### lighting

```Lighting
Technologies
Applications
Energy Consumption
MAE 406 / 589
John Rees, PE, CEM
Eric Soderberg, PE, CEM
October 15, 2013
Electricity Billing
• Commercial and Industrial electric bills can be
difficult to understand.
Difference Between Power and Energy
• Electricity is like water – it flows like water in a pipe.
• Demand – How fast is the Flow Rate (Instantaneous).
• Energy – How many gallons over a period of time.
3
Electricity - Definitions
• Demand - amount of electrical energy that is
being consumed at a given time (instantaneous,
kW).
• Electrical Energy - total electricity used over a
period of time (kWh).
• Electrical Energy (kWh) = Demand (kW) *
Operating Hours
• Example: 100 watt lamp burning for 10 hours =
1000 watt-hours = 1 kWh
4
Electricity - Demand
Electricity Demand - October 1 to 4 (kilowatts)
50
40
30
20
6:30 PM
11:00…
3:30 AM
8:00 PM
12:30…
5:00 AM
9:30 PM
2:00 PM
6:30 AM
11:00…
3:30 PM
0
8:00 AM
10
12:30…
Electricity Demand (kW)
60
5
Electricity - Energy
Electricity Energy - October 1 to 4 (kilowatt-hours)
25
20
15
10
5
6:30 PM
11:00 AM
3:30 AM
8:00 PM
12:30 PM
5:00 AM
9:30 PM
2:00 PM
6:30 AM
11:00 PM
3:30 PM
8:00 AM
0
12:30 AM
Electricity Demand (kWh)
30
6
Utility Electrical Charges
• Utility Rates
–
Utilities have a variety of rates
•
•
•
•
–
–
•
Residential
Commercial
Can be based on Electrical Energy only (residential and small commercial).
Can be based on a combination of Demand and Energy.
Ratchet Charge – Demand charge may be based on high demand from the
previous 12 months (not the current month).
• It’s possible to be on the “wrong” rate.
–
Check with your electric utility representative.
7
Peak Hours
• The demand charge is based on the
maximum demand set over the month
during peak hours.
• Peak hours are the hours set by the utility
when the total demand from all customers
puts the most load on the utility’s power
generating capacity.
– Varies from summer to winter.
8
Comparing KWh Usage to KW Demand
9
Bill
Knowing how you are being charged for electricity helps:
•Know how much various pieces of equipment cost to
operate.
•Determine when electrical equipment can be run during offpeak hours.
•Determine how to limit on-peak demand.
Duke Energy Rate Schedules
http://www.duke-energy.com/rates/north-carolina.asp
Rate Schedule
RS
*Date
Effective
9/1/2013
RE
Residential Service
Residential Service, Electric Water Heating and Space
Conditioning
ES
Residential Service, Energy Star
9/1/2013
RT
Residential Service, Time-of-Use
9/1/2013
WC
Residential Service, Water Heating, Controlled/Submetered 9/1/2013
SGS
Small General Service
9/1/2013
OPT-G
Optional Power Service, Time of Use General Service
9/1/2013
BC
General Service, Building Construction Service
9/1/2013
LGS
Large General Service
9/1/2013
9/1/2013
LIGHTING
FUNDAMENTALS
World’s Oldest Light Bulb – Burning
(almost continuously) Since 1901
The 3 Pillars of
Energy Efficient Lighting
Visual
WATTS
LUMENS
FOOTCANDLES
Meet target light
levels
Efficiently produce
and deliver light
Automatically
control lighting
operation
Most Important Slide in Today’s Seminar!
14
Paint Booth Case Study
•
•
•
•
•
•
Old Fixtures (Incandescents) = 5 kW
New Fixtures (T5 Fluorescents) = 1.72 kW
> 60% Energy Savings, \$500/yr
Old Lamps - 1,000 hour life
New Lamps - 20,000 hour life
Better Illumination; Better Quality of Light
Lighting Fundamentals - Illumination
• Light Output.
– Measured at the lamp surface.
– Measured in lumens.
• Illuminance or Light Level.
– Measured at the working surface.
– Measured in foot-candles.
• Luminance or Brightness.
– Measured at an angle to the working surface.
– Measured in footlamberts.
Targeted Illumination Levels
• Targeted illumination level is determined by:
• Tasks being performed (detail, contrast, size).
• Ages of the occupants.
• Importance of speed and accuracy.
• Important not to Underlight or Overlight.
Recommended Illumination Levels
Activity
Illumination
Foot-candles
50-75
Offices: Hallways
10-20
Offices: Rooms with Computers
20-50
Auditoriums / Assembly Places
15-30
Hospitals: General Areas
10-15
Labs / Treatment areas
50-100
Libraries
30-100
Schools
30-150
Quality of Illumination
• Quality of illumination may affect worker
productivity.
• Quality is affected by:
– Glare. Too bright.
– Uniformity of illumination.
– Color rendition. Ability to see colors properly.
• Scale is 0 to 100 (100 is best)
– Color Temperature. Warm to Cool.
• Measured in degrees kelvin. 3000 is warm (yellowish);
5000 is cool or “daylight”.
Color Rendering Index
(CRI)
A relative scale indicating how perceived colors
illuminated by the light source match actual
colors. The higher the number the less color
distortion from the reference source. Daylight =
100.
85 -100 CRI = Excellent color rendition
75 - 85 CRI = Very Good color rendition
65 - 75 CRI = Good color rendition
55 - 65 CRI = Fair color rendition
0 – 55 CRI = Poor color rendition
Color Temperature (K˚)
A measure of the “warmth” or “coolness” of
a light source.
≤ 3200K = “warm” or red side of spectrum
≥ 4000K = “cool” or blue side of spectrum
3500K = “neutral”
5000K = “Daylight”
North Sky - 8500K
Color
Temperature
Scale
Daylight Fluo - 6500K
Cool White - 4100K
Halogen – 3100K
Warm White - 3000K
Incandescent – 2700K
HPS - 2100K
25
Color Rendition
cool source is used
warm light source is
neutral light source is
enhancing blues and
used, enhancing reds
used
greens
and oranges
Color rendering, expressed as a rating on the Color Rendering Index
(CRI), from 0-100, describes how a light source makes the color of an object
appear to human eyes and how well subtle variations in color shades are
revealed. The higher the CRI rating, the better its color rendering ability.
