Report

ECE 271 Electronic Circuits I Topic 2 Semiconductors Basics NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 1 Chapter Goals • • • • • • Characterize resistivity of insulators, semiconductors, and conductors. Develop covalent bond and energy band models for semiconductors. Understand band gap energy and intrinsic carrier concentration. Explore the behavior of electrons and holes in semiconductors. Discuss acceptor and donor impurities in semiconductors. Learn to control the electron and hole populations using impurity doping. • Understand drift and diffusion currents in semiconductors. • Explore low-field mobility and velocity saturation. • Discuss the dependence of mobility on doping level. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 2 The Inventors of the Integrated Circuit Jack Kilby NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Andy Grove, Robert Noyce, and Gordon Moore with Intel 8080 layout. Chap 2 - 3 Solid-State Electronic Materials • Electronic materials fall into three categories (WRT resistivity): – Insulators > 105 -cm (diamond = 1016 ) – Semiconductors 10-3 < < 105 -cm – Conductors < 10-3 -cm (copper = 10-6 ) NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 4 Solid-State Electronic Materials • Electronic materials fall into three categories (WRT resistivity): – Insulators > 105 -cm (diamond = 1016 ) – Semiconductors 10-3 < < 105 -cm – Conductors < 10-3 -cm (copper = 10-6 ) • Elemental semiconductors are formed from a single type of atom of column IV, typically Silicon. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 5 Solid-State Electronic Materials • Electronic materials fall into three categories (WRT resistivity): – Insulators > 105 -cm (diamond = 1016 ) – Semiconductors 10-3 < < 105 -cm – Conductors < 10-3 -cm (copper = 10-6 ) • Elemental semiconductors are formed from a single type of atom of column IV, typically Silicon. • Compound semiconductors are formed from combinations of elements of column III and V or columns II and VI. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 6 Solid-State Electronic Materials • Electronic materials fall into three categories (WRT resistivity): – Insulators > 105 -cm (diamond = 1016 ) – Semiconductors 10-3 < < 105 -cm – Conductors < 10-3 -cm (copper = 10-6 ) • Elemental semiconductors are formed from a single type of atom of column IV, typically Silicon. • Compound semiconductors are formed from combinations of elements of column III and V or columns II and VI. • Germanium was used in many early devices. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 7 Solid-State Electronic Materials • Electronic materials fall into three categories (WRT resistivity): – Insulators > 105 -cm (diamond = 1016 ) – Semiconductors 10-3 < < 105 -cm – Conductors < 10-3 -cm (copper = 10-6 ) • Elemental semiconductors are formed from a single type of atom of column IV, typically Silicon. • Compound semiconductors are formed from combinations of elements of column III and V or columns II and VI. • Germanium was used in many early devices. • Silicon quickly replaced germanium due to its higher bandgap energy, lower cost, and ability to be easily oxidized to form silicon-dioxide insulating layers. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 8 Solid-State Electronic Materials (cont) • Bandgap is an energy range in a solid where no electron states can exist. It refers to the energy difference between the top of the valence band and the bottom of the conduction band in insulators and semiconductors NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 9 Semiconductor Materials (cont.) Semiconductor Bandgap Energy EG (eV) Carbon (diamond) 5.47 Silicon 1.12 Germanium 0.66 Tin 0.082 Gallium arsenide 1.42 Gallium nitride 3.49 Indium phosphide 1.35 Boron nitride 7.50 Silicon carbide 3.26 Cadmium selenide 1.70 NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 10 Covalent Bond Model • Silicon has four electrons in the outer shell. • Single crystal material is formed by the covalent bonding of each silicon atom with its four nearest neighbors. Silicon diamond lattice unit cell. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Corner of diamond lattice showing four nearest neighbor bonding. View of crystal lattice along a crystallographic axis. Chap 2 - 11 Silicon Covalent Bond Model (cont.) Silicon atom NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 12 Silicon Covalent Bond Model (cont.) Covalent bond Silicon atom NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Silicon atom Chap 2 - 13 Silicon Covalent Bond Model (cont.) Silicon atom NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Covalent bonds in silicon Chap 2 - 14 Silicon Covalent Bond Model (cont.) • • • • What happens as the temperature increases? Near absolute zero, all bonds are complete Each Si atom contributes one electron to each of the four bond pairs The outer shell is full, no free electrons, silicon crystal is an insulator NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 15 Silicon Covalent Bond Model (cont.) • • • Near absolute zero, all bonds are complete Each Si atom contributes one electron to each of the four bond pairs The outer shell is full, no free electrons, silicon crystal is an insulator NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov • • • Increasing temperature adds energy to the system and breaks bonds in the lattice, generating electron-hole pairs. The pairs move within the matter forming semiconductor Some of the electrons can fall into the holes – recombination. Chap 2 - 16 Intrinsic Carrier Concentration • The density of carriers in a semiconductor as a function of temperature and material properties is: EG n BT exp kT 2 i 3 cm-6 • EG = semiconductor bandgap energy in eV (electron volts) • k = Boltzmann’s constant, 8.62 x 10-5 eV/K • T = absolute termperature, K • B = material-dependent parameter, 1.08 x 1031 K-3 cm-6 for Si • Bandgap energy is the minimum energy needed to free an electron by breaking a covalent bond in the semiconductor crystal. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 17 • Electron density is n (electrons/cm3) and for intrinsic material n = ni. • Intrinsic refers to properties of pure materials. • ni ≈ 1010 cm-3 for Si • The density of silicon atoms is na ≈ 5x1022 cm-3 • Thus at a room temperature one bond per about 1013 is broken NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Intrinsic carrier density (cm-3) Intrinsic Carrier Concentration (cont.) Chap 2 - 18 Electron-hole concentrations • A vacancy is left when a covalent bond is broken. • The vacancy is called a hole. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 19 Electron-hole concentrations • A vacancy is left when a covalent bond is broken. • The vacancy is called a hole. • A hole moves when the vacancy is filled by an electron from a nearby broken bond (hole current). NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 20 Electron-hole concentrations • A vacancy is left when a covalent bond is broken. • The vacancy is called a hole. • A hole moves when the vacancy is filled by an electron from a nearby broken bond (hole current). • The electron density is n (ni for intrinsic material) NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 21 Electron-hole concentrations • A vacancy is left when a covalent bond is broken. • The vacancy is called a hole. • A hole moves when the vacancy is filled by an electron from a nearby broken bond (hole current). • The electron density is n (ni for intrinsic material) • Hole density is represented by p. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 22 Electron-hole concentrations • A vacancy is left when a covalent bond is broken. • The vacancy is called a hole. • A hole moves when the vacancy is filled by an electron from a nearby broken bond (hole current). • The electron density is n (ni for intrinsic material) • Hole density is represented by p. • For intrinsic silicon, n = ni = p. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 23 Electron-hole concentrations • A vacancy is left when a covalent bond is broken. • The vacancy is called a hole. • A hole moves when the vacancy is filled by an electron from a nearby broken bond (hole current). • The electron density is n (ni for intrinsic material) • Hole density is represented by p. • For intrinsic silicon, n = ni = p. • The product of electron and hole concentrations is pn = ni2. • The pn product above holds when a semiconductor is in thermal equilibrium (not with an external voltage applied). NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 24 Drift Current • • Charged particles move or drift under the influence of the applied field. The resulting current is called drift current. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 25 Drift Current • • • Charged particles move or drift under the influence of the applied field. The resulting current is called drift current. Electrical resistivity and its reciprocal, conductivity , characterize current flow in a material when an electric field is applied. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 26 Drift Current • • • • Charged particles move or drift under the influence of the applied field. The resulting current is called drift current. Electrical resistivity and its reciprocal, conductivity , characterize current flow in a material when an electric field is applied. Drift current density is j = Qv [(C/cm3)(cm/s) = A/cm2] NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 27 Drift Current • • • Charged particles move or drift under the influence of the applied field. The resulting current is called drift current. Electrical resistivity and its reciprocal, conductivity , characterize current flow in a material when an electric field is applied. • Drift current density is j = Qv [(C/cm3)(cm/s) = A/cm2] j = current density, (Coulomb charge moving through a unit area) Q = charge density, (Charge in a unit volume) v = velocity of charge in an electric field. Note that “density” may mean area or volumetric density, depending on the context. