IT, the way IT is managed in a firm
IT管理规定决策权利和责任框架来促成在IT的使用上希望出现的行为,在公司内管
理IT的方式

IT governance is an integral part of enterprise governance and consists of the
leadership and organisational structures and processes that ensure that the
organisation’s IT sustains and extends the organisation’s strategies and
objectives.
IT管理是企业管理的重要组成部分,它包含领导力以及为确保组织的IT能够维持和
延展其战略和目标的组织结构与流程
•
IT Governance Institute, 2003
IT 管理学会, 2003, www.itgi.org
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IT Governance: Principles
IT管理:原则

Actively design governance
积极的设计IT管理

Know when to redesign
知道什么时候要重新设计

Assign ownership and accountability
for IT governance
要为IT管理指派负责人并规定责任

Design governance at multiple
organizational levels
在多个组织的层面上设计管理

Involve senior management
高级领导层参与

Make choices (explicit trade-offs)
做选择(通常需要权衡)

Strive for transparency
努力创造透明性

Clarify the exception-handling
process
明确处理例外的程序

Provide education
提供教育

Implement common mechanisms
across the organization
对所有资产执行相同的管理机制

Provide appropriate incentives
提供正确的激励
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System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
系统开发生命周期
Project
Identification
立项
Waterfall model
瀑布模型
Project
Initiation
项目初始分析
Analysis
分析
Design
设计
Implementation
实施
Maintenance
维护
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SDLC – System Development Life Cycle
SDLC –系统开发生命周期
Identifies the portfolio of IT projects
to be undertaken and ranks those
with respect to business maxims.
确定要实施的IT项目组合,并且按照业
务目标将它们排好优先顺序。
Project
Identification
立项
Project
Initiation and
Planning
项目初始分析和计划
Analysis
分析
Analysis
分析
Identifying Development Projects
确定开发项目
Selecting & Prioritizing Projects
Implementation
实施
Maintenance
维护
选择项目并将项目排序
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Project Identification
立项
Top Down
自上而下
 Top Management
高级管理层
 Steering Committee
筹划指导委员会
Bottom Up
自下而上
Taking the CIO Perspective –
IT Strategy Perspective
站在CIO的视角上-IT战略视角
Evaluate,
Prioritize,
and Schedule
Projects
评估,
排序,
和安排项目进度
Schedule Projects
项目进度
1. …
2. …
3. …
 User Departments
使用者部门
 Development Group
开发组
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SDLC – System Development Life Cycle
SDLC –系统开发生命周期
A cost-benefits analysis is being carried out
as well as a study of project feasibility. The
result can be a baseline project plan, a rescheduling decision or a rejection of the
project.
进行成本-收益分析和项目可行性分析。结果
可能是一个作为基准的项目计划,一个重新计
划的决策,或者是一个拒绝该项目的决定。
Project
Identification
立项
Project
Initiation and
Planning
项目初始分析和计划
Analysis
分析
Design
设计
Implementation
实施
 Feasibility Planning
可行性分析
 Project Plan
项目计划
Maintenance
维护
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SDLC – System Development Life Cycle
SDLC –系统开发生命周期
I.
Project
Identification
立项
Current system and its
functions
Project
Initiation and
Planning
项目初始分析和计划
确定当前系统如何运行
II.
Wish list for new system.
以及使用者对新系统的期望
Analysis
分析
Design
设计
 Requirements Determination
(technical & business)
需求确定(技术上的和业务上)
 Requirements Structuring
(through process/logic/data modelling)
需求结构化 (通过 流程/逻辑/数据 建模)
Implementation
实施
Maintenance
维护
 Alternative Generation & Selection
多种方案的产生与选择
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SDLC – System Development Life Cycle
SDLC –系统开发生命周期
Project
Identification
立项
Project
Initiation and
Planning
项目初始分析和计划
What does the current environment look like
and what do we want for the future?
当前环境什么样,我们希望将来是什么样子?
Analysis
分析
1.
2.
3.
4.
Determine requirements
确定需求
Model requirments
(process, logic, objects and data) –
current and future
需求建模(流程,逻辑,对象和数据)
-当前和将来
Generate alternatives
产生多种选择方案
Select the most adequate
从中选择最适当的
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Two views: Business view and System view
两种见解:业务见解和系统见解
To describe the environment of a project, two views co-exist:
the business view and the system / technology view
描述一个项目的环境时,两种见解共存:业务见解和系统见解



