POLYISOCYANURATE (POLYISO) INSULATION FOR COMMERCIAL EXTERIOR WALL ASSEMBLIES Date & Place Carlisle, Inc. is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems. Credit earned on completion of this program will be reported to CES Records for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for non-AIA members available on request. This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation. Thank you! Energy Use in the Built Environment • The commercial real estate U.S. ENERGY USE BY SECTOR industry spends approximately $24 billion annually on energy. • Energy represents the single largest controllable operating expense for office buildings - typically a third of variable expenses • Source: www.boma.org BEEP (BOMA Energy Efficiency Program) The Importance of Good Insulation • Government and private initiatives call for aggressive reduction of energy consumption • High-performance insulation is crucial for achievement of these objectives! Today we will learn about polyiso insulation – a commerciallyavailable, cost-effective material that easily enables construction of more energy-efficient buildings. Learning Objectives • List the basic characteristics and important physical properties of polyiso foam board insulation. • Describe the track record and market adoption of polyiso insulation in building construction applications. • Explain the benefits afforded by polyiso insulation when used in exterior wall assemblies. • List the important elements of successful installation of polyiso insulation in exterior wall assemblies. Learning Objective 1: List the basic characteristics and important physical properties of polyiso insulation. • • • • Chemistry. How it’s made. Properties – Polyiso Spec ASTM C 1289 R-Value Polyiso Foam • Similar to polyurethane • Starts as pourable resin. 2-component rapid reaction causes expansion and cure • Forms a rigid plastic, closed-cell foam • In production, reaction occurs in-line, while facers are laminated on both sides to form boards. Boards are cut to size, packaged, cured and shipped Beads of mixed 2-part resin extruded onto facer Resin expands and cures, filing space between facers Polyiso – Green Features • No CFCs, zero ozone depletion potential (ODP) • EPA compliant blowing agents • Recyclable through re-use or downcycling • FSC-Certified wood used on woodfaced products • Durable, long service life material • National manufacturing network available regionally Polyiso Insulation Properties • ASTM C 1289 “Standard Specification for Faced Rigid Cellular Polyisocyanurate Thermal Insulation Board” – Classification: Facer composition, foam core compressive strength – Physical Properties: Dimensional stability, flexural strength, water absorption, water vapor transmission • R-Value – Measure of heat flow through specimen – Test methods dictated in ASTM C 1289 Polyiso Insulation Facers facer polyiso foam core facer • Most roofing applications use glass-reinforced organic felt facers • Polyiso for wall assemblies has coated-glass or foil facer – Coated-glass facers improved fire resistance, moisture resistance and dimensional stability – Foil facers improve fire resistance, UV resistance, moisture resistance and R-Value • Polyiso can be easily laminated to plywood or OSB to form an insulating nail base Many Facer Options for Different Polyiso Applications R-Value – The Key Property of Insulation Material R Value 8” concrete 2.3 3.5” brick 0.6 5/8” plywood 0.7 5/8” gypsum board 0.3 18 gauge steel stud 0.0 2” thick pine timber 1.7 0.040” bitumen membrane 0.0 1” of air 5.5 1” of water 0.2 R Value of common building materials R value is a material property indicating resistance to heat flow though the material. Insulating materials have higher R-Value. R-value of insulation comes primarily from air or some other gas How Insulation Provides R-Value FOAM FIBER • Foam: Cells are filled with air or other gas • Fiber: Air is trapped among the fibers Foam vs. Fiber Insulation FOAM • • • • • Plastic Based (combustible) Board foam or spray foam Closed Cell or Open Cell Closed cell