Color Temperature (K˚)
A measure of the “warmth” or “coolness”
of a light source.
≤ 3200K = “warm” or red side of
spectrum
≥ 4000K = “cool” or blue side of
spectrum
3500K = “neutral”
5000K = “Daylight”
Color Temperature Scale
North Sky - 8500K
Daylight Fluo - 6500K
Cool White - 4100K
Halogen – 3100K
Warm White - 3000K
Incandescent – 2700K
HPS - 2100K
28
Light Quality
Color Rendering Index and
Color Tremperature Affect
the Light Quality
Efficiency
• Lighting efficiency (efficacy) is expressed as
lumens output/wattage input.
– Ranges from 4 to 200 lumens/watt.
• Measures how efficiently a lamp converts
electrical energy into light.
• Similar to mpg.
Lamp Efficiencies
Lamp Type
Lamp Efficiency
(lumens/watt)
Incandescent
5 - 20
Halogen
15 - 25
Halogen HIR™
20 - 33
Mercury Vapor
40 - 60
Compact Fluorescent
55 - 80
Linear Fluorescent
60 - 105
LED
60 - 130
Metal Halide
80 - 105
Ceramic Metal Halide
90 - 105
High Pressure Sodium
65 - 140
Low Pressure Sodium
150 – 200
LED Theoretical Limit
260 - 300
Lamp Lumen Depreciation - LLD
• As lamps age, they lose a certain amount of
output.
• Old T12 fluoresecents can lose up to 30% of
output over their life.
• New T8 fluorescents maintain up to 95% of
original lumens.
• This depreciation must be accounted for when
installing new lighting system.
• Depreciation is also a result of dirt
accumulation
Lamp Lumen Depreciation
Typical Lamp Life
Incandescent
Halogen
CFL
Sodium
Metal Halide
1,000 - 2,000 hrs
2,000 - 3,000 hrs
12,000 hrs
24,000+ hrs
24,000+ hrs
Mercury
20,000 - 24,000+ hrs
Fluorescent
Induction
LED
20,000 - 40,000 hrs
100,000 hrs
100,000 hrs
Luminaires
• Luminaire = Lighting fixture
– Lamps
– Lamp sockets
– Ballasts
– Reflective material
– Lenses, refractors, louvers
– Housing
• Directs the light using reflecting and shielding
surfaces.
Luminaires (cont’d)
• Luminaire Efficiency
– Percentage of lamp lumens produced that actually
exits the fixture.
– Types of luminaires
• Direct (general illumination).
• Indirect (light reflected off the ceiling/walls; “wall
washers”).
• Spot/Accent lighting.
• Outdoor/Flood Lights.
Types of
Luminaires
•
•
•
•
•
Direct (general illumination).
Indirect (light reflected off the ceiling/walls; “wall washers”).
Spot/Accent lighting.
Indirect Lighting
Direct Lighting
Outdoor/Flood Lights.
Luminaire Efficiency
• IES definition: The ratio
of luminous flux
(lumens) emitted by a
luminaire to that
emitted by the lamp or
lamps used therein.
 Percentage of initial lamp lumens that are
ultimately emitted by the luminaire
Lumens emitted by the lamp(s)
e Efficiency
by a luminaire
Luminaire =Efficiency
= Lumens emitted by the luminaire
38
Contrasting Lamp, Fixture, and
Luminaire Efficacy
Incandescent
17 lm/W
x
Coefficient of Utilization
58%
CFL
60 lm/W
x
39
Fixture Efficacy
35 lm/W
=
Fixture Efficacy
42 lm/W
Coefficient of Utilization
x
Integrated
LED Luminaire
=
58%
LED Bulb
150+ lm/W
=
Fixture Efficacy
10 lm/W
50+ lm/W
Coefficient of Utilization
~85 %
Sub-optimal thermal application
=
150+ lm/W
Fixture Efficacy
80 lm/W
Optimized thermals and efficacy
History of Lighting
LIGHTING
TYPES
Major Lighting Types
• Incandescents/Halogens
• Fluorescents including CFLs
• High Intensity Discharge (HID)
• Light Emitting Diode (LED)
• Inductive
Incandescent Lamps
• One of the oldest
electric lighting
technologies.
• Light is produced by
passing a current
through a tungsten
filament.
• Least efficient – (4 to 24
lumens/watt).
• Lamp life ~ 1,000 hours.
Incandescent Lamps
Incandescents - High CRI (100) and Warm Color
(2700K)
Halogen color is 2900K to 3200K
• Inexpensive
• Excellent beam control
• Easily dimmed – no ballast needed
• Immediate off and on
• No temperature concerns – can be used outdoors
• 100, 75, 60 and 40 watt incandescent lamps were
elminated in 2012 by the 2007 law
Tugnsten-Halogen Lamps
• A type of incandescent
lamp.
• Encloses the tungsten
filament in a quartz
capsule filled with
halogen gas.
• Halogen gas combines
with the vaporized
tungsten and redeposits
it on the filament.
• More efficient.
• Lasts longer (up to
6,000 hrs.)
Fluorescent Lamps
• Most common commercial lighting technology.
• High Efficacy: up to 100 lumens/watt.
• Most common fluorescent lamps.
– T12: 1.5 inch in diameter. 112 million, or 63% of
fluorescents in the U.S. are still T12
– T8: 1 inch in diameter.
• ~30% more efficient than T12.
– T5: 5/8 inch in diameter.
• ~40% more efficient than T12.
• Improvements have been made in the last 15
years.
Fluorescent Lamps (cont’d)
• Configurations
– Linear (8 ft., 4 ft., 2 ft., 1 ft.)
– Ubend (fit in a 2 ft. x 2 ft.
fixture).
– Circular (rare, obsolete).
– Fixtures can be 4, 3, 2, or 1
lamp per fixture.
• Output Categories
– Standard Output (430 mA).
– High Output (800 mA).
– Very High Output (1,500
mA).