Function
职能的
Organization
组织的
Process
流程的

Model
Enterprise
IT-Architecture
企业IT体系
Systems 系统
建模
Data 数据
Logic 逻辑
Objects 对象
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Mindsets of business people and “techies”
业务人员和技术人员会有完全不同的想法
Can we make sure that the system
can deliver XYZ?
系统肯定会算出XYZ吗?
What does the new process look
like?
新流程是什么样子的?
 What organizational unit will the
process belong to?
新的流程应该隶属哪个部门呢?
 Who will be the boss afterwards?
然后谁能成为头呢?
 Who does what afterwards?
下一步谁应该做什么呢?
 Will it be difficult to use the new
system?
新系统会不会难于使用呢?
 What tools should be built
into the system?
系统里要构建什么工具?
 Application performance?
应用程序的性能如何?
 What sort of interface?
使用哪种接口?
Logical implementation in
new or existing system?
在新系统还是现有系统中使用?
 What platform for delivery?
系统建立在什么平台上?
 How much security?
需要多少安全措施?
 Network performance?
网络性能如何?
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IT: From techie-toys … to strategic asset
回顾IT:从技术人员的玩具到战略资源

Past: IT as a toy for techies
过去: IT是技术人员的玩具

Present: IT as intrinsic part of enterprise strategy
现在:IT成为企业战略的内在组成部分

Differences between these views
不同观点的差异
Different organizational structure
不同的组织结构
Different relevance and focus
不同的相关性和集中点
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What all does an ERP system combine?
ERP系统结合了什么?
Enterprise software / ERP environments are
to combine:
领先的ERP环境很好的结合了
•

Data modeling
数据建模

Database management
数据库管理

Data warehouse management
数据仓库管理

Process modeling
流程建模

Process management
流程管理
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What is an ERP system?
什么是ERP系统?

Software package for a client server environment
ERP系统是为客户服务器环境设计的软件包


New: Software as service = ASP (lower entry cost)
新:软件作为服务存在=ASP(低进入成本)
ERP systems integrate most business processes of a company
ERP系统整合了公司主要业务流程

Examples: Travel reimbursement, procurement, sales
例子:差旅费报销,购买一项服务,卖一个零件

ERP systems process most the company‘s transactions
ERP系统能够处理公司内大部分的事务

ERP systems use a common enterprise-wide relational database
ERP系统使用公司范围的关系数据库


Avoids data redundancy: Stores each piece of data once
避免数据冗赘:每一条数据只做一次存储
ERP systems allow real time access
ERP系统允许实时的数据访问
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ERP Marketshares
ERP 市场份额
•
WORLD
•
世界


2006 (Source: AMR Research)
CHINA
中国
•

2006 (Source: Analysys)
SAP 43%
UFIDA (local) 34.0%
Oracle 23%
SAP 12.3%
Sage 5%
Kingdee (local) 12.2%
Microsoft 4%
Gold Abacus (local) 6.4%
SSA Global 3%
Inspur (local) 6.1%
2004
SAP 40%
Oracle 22%
Digital China (local) 5.0%
Oracle 3.4%
Newgrand (local) 3.4%
QAD 1.9%
Bokesoft (local) 1.6%
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Modules for different business functions
不同业务功能模块

AM (Fixed asset management)
固定资产管理

CO (Controlling)
控制


CCA (Cost Centre Accounting)
中心成本会计

PC (Product Cost Controlling)
产品成本控制

ABC (Activity Based Costing)
作业成本计算法
FI (Financial Accounting)
财务会计

GL (General Ledger)
总帐

AR (Accounts receivable)
应收款

AP (Accounts payable)
应付款

LC (Legal consolidation)
财务报表合并
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Modules for different business functions
不同业务功能模块

QM (Quality Management)

质量管理
PA (Personnel Administration)
人事管理
CA (Quality Certificates)
质量证明书
PD (Planning and Development)
计划发展
IM (inspection processing)
质量检查
PT (planning tools)
计划工具
QN (quality notifications)
质量通知
HR (Human Resources)
人力资源

MM (Materials Management)
物料管理
IM (Inventory Management)
库存管理
IV (Invoice Verification)
发货单核实

SD (Sales and Distribution)
销售和配送
WM (Warehouse Management)
仓库管理
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Modules for different business functions
不同业务功能模块