type is an air barrier Closed cell type resists water absorption FIBER • Mineral Based (noncombustible) • Semi-rigid boards, batts or loose (blown-in) • Permeable to air and moisture R-Value of Common Types of Insulation Insulation 20 psi Polyiso Board 2# CC Spray Polyurethane Foam 25 psi Extruded Polystyrene (XPS) 25 psi Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) Mineral Wool Fiber Glass R/ inch (@75°F) 5.6 to 6.7 6.0 to 6.7 5.0 to 5.5 3.9 to 4.4 4.2 3.7 How do Foam Insulations Provide Such High R-value? Gas R/ inch (@75°F) Air 5.5 Argon 8.1 Pentane 10.0 Dichlorodifluoromethane 15.1 Most common blowing agent used in polyiso and polystyrene foam insulation CFC, banned for use in insulation production • Foam insulation consist of plastic resin and gas • Cells in polyiso insulation are filled with a higher-Rvalue gas than air How does Polyiso Compare with other Foam Board Insulations? Polyiso XPS EPS R/ inch $/in $/R* Moisture High temp Vertical burn Solvent resist Sizes/ shapes * Based on 2” thick board, R-14.4 foil-faced polyiso Note: all 3 insulation types are suitable for exterior wall applications. The check mark indicates the insulation that is best in that characteristic. Learning Objective 2: Describe the track record and market adoption of polyiso insulation in building construction applications. Polyiso History • Derived from polyurethane chemistry, which first appeared in the 1950s • Polyiso foam insulation for construction first appeared on the US market in the late 1970s • Polyisocyanurate Manufacturers Association (PIMA) established in 1988 • More than 70% of all roof insulation used in the USA is polyiso • Growing use in exterior wall assemblies Polyiso in a wall assembly Polyiso directly over steel roof deck Polyiso Use - Construction Roof Wall • Polyiso has high service temp – up to 250°F • Unaffected by most solvent-based adhesives and coatings • Thermoset plastic – performs well in roof and wall assembly fire testing • High R-value per inch allows thinner board Polyiso Heat Resistance and Dimensional Stability • Heat Resistance – Polyiso service temp up to 250°F – Can be installed directly under metal and under roofing membrane • Dimensional Stability – Won’t shrink or warp with heat and humidity. Polyiso boards directly under black roof membrane Polyiso Moisture Resistance • ASTM C 209, 2h room-temp water immersion, <0.1% volume • Closed cell polyiso foam resists moisture absorption from ambient humidity • Moisture-resistant facers, such as foil and coated glass greatly enhance performance • Polyiso is suitable for use in abovegrade exterior wall assemblies and in covered roof assemblies. Behind wall cladding Under roof membrane Polyiso R-Value Measurements • Felt-Faced Roofing Insulation – CAN-ULC S770 Long-Term Thermal Resistance (LTTR) – R-5.6 to 6.0 per inch • Wall Insulation ASTM C 518 Coated-glass-faced – 75°F mean temp – ASTM C 1289 requires 180 day aging at room temp and minimum 40°F temp difference – R-6.0 to 6.7 per inch Foil-faced Learning Objective 3: Explain the benefits polyiso insulation affords when used in exterior wall assemblies. • • • • • “Continuous insulation” in building code High R-value per Inch Heat & moisture management Air & vapor barrier Fire performance The Colder the Climate, the more Insulation is Required • USDOE Heating Zones • 8 in the USA • 1 is warmest, 8 is coldest Component R-Value vs. Assembly U-Value Material 1 Material 3 Material 2 Material 4 RAssembly UAssembly R1 R2 R3 = = R1+R2+R3+R4 1 R1+R2+R3+R4 R4 • Building Code Gives 2 Compliance Options: – Meet a minimum R value of insulation prescribed for that type of assembly – Meet a maximum assembly U Value designated for that type of assembly Requirements for “ci” R-13 in the stud cavity • Example: IECC 2012 Steel Stud Wall Requirements • R-13 + 7.5 ci Stud Cavity Insulation Continuous Insulation “ci” is insulation installed continuously across studs. R-7.5 minimum “continuous insulation” Energy Loss Through Insulation Discontinuity Batt insulation installed between steel studs IR camera image