Schematic of Fluorescent Lamp
Phosphor crystals
Mercury atom
Electron
Electrode
Fluorescent Installed Base
DataPoint Research Lighting 2012
Typical Linear
Fluorescent Fixture
– Direct
Note “cave effect”
Typical Linear
Fluorescent Fixture
– Indirect
More uniform distribution
Ballasts
• Auxiliary component that
performs 3 functions:
– Provides higher starting
voltage.
– Provides operating voltage.
– Limits operating current.
• Old type ballasts were
electromagnetic.
• New ballasts are electronic.
– Lighter, less noisy, no lamp
flicker, dimming capability.
Ballast Factor
DEFINITION: The fraction of rated lamp lumens produced by a
specific lamp-ballast combination
APPLICATIONS
High Ballast Factor
(1.00-1.30)
Increases output
AND energy consumption
Typical Ballast Factor Comparable light output in
(0.85-0.95)
one-to-one replacement
Low Ballast Factor
(0.47-0.83)
Decreases light output
AND energy consumption
Maximize energy savings by selecting electronic ballasts with
ballast factor that provides target illuminance.
Ballast Circuit Types
• Instant Start Ballast – starts lamp instantly
with higher starting voltage. Efficient but
may shorten lamp life.
• Rapid Start – delay of about 0.5 seconds to
start; supplies starting current to heat the
filament prior to starting and continues
during operation. Uses 2 to 4 watts more
than an instant start ballast.
• Programmed Rapid Start - delay of about
0.5 seconds to start; starting current heats
the filament prior to starting, then cuts off
during operation.
Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs)
• Fluorescent lamp that is
small in size (~2 in.
diameter, 3 to 5 in. in
length).
• Developed as
replacement for
incandescent lamps.
• Two Main Types
– Ballast-integrated.
– Ballast non-integrated
(allows only lamp to be
replaced).
Compact Fluorescent -CFL
• Excellent color available – comparable to incandescent
• Many choices (sizes, shapes, wattages, output, etc.)
• Wide Range of CRI and Color Temperatures
• Energy Efficient (3.5 to 4 times incandescent)
• Long Life (generally 10,000 hours –
lasts 12 times longer than standard
750 hour incandescent lamps)
• Less expensive dimming now available
down to 5% output
• Available for outdoor use with amalgam technology
Compact Fluorescent Lamps (cont’d)
• Use 25% the power of
an incandescent for an
equivalent amount of
light. (an 18-watt CFL
is equivalent to a 75watt incandescent.)
• 10,000 hour life. (10x
an incandescent).
the life of the CFL.
High Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamps
High Intensity Discharge Fixtures
High Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamps
An HID Produces light
by means of an electric
arc between tungsten
electrodes housed
inside a translucent or
transparent fused
quartz or fused alumina
(ceramic) arc tube filled
with special gases.
High Intensity Discharge Lamps
(cont’d)
• Arc tube can be filled by various types of gases
and metal salts.
• HID lamps are used in industrial high bay
applications, gymnasiums, outdoor lighting,
parking decks, street lights.
• Efficient (up to 150 lumens/watt).
• Long Life (up to 25,000 hours).
• Drawback – take up to 15 minutes to come up
to full light after power outage.
High Intensity Discharge Lamps (cont’d)
• Types of HIDs
– Mercury Vapor
(obsolete)
– Sodium Vapor
• High pressure
• Low pressure
– Metal Halide
• Arc tube contains
argon, mercury, and
metal halides.
• Gives better color
temperature and CRI.
Metal Halide Lamps
• Most common HID in use today.
• Recent Improvements.
– Allow higher pressure & temperature.
– Better efficiency, better CRI and better lumen
maintenance.
– Pulse Start vs. older Probe Start
– Ceramic vs. older Quartz arc tube.
Light Emitting Diodes (LED)
• Latest Lighting Technology.
• Invented in 1962.
• In the past, used as indicator lights,
automotive lights, and traffic lights; now being
introduced for indoor and outdoor lighting.
• LED is a semiconductor technology.
• Electroluminescence. Electrons recombine
with holes in the semiconductor, releasing
photons.
LEDs (Light-Emitting Diodes)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Long life (50K to 100K hours)
Energy Efficient
Directional
Dimming and instant on
Can be cycled frequently
Rugged (no filament tube to break)
Multiple Colors
Environmentally Green (no mercury)
Barriers:
– Higher Cost
– Heat removal is a must!
65
Typical Power LED Package
Lens (glass,
silicone)
Substrate
Encapsulant
Wire bond
Reflector
ESD protection
LED die
The LED Package provides:
– Protection for the LED die from the outside environment
– Conductive path to carry generated heat away from the LED die
– RI matching from the LED die to air
Reliability
– Lens & encapsulant systems should not discolor under
UV and exposure to high amounts of luminous flux
66
LED Applications
• Successfully used today for many markets
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Signs
Traffic signals
Displays (change colors for attention)
Exit Signs (most common)
Indicators
Flashlights
Parking Garage & Outdoor
Commercial
Food Freezers
Offices
67
LED Replacement Lamps
(PAR 38, PAR 30, PAR 20, MR16 and A-19)
• Available from a large number of vendors
• Variety of Beam Spreads, Dimmable
68
LEDs Project Virtually no UV
LED Lamps
LED Replacement Lamps for a 4-ft.
Fluorescent Fxture
T5HO vs. LED
Dow Corning
Greensboro, NC
• Remove 6-lamp T5HO
–
–
–
–
88 fixtures
4100K
321w each
28.25 kW total
• 30 FC maintained
• Install LED Fixtures
–
–
–
–
118 fixtures
6000K
145w each
17.11 kW total
• 30 FC maintained
kW Savings Summary
11.14 kW reduced (40%) with
71
LED
Lay-in Troffer Product Evolution
Technology advancements and energy costs have
driven down the wattage of the standard 2’x4’ lay-in
fixture.
