MPEG-4-WWW

Report
Background
• MPEG : Moving Picture Experts Group: a
working group of ISO/TEC
“Compactly representing digital video and audio signal
for consumer distribution”
• MPEG-1: Standard for storage and retrieval of audio
and video on storage media
• MPEG-2: Standard for digital TV
Scope of MPEG-4 Standard
• Author: greater production flexibility and
reusability
• Network Service Provider: Offering
transport information which can be
interpreted on various network platforms
• End user: Higher levels of interaction with
content within the limits set by the author.
Objectives
• Interactivity : Interacting with the different
audio-visual objects
• Scalability : Adopting contents to match
bandwidth
• Reusability : For both tools and data
Objectives - Interactivity
• Client Side Interaction
– Manipulating scene description and properties of audiovisual objects
• Audio-Visual Objects Behavior
– Triggered by user actions and other events
• Client Server Interaction
– In case a return channel is available
Objectives - Scalability
• Scalability refers to the ability to only decode a
part of a bitstream and reconstruct images or
image sequences with:
– Reduced decoder complexity (reduced quality)
– Reduced spatial resolution
– Reduced temporal resolution
• A scalable object is the one that has basic-quality
information for presentation. When enough bitrate
or resources can be assigned, enhancement layers
can be added for improving quality.
Objectives – Scalability (Cont.)
• Scalability is a key factor in many applications:
making moving video possible at very low bitrates
notably for mobile devices
• MPEG-4 has been found usable for streaming
wireless video transmission at 10Kbps in GSM.
• Low bitrates are accommodated by the use of
scalable objects.
Objectives - Reusability
• Authors can easily organize and manipulate
individual components and reuse existing
decoded objects.
• Each type of content can be coded using the
most effective algorithms.
Requirements
• Traditional Requirements (MPEG-1 & 2)
– Streaming : for live broadcast
– Synchronization : to process data received at the right
instants of time
– Stream Management : to allow the application to
consume the content (content type, dependencies…etc.)
– Intellectual Property Management
• Specific MPEG-4 Requirements
– Audio-Visual objects
– Scene description
Audio-Visual Objects
• The representation of a natural or synthetic
object that has an audio and/or visual
manifestation
• Examples:
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Video Sequence (with Shape information).
Audio Track
Animated 3D face
Speech synthesized from text.
• Advantages: Interaction – Scalability – Reusability
Scene Description
The coding of information that describes the
spatio-temporal relationships between the
various audio-visual objects.
Scene Description (Cont.)
• Place media objects anywhere in a given
coordinate system.
• Apply transforms to change the geometrical or
acoustical appearance of a media object.
• Group primitive media objects to form compound
media objects.
• Apply streamed data to media objects to modify
their attributes (sound, moving texture…)
• Change, interactively, the user’s viewing and
listening point anywhere in the scene.
Logical Structure of a Scene
Scene
Person
Shape
Background
Voice
Video
Synthetic Objects
Ball
Table
Scene Description (Cont.)
• Starting from VRML, MPEG has developed a
binary language called BInary Format for Scenes
(BIFS).
• The standard differentiates parameters used to
improve the coding efficiency of an object (motion
vectors in video coding), and the ones used as
modifiers of an object (its position in the scene)
• Modification in the latter set does not imply redecoding the primitive media objects.
MPEG-4 Mission
Develop a coded, streamable representation
for audio-visual objects and their
associated time-variant data along with a
description of how they are combined.
MPEG-4 Mission (Cont.)
• Coded Vs. Textual
• Streamable Vs. Downloaded
• Audio-Visual objects Vs. Individual Audio
or Visual Streams
Object Model
• Visual objects in the scene are described
mathematically and given a position in two
or three dimensional space. Similarly, audio
objects are placed in sound space.
• “Create once, access everywhere” ..objects
are defined once and the calculations to
update the screen and sound are done
locally.
Objectifying the Visual
• Classical video (from the camera) is one of
the visual objects defined in the standard.
• Objects with arbitrary shapes can be
encoded apart from their background and
can be described in two ways.
– Binary Shape: for low bitrate environments
– Gray Scale (Alpha Shape): for higher quality
content.
Objectifying the Visual (Cont.)
• MPEG does not specify how shapes are to
be extracted. Current methods still have
limitations (e.g. Weatherman).
• MPEG-4 specifies only the decoding
process. Encoding is left to the market
place.