PM (Plant Maintenance)
设备维护
EQM (Equipment and Technical
Objects)
设备和技术物品

PP (Production Planning)
生产计划
SOP (Sales and Operations Planning)
销售和运作计划),
MRP (Materials Requirements Planning)
SMA (Service Management)
物料需求计划
服务管理
CRP (Capacity Requirements Planning)
WOC (Maintenance Order
Management)
产能需求计划
维修订单管理
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Process Flows, Systems and Access before ERP
ERP之前的工艺流程,系统和数据访问机制
Old Process Flow and
Models
旧的工艺流程和模型
Separate Data Storage and Access
数据存储和数据访问是分离的
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Process Flows, Systems and Access with ERP
ERP实现的工艺流程,系统和数据访问机制
New Process Flow and Models
新的工艺流程和模型
Central Relational Database
中央关系数据库
Data warehouse
数据仓库
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The Evolution of ERP (1 and 2)
ERP发展史(1 and 2)
1.
MRP – Material Requirements Planning
MRP-物料需求计划


2.
in the 1960s
19世纪60年代
bill of material processing
物料加工清单
Closed-Loop MRP
闭环MRP
ClosedLoop MRP
闭环MRP
MRP

Contains tools to plan priority and capacity
包含安排优先顺序和产能的工具

Supports both planning and execution
同时支持计划和执行

Goes beyond material planning by considering aggregate sales and operations planning, build
schedules (master scheduling) and demand management (e.g. forecasting)
除物料计划以外还包含了总销售计划和运作计划,建立了时间进度安排(主调度)和需求管理(例
如,预测)
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The Evolution of ERP (3)
ERP发展史(3)

MRP II – Manufacturing Resource
Planning
MRP II-制造资源计划


Direct outgrowth and extension of closedloop MRP
闭环MRP直接发展的产物
Enhanced sales & operations planning on a
detailed level
使得销售和运营计划更加细致化

Financial interfaces that allow to translate
the operating plan (in pieces, pounds,
gallons, etc.) into financial terms (dollars)
财务接口可以把运营计划(以件、千克等为单
位)转换成财务指标(美元)

Simulations – the ability to ask “what-if”
questions
模拟-使得公司有能力问“如果…会怎么样?”
MRP II
ClosedLoop MRP
闭环MRP
MRP
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The Evolution of ERP (4)
ERP发展史(4)

ERP – Enterprise Resource Planning
ERP-企业资源计划



Fundamentals are the same as MRP II
基础就是MRPII
ERP is more powerful than MRP II, because
it is based on…
ERP比MRP II更加强大,因为它…
…a single set of planning tools across the
entire enterprise
…在整个公司内使用一套计划工具

…provides real-time integration of sales,
operating, and financial data
…能够实时的提供综合了销售、运营和财务三
个方面的数据

…connects resource planning approaches to
the extended supply chain of customers and
suppliers.
…将资源规划方法与扩展了的顾客和供应商的
供应链结合起来
ERP
MRP II
ClosedLoop MRP
闭环MRP
MRP
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Strategic Planning
战略计划
Business Planning
业务计划
Sales & Operations Planning
销售和运营计划
Forecasting
and
Demand
Management
预测和
需求管理
Sales Plan
销售计划
Operations Plan
运营计划
Master Scheduling
主调度
Detailed Planning: MRP, Plant
Scheduling, Supplier Scheduling, etc.
细节计划:MRP,工厂进度安排,供应商进度安排等
Execution
执行
Capacity
Planning
生产量计划
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ERP is enterprise-wide set of management tools
ERP是一套企业范围内的管理工具
Hierarchical view on co-operation
合作的等级观念
Centralized scheme
集中制定规划
Drives internalization of processes
流程内部化
Links customers and suppliers into a complete supply chain
把顾客和供应商们联结在一条完整的供应链上
Embodies proven business process for decision-making
利用合理有效的业务流程来辅助决策
Provides high degrees of cross-functional integration
提供高水平的跨职能整合
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How does ERP create value?
ERP如何创造价值?

Integrates activities across organization
整合公司的各项活动

Employs “best practices“
应用 “最优做法”

Enables organizational standardization
实现组织标准化

Provides on-line and real-time information
提供即时的和实时的信息

Allows simultaneous access to the same data for planning and control
允许各部门同时访问计划和控制过程中相同的数据

Facilitates intra-organizational communication and collaboration
推动组织内部的沟通和合作
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