• 1950’s 4LP - T12 troffer with magnetic ballast 220W (65 CRI)
• 1970’s 4LP - T12 troffer with ES ballast 178W (65 CRI)
• 1980’s 3LP - T12 troffer with ES ballast 134W (65 CRI)
• 1990’s 3LP - T8 troffer with Electronic Ballast 96W (70-80 CRI)
• 2000’s 2LP – T8 troffer w/ Elec. Ballast (tuned) 59W (70-80 CRI)
• 2011 First Viable 2’x4’ LED troffer offered 44W & 36W (90CRI)
• In 60 years the standard has gone from 220W @ 65 CRI to 40W @ 90 CRI
US Pentagon Alcove
73
Before (432W)
Alcove After
74
(288W)
Note Vertical Light on Shelves
LED vs. HPS
75
Outdoor Lighting
• Older technology for
outdoor lighting
– High pressure sodium
– Metal Halide
– Compact fluorescents
– LEDs
• NOTE: Solar street
lights offer significant
savings by eliminating
costly electric conduit
and cable runs
Exit Signs
• Old incandescent exit signs
used (2) 20-watt incandescent
lamps.
– At \$0.08/kWh, energy cost
for 1 sign = \$28/yr.
• CFL exit signs use 10 to 12
watts
– Energy cost for 1 sign = \$7
to \$8.50/yr.
• LED exit signs use 3 to 4 watts
– energy cost for 1 sign = \$3
to \$4/yr.
• Photoluminescent sign uses 0
watts, but may have (slightly)
– New technology claims
completely non-toxic and
recyclable.
Comparison: LED to Ceramic Metal Halide
Cree LED Lighting LRP38 – Total Wattage = 36W
Ceramic Metal Halide – Total Wattage ~ 158 to 237W
78
Induction Lights
• Light source in which the power required to generate light is transferred
from the outside of the lamp envelope by means of electromagnetic
fields.
• Type of fluorescent lamp – uses radio waves rather than arc to excite
phosphor coating on lamp to glow
• Long lifespan due to the lack of electrodes - between 65,000 and 100,000
hours depending on the lamp model;
• High energy conversion efficiency of between 62 and 90 Lumens/Watt
[higher wattage lamps are more energy efficient];
• High power factor due to the low loss of the high frequency electronic
ballasts which are typically between 95% and 98% efficient;
• Minimal Lumen depreciation (declining light output with age) compared
to other lamp types as filament evaporation and depletion is absent;
• “Instant-on” and hot re-strike, unlike most conventional lamps used in
commercial/industrial lighting applications (such as Mercury-Vapor lamp,
Sodium Vapor Lamp and Metal Halide Lamp);
• Environmentally friendly as induction lamps use less energy, and use less
mercury per hour of operation than conventional lighting due to their long
lifespan.
Induction Lighting
Type of fluorescent lamp – uses radio waves rather than arc to excite
phosphor coating on lamp to glow
• QL and Icetron: 60,000 to 100,000 hours – if used 12 hours each
day will last 20 years!
• Good for hard to maintain locations
• Large light source – difficult to control beam of light making it
inefficient for delivered and task lumens
• Expensive - \$200+ adder to HID
• No industry standards for Induction
Induction Applications
• Applications where maintenance is expensive and/or
difficult
• 24 hour a day.7 days a week applications
• Bridges
• Low Bay Industrial
• Select Outdoor Lighting Applications
• Long burning hour applications
ENVIRONMENTAL
CONSIDERATIONS
Hazardous Waste Disposal
Hazardous Waste Lamps will now be regulated under the
Federal Universal Waste Rule which was first developed to
regulate the disposal of other widely generated wastes that
contain toxic materials, such as batteries and pesticides
State Rule supersedes Federal Rule
Under current federal law, mercury-containing lamps
(fluorescent, HID) may be hazardous waste
The rule applies only to lamps that fail the TCLP (Toxicity
Characteristic Leaching Procedure) test which is used to
determine if a waste is hazardous.
Mercury Content of Lamps
TYPICAL MERCURY CONTENT OF VARIOUS LAMPS
250 watt Metal Halide lamp
250 watt High Pressure Sodium lamp
Pre 1988 T12 Fluorescent
Post 1988 T12 Fluorescent
Typical T8 Fluorescent Tube
Typical Compact Fluorescent (CFL)
38 mg
15 mg
45 mg
12 mg
4-5 mg
4-5 mg
4-5 mg is less mercury than a coal fired power plant will emit while
producing the additional energy to power an equivalent
incandescent lamp.
Lamps containing mercury that fail the TCLP test must be recycled!
EPA encourages responsible disposal practices to limit the release of
mercury into the environment.
EPA encourages lamp recycling
LIGHTING
ECONOMICS
\$\$
• Simple Payback
• Return on Investment (ROI)
• Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
• Net Present Value (NPV)
Simple Payback
Simple Payback is the number of years it takes an energy
saving measure to repay the initial investment for the new
system. It does not account for the time value of money and
it also does not consider the savings that occur after the
payback point.
Most private companies require a simple payback of 2 years
or less.
For energy saving measures, they will sometimes accept a 3
to 5 year payback.
Government agencies can accept longer paybacks than
private companies.
SIMPLE PAYBACK = TOTAL PROJECT COST / ANNUAL
SAVINGS
Return on Investment - ROI
ROI is the inverse of Simple Payback and has all
of the qualifiers of a simple payback. It does not
account for the time value of money and also it
does not consider the savings that occur after
the payback point. It is sometimes called Rate of
Return.
ROI is expressed as a percentage. It is often
compared to other investment yields.
Net Present Value (\$)
NPV adjusts for the time value of money by discounting incremental
future cash flows to the present time using a discount rate appropriate
to those cash flows. NPV (\$) is a profitability measure and can be
used to rank one lighting alternative over another. The higher the \$
profit NPV, the better the alternative. The NPV, to be appropriately
used, should be calculated by applying the after tax cost of capital to
the after tax cash flows.
Example: Simple Payback & ROI
A lighting upgrade is estimated to save \$5,000
a year and cost \$25,000. What are the simple
payback and return on investment (ROI)?
Simple payback
= Cost / Annual Savings
= \$25,000 / \$5,000
= 5 years
ROI = 1 / Simple Payback
= 1/5
= 20%
Example: Energy & Cost Savings
Existing lighting in the Method Road Greenhouse consists of
10 fixtures containing ten 4’, 4 lamp T12 fixtures that consume
154 watts of electrical power. At \$0.09/kWh, what is the
annual cost of operating these fixtures 2,000 hours a year?