showing thermal bridging Continuous Insulation Requirement Insulation placed between studs loses much of its nominal R-Value Nominal Stud Size (a) Space of Framing (in) Cavity Insulation R-Value Correctio n Factor Effective Framing/ Cavity R-Values 2X4 16 o.c. R-11 R-13 R-15 0.50 0.46 0.43 R-5.5 R-6.0 R-6.4 2X4 24 o.c. R-11 R-13 R-15 0.60 0.55 0.52 R-6.6 R-7.2 R-7.8 2X6 16 o.c. R-19 R-21 0.37 0.35 R-7.1 R-7.4 2X6 24 o.c. R-19 R-21 0.45 0.43 R-8.6 R-9.0 2X8 16 o.c. R-25 0.31 R-7.8 2X8 24 o.c. R-25 0.38 R-9.6 Source: ASHRAE 90.1, 90.2 Example – IECC Requirements for “ci”, NonResidential Steel Stud walls Min R-value of ci required 5 NR NR 5 NR ‘06 ‘09 ‘12 Zone 1 NR NR ‘06 ‘09 ‘12 Zone 2 3.8 7.5 7.5 7.5 NR ‘06 ‘09 ‘12 Zone 3 ‘06 ‘09 ‘12 Zone 4 (Exc. Marine) IECC version 3.8 7.5 7.5 ‘06 ‘09 ‘12 Zone 5 & Marine 4 3.8 7.5 7.5 ‘06 ‘09 ‘12 Zone 6 7.5 7.5 7.5 ‘06 ‘09 ‘12 Zone 7 7.5 7.5 7.5 ‘06 ‘09 ‘12 Zone 8 Common Types of “ci” • • • • • Polyiso XPS EPS SPF Rockwool R-Value of Common Types of Insulation 25 20 15 POLYISO XPS EPS 10 ROCKWOOL 5 0 1' 2' 2.5" 3" • Polyiso has the Highest R-Value per Inch – Use thinner board to comply with minimum code requirements – Use same size board and put more R-value into limited wall space Benefits of Thinner Insulation • Reduced cost of insulation • Simplify and reduce cost of cladding attachment – Shorter fasteners – Larger spacing – More cladding options Example: Polyiso vs. XPS Component RValue XPS Wall POLYISO Wall 1 5/8” Interior Gyp 0.5 0.5 2 R-13 w/4”SS 16” OC 6.0 6.0 3 5/8” Exterior Gyp 0.5 0.5 4 40 mil membrane 0.0 0.0 5 2” foam 10.0 14.4 6 1.5” air space 0.9 2.3 7 3.5” brick 0.6 0.6 Assembly U Val. U-0.054 U-0.041 • 5 5 4 7 6 1 3 4 1 3 7 2 6 2 6 2” Foil-Faced POLYISO 2” XPS R-14.4 R-10 On 10,000 SQ FT of wall, what is the difference in heat loss through the wall, given a ΔT of 30°F? – XPS Wall: 16,216 BTU/h; POLYISO Wall: 12,300 BTU/h – POLYISO wall presents a 24% improvement “ci” on the Exterior Keeps walls Drier during Winter Wall is dry where insulation is installed on the exterior Condensation of interior moisture on cold block Indoor moisture condenses on cold steel studs and gypsum sheathing. Vapor retarder traps this moisture. “ci” and Air/Vapor Barrier Membrane work Together Continuous insulation (ci) installed over air/vapor barrier • Air/vapor barrier prevents air and moisture transmission through wall, even seals around fasteners • “ci” keeps steel studs, gypsum sheathing and stud cavity above dew point, preventing condensation Exterior cladding fastened to structure Steel studs and insulation Gypsum sheathing Fully-adhered air/vapor barrier membrane on gypsum sheathing Polyiso Board Can be Installed as an Air and Vapor Barrier FOIL-FACED POLYISO, FOAM SEALANT BETWEEN BOARDS • Vapor Barrier (ASTM E 96): – 1” board has < 1 Perm w/ coated glass facer, <0.1 Perm with foil facer • Air Barrier (ASTM E 2178): – 2010 ASHRAE 90.1 and 2012 IECC qualify minimum ½” thickness foil-faced as an “air barrier” POLYISO INSULATION AIR/VAPOR BARRIER – BRICK CAVITY WALL Reduced cost assembly, but less redundancy than wall with membrane + “ci” NFPA 285 • 2-story wall assembly burn test • Applicable to Type I-IV Construction • Simulates an interior fire, with flashover effect through window opening. • Vertical and lateral fire propagation is evaluated. • Insulation, cladding and wall membranes can trigger Code Requirement! NFPA 285 Test Set-Up 1st: burn room burner is ignited Thermocouples here cannot reach 1,000 deg F 2nd after 5 min, window burner is ignited Test Wall 3rd after 30 minutes, both burners are shut off. 4th residual burning is allowed to progress for at least 10 minutes 18’ 7’ 6” min. 10’ Burn room burner Window burner Section View – not drawn to scale 7’ 6” min. NFPA 285 Acceptance Criteria cladding insulation stud interior finish EXTERIOR: Fire propagation not to occur beyond area of flame plume impingment CORE: Fire propagation within the wall is allowed only a certain distance above window opening, indicated by thermocouples Air space Sheathing Air barrier INTERIOR: Temp not to exceed 750 F in 1st story stud cavity and flames shall not reach second story. • Measures lateral and vertical propagation of fire • Pass/fail determined by amount and layering of combustible components. • Mineral wool fire stopping required in stud cavity between floors NFPA 285 Pass – what does it mean? Assembly test includes… •Base Wall System •Approved Exterior Finish •Insulation Material Options •Floor line Fire-stopping •Stud Cavity •Exterior Sheathing •WRB Membrane Polyiso Performs well in Vertical Burn!! • Inspection – Polyiso stays in place – No formation of burning drips – Protects underlying rubberized asphalt membrane NFPA 285 test, in progress and inspection after burn Polyiso Passes the NFPA 285 Test with Many Types of Claddings Projects showing polyiso insulation and aluminum compsite (ACM) rain screen cladding Class A Polyiso Passes NFPA 285 Even When Applied Over Open Studs • Install air, water, vapor and thermal barrier in one layer • Build a high-performance wall at a reduced cost! Polyiso Allows Simple Window Details in the NFPA 285 Test • Polyiso passes NFPA 285 without any fire blocking in window opening! XPS NFPA 285 Window Detail: Specifies Mineral Wool Pinned across Window Head Other Fire Tests • ASTM E 84 ASTM E 84 – “Tunnel Test”: horizontal burn of material – Limited applicability to vertical wall performance. – Standard Polyiso: flame spread 75 or less, smoke 450 or less – “Class A” Polyiso: flame spread 25 or less and smoke 450 or less • NFPA 286 – Corner burn test – Some polyiso foam/facer configurations can pass this test – Required if insulation will be left exposed in interior wall and ceiling applications NFPA 286 Learning Objective 4: List the important elements of successful installation of polyiso insulation in exterior wall assemblies. • • • • Details and Instructions Qualified installer Field quality control Reliable supplier Insulation Manufacturer shall Provide Standard Details • Windows • Foundation • Penetrations • Wall-to-Roof • Inter-Story • Corners • Expansion joints • Termination at existing Barriers Shown in Details Shall Align • Thermal barrier • Air barrier • Water resistive barrier Thermal image showing alignment of wall insulation with window’s thermal break Installation Instructions • Board pattern • Joint treatment • Fastening • Bonding • Exposure and Protection Installer Training • Installer shall be trained and approved by Insulation manufacturer • Insulation manufacturer training can be executed through partnership with professional organizations – Trades – Air Barrier Association of America ABAA Training Mockup Field Quality Control • Coordination of work • Mockups • Air Leakage Test (ASTM E 1105) • Water Leak Teat (ASTM E 783) • Visual inspection of Polyiso Insulation (not limited to these things…) – Tight at joints OR joints are sealed – Tightly secured to wall – Weeps and drainage in place – Insulation aligned with window thermal break – Penetrations detailed properly – Termination at grade and at existing construction Select a Reliable Polyiso Supplier • Multiple plants for nationwide service (typically within 500 miles of project) • Financially secure and established in the business • Dedicated sales and support personnel for WALL APPLICATIONS – Ready to assist with order fulfillment, instructions, product knowledge training and field technical issues Recap • Specify polyiso, with coated glass or foil facer, for use in the exterior wall assemblies. • Polyiso is a conventional, commercially-available material with a long, successful track record in construction • Polyiso provides solutions for modern commercial wall construction – delivers high R-value per inch and passes the NFPA 285 fire test in many wall assemblies • Several large, reputable manufacturers offer polyiso insulation, produced locally and available at a competitive price. • Partner with a polyiso insulation manufacturer who is reliable and will provide support throughout the Project for a successful installation. 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