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 28 Mobility • At low fields, carrier drift velocity v (cm/s) is proportional to electric field E (V/cm). The constant of proportionality is the mobility, : NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 29 Mobility • At low fields, carrier drift velocity v (cm/s) is proportional to electric field E (V/cm). The constant of proportionality is the mobility, : • vn = - nE and vp = pE , where • vn and vp - electron and hole velocity (cm/s), • n and p - electron and hole mobility (cm2/Vs) NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 30 Mobility • At low fields, carrier drift velocity v (cm/s) is proportional to electric field E (V/cm). The constant of proportionality is the mobility, : • vn = - nE and vp = pE , where • vn and vp - electron and hole velocity (cm/s), • n and p - electron and hole mobility (cm2/Vs) • n ≈ 1350 (cm2/Vs), p ≈ 500 (cm2/Vs), • Hole mobility is less than electron since hole current is the result of multiple covalent bond disruptions, while electrons can move freely about the crystal. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 31 Velocity Saturation At high fields, carrier velocity saturates and places upper limits on the speed of solid-state devices. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 32 Intrinsic Silicon Resistivity • Given drift current and mobility, we can calculate resistivity (Q is the charge density) : jndrift = Qnvn = (-qn)(- nE) = qn nE A/cm2 jpdrift = Qpvp = (+qp)(+ pE) = qp pE A/cm2 jTdrift = jn + jp = q(n n + p p)E = E This defines electrical conductivity: = q(n n + p p) (cm)-1 Resistivity is the reciprocal of conductivity: E = 1/ (cm) NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov jTdrift V /cm cm A /cm2 Chap 2 - 33 Example: Calculate the resistivity of intrinsic silicon Problem: Find the resistivity of intrinsic silicon at room temperature and classify it as an insulator, semiconductor, or conductor. Solution: • • • Known Information and Given Data: The room temperature motilities. For intrinsic silicon, the electron and hole densities are both equal to ni. Unknowns: Resistivity and classification. Assumptions: assume “room temperature” with ni = 1010/cm3. • Analysis: Charge density of electrons is Qn = -qni and for holes is Qp = +qni. Thus: = (1.60 x 10-10)[(1010)(1350) + (1010)(500)] (C)(cm-3)(cm2/Vs) = 2.96 x 10-6 (cm)-1 ---> = 1/ = 3.38 x 105 cm = q(n n + p p) Recalling the classification in the beginning, intrinsic silicon is near the low end of the insulator resistivity range • Conclusions: Resistivity has been found, and intrinsic silicon is a poor insulator. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 34 Semiconductor Doping • The interesting properties of semiconductors emerges when impurities are introduced. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 35 Semiconductor Doping • The interesting properties of semiconductors emerges when impurities are introduced. • Doping is the process of adding very small well controlled amounts of impurities into a semiconductor. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 36 Semiconductor Doping • The interesting properties of semiconductors emerges when impurities are introduced. • Doping is the process of adding very small well controlled amounts of impurities into a semiconductor. • Doping enables the control of the resistivity and other properties over a wide range of values. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 37 Semiconductor Doping • The interesting properties of semiconductors emerges when impurities are introduced. • Doping is the process of adding very small well controlled amounts of impurities into a semiconductor. • Doping enables the control of the resistivity and other properties over a wide range of values. • For silicon, impurities are from columns III and V of the periodic table. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 38 Donor Impurities in Silicon • • • Phosphorous (or other column V element) atom replaces silicon atom in crystal lattice. Since phosphorous has five outer shell electrons, there is now an ‘extra’ electron in the structure. Material is still charge neutral, but very little energy is required to free the electron for conduction since it is not participating in a bond. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 39 Donor Impurities in Silicon q • • • Phosphorous (or other column V element) atom replaces silicon atom in crystal lattice. Since phosphorous has five outer shell electrons, there is now an ‘extra’ electron in the structure. Material is still charge neutral, but very little energy is required to free the electron for conduction since it is not participating in a bond. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov q e A silicon crystal doped by a pentavalent element (f. i. phosphorus). Each dopant atom donates a free electron and is thus called a donor. The doped semiconductor becomes n type. Chap 2 - 40 Acceptor Impurities in Silicon • • • • Boron (column III element) has been added to silicon. There is now an incomplete bond pair, creating a vacancy for an electron. Little energy is required to move a nearby electron into the vacancy. As the ‘hole’ propagates, charge is moved across the silicon. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 41 Acceptor Impurities in Silicon • • • • Boron (column III element) has been added to silicon. There is now an incomplete bond pair, creating a vacancy for an electron. Little energy is required to move a nearby electron into the vacancy. As the ‘hole’ propagates, charge is moved across the silicon. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov q e q Vacancy A silicon crystal doped with a trivalent impurity (f.i. boron). Each dopant atom gives rise to a hole, and the semiconductor becomes p type. Chap 2 - 42 Acceptor Impurities – Hole propagation Hole is propagating through the silicon. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 43 Acceptor Impurities – Hole propagation e Hole Hole is propagating through the silicon. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 44 Acceptor Impurities – Hole propagation Hole Hole is propagating through the silicon. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 45 Acceptor Impurities – Hole propagation e Hole is propagating through the silicon. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 46 Doped Silicon Carrier Concentrations (how to calculate) • In doped material, the electron and hole concentrations are no longer equal. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 47 Doped Silicon Carrier Concentrations (how to calculate) • • In doped material, the electron and hole concentrations are no longer equal. If n > p, the material is n-type. If p > n, the material is p-type. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 48 Doped Silicon Carrier Concentrations (how to calculate) • • • In doped material, the electron and hole concentrations are no longer equal. If n > p, the material is n-type. If p > n, the material is p-type. The carrier with the largest concentration is the majority carrier, the smaller is the minority carrier. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 49 Doped Silicon Carrier Concentrations (how to calculate) • • • • In doped material, the electron and hole concentrations are no longer equal. If n > p, the material is n-type. If p > n, the material is p-type. The carrier with the largest concentration is the majority carrier, the smaller is the minority carrier. ND = donor impurity concentration NA = acceptor impurity concentration atoms/cm3 NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 50 Doped Silicon Carrier Concentrations (how to calculate) • • • • • In doped material, the electron and hole concentrations are no longer equal. If n > p, the material is n-type. If p > n, the material is p-type. The carrier with the largest concentration is the majority carrier, the smaller is the minority carrier. ND = donor impurity concentration NA = acceptor impurity concentration atoms/cm3 Charge neutrality requires q(ND + p - NA - n) = 0: positive charge: p (holes) + ND (ionized donors) negative charge: n (electrons) + ND (ionized acceptors) NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 51 Doped Silicon Carrier Concentrations (how to calculate) • • • • • • In doped material, the electron and hole concentrations are no longer equal. If n > p, the material is n-type. If p > n, the material is p-type. The carrier with the largest concentration is the majority carrier, the smaller is the minority carrier. ND = donor impurity concentration NA = acceptor impurity concentration atoms/cm3 Charge neutrality requires q(ND + p - NA - n) = 0: positive charge: p (holes) + ND (ionized donors) negative charge: n (electrons) + ND (ionized acceptors) It can also be shown that pn = ni2, even for doped semiconductors in thermal equilibrium. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 52 Doped Silicon Carrier Concentrations (how to calculate) • • • • • • In doped material, the electron and hole concentrations are no longer equal. If n > p, the material is n-type. If p > n, the material is p-type. The carrier with the largest concentration is the majority carrier, the smaller is the minority carrier. ND = donor impurity concentration NA = acceptor impurity concentration atoms/cm3 Charge neutrality requires q(ND + p - NA - n) = 0: positive charge: p (holes) + ND (ionized donors) negative charge: n (electrons) + NA (ionized acceptors) It can also be shown that pn = ni2, even for doped semiconductors in thermal equilibrium. Explanation. The rate of e/h recombination is Cnp (kind of a number of possibilities of each electron to recombine with each hole). At the thermal equilibrium, rate of e/h recombination is equal to the rate of e/h pairs creation, thus np is the constant for certain temperature. Since creation recombination is the thermal process (depends on temperature, not doping), np should be the same as for intrinsic material, so np = ni pi = ni2. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 53 n-type Material • Substituting p = ni2/n into q(ND + p - NA - n) = 0 yields n2 - (ND - NA)n - ni2 = 0. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 54 n-type Material • Substituting p = ni2/n into q(ND + p - NA - n) = 0 yields n2 - (ND - NA)n - ni2 = 0. • Solving for n (N D N A ) (N D N A ) 2 4n i2 n i2 n and p 2 n NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 55 n-type Material • Substituting p = ni2/n into q(ND + p - NA - n) = 0 yields n2 - (ND - NA)n - ni2 = 0. • Solving for n (N D N A ) (N D N A ) 2 4n i2 n i2 n and p 2 n • For (ND - NA) >> 2ni, n (ND - NA) . NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 56 p-type Material • Similar to the approach used with n-type material we find the following equations: (N A N D ) (N A N D ) 2 4n i2 n i2 p and n 2 p NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 57 p-type Material • Similar to the approach used with n-type material we find the following equations: (N A N D ) (N A N D ) 2 4n i2 n i2 p and n 2 p • For (NA - ND) >> 2ni, p (NA - ND) . NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 58 p-type Material • Similar to the approach used with n-type material we find the following equations: (N A N D ) (N A N D ) 2 4n i2 n i2 p and n 2 p • For (NA - ND) >> 2ni, p (NA - ND) . • We find the majority carrier concentration from charge neutrality and find the minority carrier concentration from the thermal equilibrium relationship. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 59 Practical Doping Levels • Majority carrier concentrations are established at manufacturing time and are independent of temperature (over practical temp. ranges). NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 60 Practical Doping Levels • Majority carrier concentrations are established at manufacturing time and are independent of temperature (over practical temp. ranges). • However, minority carrier concentrations are proportional to ni2, a highly temperature dependent term. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 61 Practical Doping Levels • Majority carrier concentrations are established at manufacturing time and are independent of temperature (over practical temp. ranges). • However, minority carrier concentrations are proportional to ni2, a highly temperature dependent term. • For practical doping levels (dopant concentration usually is quite larger then ni): n (ND - NA) for n-type material p (NA - ND) for p-type material. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 62 Practical Doping Levels • Majority carrier concentrations are established at manufacturing time and are independent of temperature (over practical temp. ranges). • However, minority carrier concentrations are proportional to ni2, a highly temperature dependent term. • For practical doping levels: n (ND - NA) for n-type material p (NA - ND) for p-type material. • Typical doping ranges are 1014/cm3 to 1021/cm3. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Example here Chap 2 - 63 Mobility and Resistivity in Doped Semiconductors • Impurities degrade mobility (different size disrupt the lattice, atoms ionized – electrons scatter ) – see on the left. • However, doping vastly increases the density of majority carriers dramatically decreases resistivity despite the lower mobility. • = qn (ND – NA) for n-type • = qp (NA – ND) for p-type Example here NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 64 Diffusion Current • In practical semiconductors, it is quite useful to create carrier concentration gradients by varying the dopant concentration and/or the dopant type across a region of semiconductor. • This gives rise to a diffusion current resulting from the natural tendency of carriers to move from high concentration regions to low concentration regions. • Diffusion current is analogous to a gas moving across a room to evenly distribute itself across the volume. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 65 Diffusion Current (cont.) A bar of silicon (a) into which holes are injected, thus creating the hole concentration profile along the x axis, shown in (b). The holes diffuse in the positive direction of x and give rise to a hole-diffusion current in the same direction. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov If the electrons are injected and the electronconcentration profile shown is established in a bar of silicon, electrons diffuse in the x direction, giving rise to an electron-diffusion current in the negative -x direction. Chap 2 - 66 Diffusion Current (cont.) • Carriers move toward regions of lower concentration, so diffusion current densities are proportional to the negative of the carrier gradient. j diff p jndiff p p ( q) D p qDp A/cm2 x x n n (q) Dn qDn A/cm2 x x Diffusion current density equations NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Diffusion currents in the presence of a concentration gradient. Chap 2 - 67 Diffusion Current (cont.) • Dp and Dn are the hole and electron diffusivities with units cm2/s. Diffusivity and mobility are related by Einsteins’s relationship: kT D p VT Thermal voltage n q p Dn Dn n VT , D p p VT • The thermal voltage, VT = kT/q, is approximately 25 mV at room temperature. We will encounter VT many times throughout this course. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 68 Total Current in a Semiconductor • Total current is the sum of drift and diffusion current: n j q n nE qDn x p T j p q p p E qD p x T n NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 69 Total Current in a Semiconductor • Total current is the sum of drift and diffusion current: n j q n nE qDn x p T j p q p p E qD p x T n Rewriting using Einstein’s relationship (Dp = nVT), 1 n j q n n E VT nx 1 p T j p q p p E VT p x T n In the following sections, we will use these equations, combined with Gauss’ law, (E)=Q, to calculate currents in a variety of semiconductor devices. Example here NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 70 Semiconductor Energy Band Model Semiconductor energy band model. EC and EV are energy levels at the edge of the conduction and valence bands. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 71 Semiconductor Energy Band Model What happens as temperature increases? Semiconductor energy band model. EC and EV are energy levels at the edge of the conduction and valence bands. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Electron participating in a covalent bond is in a lower energy state in the valence band. This diagram represents 0 K. Chap 2 - 72 Semiconductor Energy Band Model Semiconductor energy band model. EC and EV are energy levels at the edge of the conduction and valence bands. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Electron participating in a covalent bond is in a lower energy state in the valence band. This diagram represents 0 K. Thermal energy breaks covalent bonds and moves the electrons up into the conduction band. Chap 2 - 73 Energy Band Model for a Doped Semiconductor Semiconductor with donor or n-type dopants. The donor atoms have free electrons with energy ED. Since ED is close to EC, (about 0.045 eV for phosphorous), it is easy for electrons in an n-type material to move up into the conduction band. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 74 Energy Band Model for a Doped Semiconductor Semiconductor with donor or n-type dopants. The donor atoms have free electrons with energy ED. Since ED is close to EC, (about 0.045 eV for phosphorous), it is easy for electrons in an n-type material to move up into the conduction band and create negative charge carriers. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Semiconductor with acceptor or p-type dopants. The aaacceptor atoms have unfilled covalent bonds with energy state EA. Since EA is close to EV, (about 0.044 eV for boron), it is easy for electrons in the valence band to move up into the acceptor sites and complete covalent bond pairs, and create holes – positive charge carriers. Chap 2 - 75 Integrated Circuit Fabrication Overview Top view of an integrated pn diode. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 76 Integrated Circuit Fabrication (cont.) (a) First mask exposure, (b) post-exposure and development of photoresist, (c) after SiO2 etch, and (d) after implantation/diffusion of acceptor dopant. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 77 Integrated Circuit Fabrication (cont.) (e) Exposure of contact opening mask, (f) after resist development and etching of contact openings, (g) exposure of metal mask, and (h) After etching of aluminum and resist removal. NJIT ECE-271 Dr. S. Levkov Chap 2 - 78