10 x 154 watts x 2,000 hours/1,000 = 3,080 kWh
3,080 x \$0.09 = \$2,772 per year
These fixtures are replaced by fixtures containing 25 watt T8
lamps with low BF ballasts which only consume 89 watts per
fixture. What is the annual cost of operation?
10 x 89 watts x 2,000 hours/1,000 = 1,780 kWh
1,780 x \$0.09 = \$1,602 per year
Cost savings
= \$1,170 per year
Other Benefits from
Energy Efficient Lighting Retrofit
• Improved Color Rendition/Visibility in Space
• Longer Lamp Life
•Less Maintenance (Normally a result of longer lamp life)
• Adjust to target light levels (IES)
• Improved Controls
• HVAC Savings – Typically 5% above lighting savings for
cooled spaces
• Tax Incentives – Generally tax deductions
• Incentive from Utility Rebates – Both Progress & Duke have
programs
HVAC Savings from a
Lighting Retrofit
• 1 watt saved = 3,412 BTUs of heat removed
• Heat removed with Efficient Lighting is:
• A savings when cooling (A/C is on)
• In the heating season, lighting assists the HVAC.
• Rules of Thumb to count HVAC savings
• Unitary Equipment: Lighting Savings x .1 to .2
• Chiller Equipment: Lighting Savings x .05 to .1
• Example: Lighting Savings = \$2,000.00
\$2,000 x .1 = \$200 savings from Unitary HVAC
Change from Old to New
and Save Energy and \$\$
OLD TECHNOLOGY
=>
NEW TECHNOLOGY
• T12 Fluorescent – 4’ and 8’ Systems
In the US today, 60% are still T12.
• T8, T5 and T5HO Fluorescent Systems
• Magnetic Ballasts
• Electronic Ballasts
• Incandescent
• Halogen IR, MH & LED
• Halogen
• Metal Halide and LED
• Probe Start Metal Halide
and Mercury Vapor
• Pulse Start and
Ceramic Metal Halide
• Neon
•LED
• Manual Controls
•Automatic Controls, Bi-Level and
Continuous Dimming Systems
Ballast Factor
DEFINITION: The fraction of rated lamp lumens produced by a specific
lamp-ballast combination
APPLICATIONS: High Ballast Factor
(1.00-1.30)
Increases output
AND energy consumption
Typical Ballast Factor
(0.85-0.95)
Comparable light output in
one-to-one replacement
Low Ballast Factor
(0.47-0.83)
Decreases light output
AND energy consumption
Maximize energy savings by selecting electronic ballasts with ballast
factor that provides target illuminance.
LIGHTING
CONTROLS
Types of Lighting Controls
– Occupancy Sensors
– Bi-level Switching
– Time Clock
– Photo Sensors
– Dimmers
– Lighting Control
Systems
– Building Management
Systems
Typical Lighting Control
Applications
Type of Control
Private Office
Open Office Daylit
Occupancy Sensors
++
++
++
Time Scheduling
+
++
++
Daylight Dimming
++
++
0
Bi-Level Switching
++
+
+
Demand Limiting
+
++
++
++ = good savings potential
+ = some savings potential
0 = not applicable
Open Office Interior
Occupancy Sensors
•Automatically turn lights off when
spaces are unoccupied.
•Ceiling or Wall Mounted.
delay.
•Proper selection, location, and
adjustment of sensors is key to
reliable operation.
•Wireless technology is available.
•Ultrasonic, Infrared, Dual-Technology.
Ultrasonic Wall Sensor
• Automatic Control
• Use in areas where there
are long periods of
unoccupied time
• Excellent for bi-level
control to maximize
energy savings
• Does not require direct
line of sight
delay for best results
Passive Infrared Sensors (PIR)
• Detect movement of heat-radiating sources between
• Line-of-sight is required (30’ max)
• Larger motion is required to trigger sensor at greater
distance
• Most sensitive to motion lateral to sensor
• Coverage pattern can be modified to minimize false
triggers
Dual-Technology Sensors
Greater reliability from using both infrared (IR) and
ultrasonic (US) sensing technologies
Typical operation settings:
• IR and US signals for lights to turn on
• IR or US signals for lights to stay on
• Absence of IR and US signals for lights
to turn off
Energy Savings Potential With
Occupancy Sensors
Application
Energy Savings
Offices (Private)
Offices (Open Spaces)
Rest Rooms
Corridors
Storage Areas
Meeting Rooms
Conference Rooms
Warehouses
Source: CEC/DOE/EPRI
25-50%
20-25%
30-75%
30-40%
45-65%
45-65%
45-65%
50-75%
Savings can be determined with data logger
installed in room or area for 1 to 2 weeks.
Bi- and Multi-Level Switching
Top shows switching
for 50% of lamps on.
Bottom shows
switching for 1, 2, or
3-lamp operation.
Photo Sensors
• Turn lights off when
• Outdoor lighting.
– Dusk to dawn.
• Indoor lighting
– Dims lights as
daylight increases.
• Can work with
occupancy sensors.
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
AND COST SAVINGS
Lighting energy
savings are
possible while
improving
lighting quality.
Other Benefits from
Energy Efficient Lighting Retrofit
• Improved Color Rendition/Visibility in Space
• Longer Lamp Life
• Less Maintenance (Normally a result of longer lamp life)
• Adjust to target light levels (IES)
• Improved Controls
• HVAC Savings – Typically 5% above lighting savings for cooled
spaces
• Tax Incentives – Generally tax deductions
• Incentive from Utility Rebates – Both Progress & Duke have
programs
HVAC Savings from a
Lighting Retrofit
• 1 watt saved = 3,412 BTUs of heat removed
• Heat removed with Efficient Lighting is:
• A savings when cooling (A/C is on)
• A cost when heating is on
• Rules of Thumb to count HVAC savings
• Unitary Equipment: Lighting Savings x .1 to .2
• Chiller Equipment: Lighting Savings x .05 to .1
•Example: Lighting Savings = \$2,000.00
\$2,000 x .1 = \$200 savings from Unitary HVAC
Opportunities
• More Efficient Lamp
Type
– Metal Halide  T8
Fluorescent
– T12 Fluorescent  T8
Fluorescent or LED
– Incandescent  CFL or
LED
• Fewer Lamps per
Fixture
– 4-Lamp to 3-Lamp or 2-Lamp
• Fewer Fixtures
• Better Fixtures
• Better Control
• 400-Watt Metal Halide = 455 watts input
• 6-Lamp T8 Fixture = 234 watts
Older Lighting Technology Subject
to be Changed Out
T-12 Fluorescent - 4’ and 8’ Systems
Fluorescent Magnetic Ballasts
Incandescent
Standard Metal Halide
Mercury Vapor
Neon
Manual Controls
New Energy Efficient Lighting
Replacements
T8, T5 and T5HO Fluorescent Systems
Electronic Ballasts
LED
Bi-Level and Continuous Dimming Systems
“Super T8” Fluorescent System
•T8s have been improved.