2D Animated Meshes
• A 2D mesh is a partition of a 2D planar region into
polygonal patches.
• A 2D dynamic mesh refers to a 2D mesh geometry
and motion information.
2D Animated Meshes (Cont.)
• The most entertaining feature in MPEG-4 is the
ability to map images onto computer generated
shapes (meshes currently 2D and 3D in the next
version).
• A few parameters to deform the mesh can create
the impression of moving video from a still video
(e.g. a waving flag).
• Predefined faces are particularly interesting
meshes. Any feature (lips or eyes) may be
animated by special commands that make them
move in synchronization with speech.
System Architecture
• Streaming data for media objects.
• Different architecture layers
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Delivery layer
Sync layer
Compression layer
Composition layer
• Syntax Description
Streaming data for media objects
• Needed data for media objects can be
conveyed in one or more Elementary
Streams (ESs).
• An Object Descriptor (OD) identifies all
streams associated with one media object.
• OD contains a set of descriptors that
characterized the ESs (required decoder
resources, encoder timing,..)
Composition Layer
ODs
ES
SL
SL
Scene
ES
SL
Compression
Layer
ES
ES
SL
SL
DAI
FlexMux
DNI
FlexMux
FlexMux
Various Transport Protocols
Sync Layer
Delivery
Layer
Delivery Layer
• Contains two-layer multiplexer
– FlexMux: a tool defined according to the DMIF
(Delivery Multimedia Integration Framework). It
allows grouping of ESs with a low overhead.
– TranMux: the second layer that offers transport
service interfaces with different transport
protocols (UDP/IP- MPEG-2,….)
DMIF
• A session protocol for the management of
multimedia streaming over generic delivery
technologies.It is similar to FTP.
• Actions:
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Setup a session with the remote side
Select streams and request streaming them
The peer will return pointers to the streams connections
Establish the connection themselves.
• User can specify QoS the DAI. It is up to the
DMIF to ensure the satisfaction of these
requirements.
Delivery layer (Cont.)
• The functionality of the DMIF is expressed by an
interface called DMIF Application Interface (DAI)
• DAI defines a single, uniform interface to access
multimedia contents on a multitude of delivery
technologies.
• DAI is the reference point at which the elementary
streams can be accessed as Sync layer –
packetized streams.
• Sync layer talks to the delivery layer through DAI.
Sync Layer
• SL A flexible and configurable packetization
facility that allows: Timing, Fragmentation,
and continuity information on associated
data packets. (Packetized Elementary Streams)
• It does not provide frame information (no
packet length in header). Delivery layer will
do it.
Sync Layer Functionality
• Identifying time stamped Access Units (data units
that comprise complete representation unit).
• Each packet is an access unit or a fragment of an
access unit.
• These access units forms the only semantic
structure of ESs in this layer.
• Stamping access units includes timing information
for decoding and composition.
• SL retrieves ESs from packetized ESs.
Compression Layer
• The streams are sent to their respective
decoders that process the data and produce
composition units.
• In order to relate ESs to media objects
Object Descriptors (OD) are used to convey
information about the number and
properties of a set of ESs that belongs to a
media object.
Compression Layer (Cont.)
• Scene Description: Defines
– The spatial and temporal position of the various
objects
– The objects dynamic behavior
– Interactivity features
• The scene description contains unique
identifiers that point to object descriptors.
• Tree structured and based on VRML
Composition Layer
• Using scene description and decoded audiovisual object data to render the final scene
presented to user.
• MPEG-4 does not specify how information
is rendered
• Composition is performed at the receiver
System Principles
Scene
Scene Descriptor ES
Object Descriptor ES
OD
ESD
ES
ES
ES
OD
ESD
ESD
Decoding Buffer Architecture
Decoder
Buffer
DMIF
Application
Interface
Decoder
Memory
Decoder
Buffer
Decoder
Memory
Decoder
Buffer
Decoder
Memory
Decoder
Buffer
C
O
M
P
O
S
I
T
O
R
Syntax Description
• MPEG-4 defines a syntactic description
language (MSDL) to describe the exact
binary syntax for bitstreams carrying media
objects and for bitstreams with scene
description information
• This language is an extension of C++, and is
used to describe the syntactic representation
of objects
Tools
• Stream Management: The Object
Description Framework (ODF)
• Timing and synchronization: The System
Decoder Model (SDM)
• Presentation Engine: (BIFS)
Tools - ODF
• Provides the glue between the scene description and the
elementary streams.