•Older T8s called “700 series”; 32 watts.
•Newer Super T8s called “800 series” (CRI > 80) and “850 series” (CRI > 85)
•3000K, 3500K, 4100K, 5000K versions
•30,000 hour lamp life @ 3 hours per start
•3100-3150 initial lumens
•Universal Voltage (120-277V)
•4-foot lamp: 30, 28 or 25 watts; Low input wattage (4-lamp: 93/89 watts)
•95% lumen maintenance @ 8000 hours
•Low Temperature Starting (0˚F)
•Lamp/Ballast System Warranty 5 Years
•85 CRI
•Program Start Ballasts
•TCLP-compliant
Instant Start Super T8 vs. Standard T8
• 800-series Super T8s have 96% of system lumens of 700-series lamps with
standard ballasts
•19% reduction in power
•Double lamp life (3 hrs. per start)
•Maximum life on occupancy sensors
Old T8 to Super T8 Upgrades
•
Save up to 20% of energy costs by replacing 32 Watt T8s with low-wattage T8s.
Whenreplacing 700-series 32 Watt T8s:
–
–
•
When replacing 800-series 32 Watt T8s:
–
–
•
25 Watt T8s provide 20% energy savings with 9% light output reduction.
28 Watt T8s provide 12% energy savings with 2% light output reduction.
25 Watt T8s provide 20% energy savings with 16% light output reduction.
28 Watt T8s provide 12% energy savings with 9% light output reduction.
While low-wattage T8 lamps may reduce light output, changes in light levels of less
than 10% are generally undetectable to most occupants.
25 Watt T8 Advantage Long Life Lamp
from Philips Lighting
•Long lamp life (40,000 hours of rated average life at 12 hours per start on
Optanium™ Instant Start ballasts and 46,000 hours of rated average life at 12
hours per start on Optanium™ Programmed Start Ballasts)
•2400 lumens with 95 percent lumen maintenance
•Superior color rendering (a CRI of 85)
•Low mercury (Philips ALTO® lamps average 70% less mercury than the 2001
industry average for fluorescent lamps up to 60 inches, which are not TCLP
(EPA Std. - Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure) compliant) 1.7 mg
Mercury per 4’ lamp
Fluorescent Lamp/Ballast Change-out
vs. New Fixture “Rules of Thumb”
•Install new fixtures when:
•Existing fixtures are over 20 years old
•Lamp holders are worn out
•Multiple components are failing
•Design requires change in fixture type
•Retrofit existing fixtures with lamps & ballasts when:
•Existing fixtures are less than 20 years old
•Lamp holders and other components are still good
•Budget is very tight
•Expensive/Difficult/Environmental Conditions Present
(i.e. asbestos or excessive piping and ducts in ceiling, etc.)
T5 and T5HO Systems
• One T5HO lamp provides similar maintained lumen
output to two T8 lamps (4750 vs. 4669 maintained
lumens)
• Maintained lumens are higher – fixtures are smaller
• Peak light output at 95˚F ambient air temperature
instead of 77˚F with T8 and T12
• Amalgam technology has been added to provide a
more constant lumen output across a broad range of
ambient temperatures!
T5 and T5HO
Systems
• T5 and T5HO lamp life is less than T8s
• The bulb wall surface of the T5 is very bright. Care must be exercised in
using T5 lamp in direct lighting applications.
• Costs higher than T8 – cost can be balanced by a reduction in the
number of luminaries used.
• Lead times may be longer – T5s require compete fixture replacement.
• In cooler temperatures or high CFM air distribution the T5 or T5HO may
not perform well (peak light output at 95 °F).
• May not work well with occupancy sensors due to slow lumen run-up
with cold start.
T5HO vs. T8 Application
Rules of Thumb
• ≤ 20’ – use T8
• ≥ 20’ – use T5HO
• 18’ to 25’ – either T8 or T5HO can be used successfully
• Over 50 types of 4’ T8 lamps available
• Two T5 lamps: 28w T5 and 54w T5HO
• To get T5HO performance out of T8 lamps, use highlumen/high performance T8 lamps
T5HO vs. T8 for Warehouse Aisles
Rule of Thumb
•In general for warehouse aisles, T5HO will perform better in non-airconditioned spaces and T8 performs better in air-conditioned spaces.
•Reason: Ambient temperature of T5HO rating for peak performance is
35 degrees C (95F) and T8 is rated at 25C (77F).
Source: Warehouse aisle lighting – p. 16 – LD&A Feb 2009article by Siva K. Haran, PE, LEED, AP, IES
An Increase in Quality Can
Improve Worker Productivity
• 1% increase in productivity
is about equal to one sick
day
• Improve employee
satisfaction and reduce
turnover/replacement
expenses
for new employees.
• Improves Company bottom
line
• Indirect Lighting is preferred
by many today.
What’s the Most Efficient Light
Source?
Excellent light source for almost all interior
spaces – offices, homes, retail, schools
and more; People prefer it!
Field research indicates that with
daylighting:
• Learning is enhanced
• Retail sales increase (Wal-Mart
study)
• Employee satisfaction increases
Energy Savings is realized when controls
are used
ambient light.
require more light, e.g.,
painting, inspection,
better color rendition.
Group Relamping
• Changing out all the lamps in an area at one
time at regular intervals.
– At about 90% of lamp rated life
• Saves labor.
• Maintains light levels.
• Can be scheduled during off-hours.
Conducting a
Lighting Survey
Why Conduct a Lighting Survey? – to identify improvement opportunities. It is a
systematic exam and appraisal of building lighting systems.
Step 1 – Establish a base line of performance
Step 2 – Identify opportunities for improvement
Step 3 – Calculate savings and potential payback
The quality of the information collected in the survey has a direct impact on
steps 2 and 3
Instruments
• Top: Light Meter
– Measures lumens (ft.candles).
• Bottom: Ballast
Discriminator
– Indicates whether a
fixture has a electronic
or electromagmetic
ballast.
Suggestions for a Lighting Survey
•Ask the right questions to meet the client’s goals
•Gather ALL the right information
•Don’t assume – check the existing equipment to obtain accurate
information
•Determine Economic Calculations Required
•Is a test installation needed?
•Lighting Fixtures
•Controls
•Consider all drivers to reduce the payback
•Use a pre-printed form or spreadsheet template
Information and Data to Collect in a Lighting Survey
• Floor plan of the building/space with dimensions if available
• Electric bills for 1 year to determine average cost per kWh over the year
• Tasks being performed in each area – Talk to occupants in the area
• Type (fixture input wattage and lamps/ballasts type), quantity, mounting height, and
control of fixtures in each space
• Lighting operating hours per year and footcandle levels for each space
•Circuit Voltage
• Exit signs (light source)
• Talk with building occupants about operating practices and satisfaction with the
level and quality of lighting
• Talk with maintenance staff about equipment condition and any recurring problems.
Lighting Survey Results
• Baseline: current lighting energy use (typical
lighting energy = 0.5 to 1.5 watts per sq. ft.)
• Estimated Costs with Incentives/Rebates.
• Energy and Cost Savings. Bottom Line:
Payback Period.
LEGISLATION
AFFECTING THE USE OF
LIGHTING TECHNOLOGIES
Energy Legislation and Incentive Programs
for Renewable Energy
and Energy Efficiency
• Energy Policy Act of 2005 – EPAct 2005
• North Carolina Tax Credits
• North Carolina Senate Bill 3 – Renewable Energy
Portfolio Standard (REPS) of 2007
– Utility Incentives – Progress Energy, Duke Energy
• American Recovery & Reinvestment Act of 2009,
ARRA or Stimulus Package
• NC Greenpower
Highlights of the Federal
Energy Policy Act of 2005
 30% tax credit for residential solar thermal or
photovoltaic energy systems up to a credit of \$2,000
 Does not apply to pool heating systems
 30% tax credit up to \$500 for energy efficient
windows, doors, heating & cooling equipment, and
insulation
 Tax deductions up to \$1.80 per square foot for energy
efficiency improvements in commercial buildings.
 Lighting, HVAC, Building Envelope
EPAct 2005 Tax Deductions
The Energy Policy Act of 2005, section 1331, provides a
tax deduction of up to \$1.80/ft2 for energy efficiency in
commercial buildings. These tax deductions can be
claimed in a single year. Systems covered include:
Interior lighting systems
Max. \$0.60/ft2
Heating, cooling, ventilation, and hot water systems
Max. \$0.60/ft2
Building envelope
Max. \$0.60/ft2
EPAct 2005 Tax Deductions
To qualify for an EPAct 2005 tax deduction for lighting, the following
must be met:
• Surpass the ASHRAE 90.1-2001 LPD Standard
• Bi-level switching must be installed for most buildings (exceptions
identified) and all controls provisions (new buildings) in the
Standard must be met.
• Must meet the minimum requirements for calculated light levels
as set forth in the 9th Edition of the IESNA Lighting Handbook.
• Consult a tax expert to see if you qualify
EPAct 2005 Critical Dates and
Proposed Increase in Tax Deduction
For commercial (for profit) enterprise
Any new system that exceeds ASHRAE standards by the required
amount must be placed into service between January 1, 2006 and
December 31, 2013 for tax deduction.
Proposed 2009 Senate Bill 1637 would increase tax credit for \$1.80 to
\$3.00 per square foot for whole building or from \$0.60 to \$1.00 per
square foot for partial allowance (such as lighting measures only).
NC Tax Credit Summary
Renewable Technology
Biomass
Residential
35%
\$10,500 Per Installation
Non-residential
35%
\$250,000 Per Installation
Hydroelectric
35%
\$10,500 Per Installation
35%
\$250,000 Per Installation
Solar Energy Equipment
for Domestic Water
Heating
Solar Energy Equipment
for Active Space Heating
35%
\$1,400 Per Dwelling Unit
35%
\$250,000 Per Installation
35%
\$3,500 Per Dwelling Unit
35%
\$250,000 Per Installation
Solar Energy Equipment
for Combined Active
Space and Domestic Hot
Water Systems
Solar Energy Equipment
for Passive Space Heating
35%
\$3,500 Per Dwelling Unit
35%
\$250,000 Per Installation
35%
\$3,500 Per Dwelling Unit
Solar Energy Equipment
for Daylighting
35%
\$250,000 Per Installation
Solar Energy Equipment
for Solar Electric or Other
Solar Thermal Applications
35%
\$10,500 Per Installation
35%
\$250,000 Per Installation
Wind
35%
\$10,500 Per Installation
35%
\$250,000 Per Installation
The Energy Independence and
Security Act of 2007 (EISA)
President Bush signed into law on 12/19/07
Lighting Sections include:
Sec. 321 – Efficient Light Bulbs
Sec. 322 – Incandescent Reflector Lamp
Efficiency Standards
Sec. 324 – Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures
Sec. 65 – Bright Tomorrow Light Prizes
http://www.lightingprize.org/
Lamp Wattages
and Efficiency Requirements
There are new efficacies for general service incandescent lamps expressed as
a new maximum wattage.
Generally, the lamps must be 30% more efficient by 2012-2014, with larger
lamps covered first.
Compliance: Today’s typical incandescent and halogen general service screwbase lamps do not comply with the new efficiency requirements.