• Unique identifiers are used in the scene description to point
to the OD.
• The OD is a structure that encapsulates the setup and
association information for a set of ES’s.
• OD’s are transported in dedicated ES’s called Object
Descriptor Streams (ODS).
• This makes it possible to associate timing information to a
set of OD’s.
• Provides mechanisms to describe a hierarchical relations
between streams reflecting scalable encoding of the
content.
Tools - ODF (Cont.)
• The initial OD, a derivative of the object
descriptor is a key element necessary for
accessing MPEG-4 content.
• Contains at least two elementary stream
descriptors:
– One point to the scene description stream.
– Others may point to object descriptor stream.
Initial Object Descriptor
Scene Descriptor Stream
Object Descriptor Stream
Initial OD
Scene
Scene Descriptor ES
Object Descriptor ES
OD
ESD
OD
ESD
ESD
Tools - SDM
• An adaptation for the MPEG-2 System
Target Decoder (that describes temporal and
buffer constraints for packetizing ES’s).
• MPEG-4 chose not to define multiplexing
constraints in the SDM.
• SDM assumes the concurrent delivery of
already demultiplexed ES’s to the decoder
buffer.
Tools - BIFS
• A set of nodes to represent the primitive
scene objects, the scene graph constructs,
the behavior and activity.
• BIFS scene tells where and when to render
the media
Tools - BIFS (Cont.)
• Used to describe scene decomposition
information.
– Spatial and Temporal locations of objects.
– Object attributes and behavior.
– Relationships between elements in the scene
graph.
• Relies heavily on VRML.
VRML
A file format for describing 3D interactive
worlds(scenes) and objects. It may be used
in conjunction with the WWW. It may be
used to create 3D representation of
complex scenes as in virtual reality
representation.
VRML Example – Shape node
shape{
geometry IndexedFaceSet{
coordindex [0, 1, 3, -1, 0, 2, 5, -1, …]
coord Coordinate {point[0.0 5.0 ..]}
color
Color
{rgb [0.2 0.7…]}
normal Normal
{vector[0.0 1.0 0.0 ..]}
textCoord Texture Coordinate {point [0 1.0 ,..]}
}
appearance Appearance {material Material {transperancy 0.5}}
}
BIFS vs. VRML
• VRML lacks important features:
– The support of natural audio and video.
– Timing model is loosely specified.
– VRML worlds (scenes) are often very large.
• BIFS is a superset of VRML.
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A binary format not a textual format (shorter)
Real-time streaming
Definition of 2D objects
Facial Animation
Enhanced Audio
BIFS Protocols
• BIFS Scene Compression (text vs. binary)
• BIFS Command (produce unique-time events for
the scene.)
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Replace the whole scene with the new scene.
Insert node in a grouping node.
Delete a node.
Change a field value.
• BIFS Anim (used for continuous animation of the
scene.) allows modification of any value in the
scene : viewpoints - transforms - colors - lights
Version 2
• Intellectual Property Management &
Protection (IPMP)
• Advanced BIFS
• MPEG-4 File Format
• MPEG-J
• Coding of 3D Meshes
• Body Animation
Advanced BIFS
• Multi-user functionality to access the same scene.
• Advanced audio BIFS for more natural sounds,
and sound environment modeling (air absorption,
natural distance attenuation).
• Face and body animation.
• Proto and Externproto and Script VRML
constructs.
• Other VRML nodes not included in version 1.
MPEG-4 File Format (MP4)
• Designed to contain the media information
of an MPEG-4 presentation in a flexible
extensible format that facilitates
interchange, management, editing and
presentation.
• The design is based on QuickTime® format.
• Composed of object-oriented structures
called atoms.
MPEG-J
• Specification of Java API’s in MPEG-4 System
(Scene Graph, Resource Manager, …etc)
• Contents creator may embed complex control and
data processing mechanisms to intelligently
manage the operation of the audio-visual session.
• Java application is delivered as a separate ES to
the terminal then directed to the MPEG-J run time
environment.
Coding of 3D Meshes
• Coding of generic 3D meshes to efficiently
code synthetic 3D objects.
• LOD (Level of Detail) scalability to reduce
rendering time for objects that are distant
from the viewer.
• 3D progressive geometric meshes (temporal
enhancement of 3D mesh).
Body Animation
• A body is an object capable of producing
virtual body models and animations in form
of a set of 3D polygon meshes ready for
rendering.

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