Examples of General Service Lamps that will become obsolete:
January 1, 2012 – 100W A19 incandescent lamps
January 1, 2013 – 75W A19 incandescent lamps
January 1, 2014 – 40W A19 and 60W A19 incandescent lamps
A19 Lamp Lighting Legislation
Californ
Typical
ia
Current Maximum
Minimum
EffecRated
Lamp
Rate
Minimum Rated
Effective tive
Lumens Wattage Wattage Efficacy Lifetime Date
Date
14902600
10501489
750-1049
310-749
100
75
60
40
72
1,000
20.69 hours
1/1/2012 1/1/2011
53
1,000
19.81 hours
1/1/201
1/1/2013 2
43
1,000
17.44 hours
1/1/201
1/1/2014 3
29
1,000
10.68 hours
1/1/201
1/1/2014 3
Better Use of Light Bulbs Act - 2011
• Legislation introduced to repeal the EISA lamp
efficiency requirements.
– Jobs lost to China.
– Mercury in CFLs.
• Did not pass in July 2011.
• Issue has become politically-charged.
Super Incandescents?
• GE just announced "advancements to the light bulb that
potentially will elevate the energy efficiency of this 125-yearold technology to levels comparable to compact fluorescent
lamps (CFL), delivering significant environmental benefits.
the introduction of high-efficiency incandescent lamps that
provide the same high light quality, brightness and color as
current incandescent lamps while saving energy and
decreasing greenhouse gas emissions." The bulbs will come
out at 30 lumens per watt (twice a conventional incandescent)
and top out at 60 lumens per watt.
• From 2-24-2007; www.treehugger.com
CFL
•Use 75% less energy
than incandescent
bulbs
•Last more than 7
years*
New Energy
Efficient
Lamp
GE energy-efficient soft white offer
incandescent bulb
•Halogen
•Use 28% less energy than incandescent
bulbs
•Same size & shape
•Nearly the same light output
•Dimmable & instantly bright
LED
•Last up to 22 years*
•Use 75% less energy than
incandescent bulbs
Dates and Halogen Lamps
January 1, 2012 - 70W Halogen rated at 1600 lumens, must meet 23
lumens/W
January 1, 2013 - 50W Halogen rated at 1100 lumens, or 22 lumens/W
January 1, 2014 - 40W Halogen rated at 800 lumens, or 20 lumens/W
Most all of today’s standard PAR
(parabolic anodized reflector) halogen
lamps will be eliminated
DOE 2009 Ruling
Went into Effect 7/14/2012
These lamps are obsolete:
• Majority of F40T12 and F34T12
ES 4-ft. lamps
• Majority of FB40T12 and FB34T12
ES 2-ft. U-lamps
• All 75W F96T12 Slimline 8-ft. lamps
• Majority of 60W F96T12 Slimline 8-ft. ES lamps
• All 110W F96T12HO 8-ft. lamps
• Majority of 95W F96T12HO 8-ft. ES lamps
• All T8 basic 700 series 4-ft. lamps with 2800 lumens (requires
2850 lumens to pass)
• Majority of T8 basic 700 series 2-ft. U-lamps
Older Lighting Technology Subject
to be Changed Out
T-12 Fluorescent - 4’ and 8’ Systems
Fluorescent Magnetic Ballasts
Incandescent
Standard Metal Halide
Mercury Vapor
Neon
Manual Controls
New Energy Efficient Lighting
Replacements
T8, T5 and T5HO Fluorescent Systems
Electronic Ballasts
Halogen IR
Pulse Start and Ceramic Metal Halide
LED
Bi-Level and Continuous Dimming Systems
New Fixtures
North Carolina Senate Bill 3 (SB3)
Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard (REPS) of 2007
SB3 requires a Percentage of Electrical Generation from Renewable Sources.
Of these amounts, 25% can be achieved by Energy Efficiency.
• Solar PV
• Solar Thermal
• Wind
• Hydroelectric
• Wave Energy
• Biomass
• Landfill Gas (LFG)
• Waste Heat from
Renewables
• Hydrogen from
Renewables
Year
Percent of
Total
2012
3%
2015
6%
2016
10%
2021 & thereafter
12.5%
Lighting
• Beginning in 2010, Duke and Progress Energy
offered rebates for customers to upgrade their
lighting to more efficient lights.
• Rebate would pay up to 40% of the cost of the
new lamps/ballasts.
• These incentives will become unavailable as
the new lighting technologies are mandated.
Renewable Portfolio Standards
www.dsireusa.org / November 2009
WA: 15% by 2020*
MT: 15% by 2015
☼ OR: 25% by 2025
(large utilities)*
5% - 10% by 2025 (smaller utilities)
VT: (1) RE meets any increase
in retail sales by 2012;
(2) 20% RE & CHP by 2017
MN: 25% by 2025
(Xcel: 30% by 2020)
MI: 10% + 1,100 MW
ND: 10% by 2015
WI: Varies by utility;
10% by 2015 goal
☼ NV: 25% by 2025*
☼ CO: 20% by 2020
IA: 105 MW
(IOUs)
10% by 2020 (co-ops & large munis)*
CA: 33% by 2020
UT: 20% by 2025*
KS: 20% by 2020
(Class I Renewables)
RI: 16% by 2020
CT: 23% by 2020
☼ OH: 25% by 2025†
☼ PA: 18% by 2020†
WV: 25% by 2025*†
☼ NJ: 22.5% by 2021
VA: 15% by 2025*
☼ MD: 20% by 2022
☼ MO: 15% by 2021
☼ AZ: 15% by 2025
☼ DE: 20% by 2019*
☼ NC: 12.5% by 2021 (IOUs)
☼ DC: 20% by 2020
10% by 2018 (co-ops & munis)
☼ NM: 20% by 2020 (IOUs)
☼ NH: 23.8% by 2025
+ 1% annual increase
☼ NY: 24% by 2013
☼ IL: 25% by 2025
New RE: 10% by 2017
☼ MA: 15% by 2020
by 2015*
SD: 10% by 2015
ME: 30% by 2000
10% by 2020 (co-ops)
TX: 5,880 MW by 2015
HI: 40% by 2030
29 states
& DC
have an RPS
State renewable portfolio standard
State renewable portfolio goal
Solar water heating eligible
☼ Minimum solar or customer-sited requirement
*†
Extra credit for solar or customer-sited renewables
Includes non-renewable alternative resources
6 states have goals
```