Zone 1 - PaintSquare

Report
POLYISOCYANURATE (POLYISO)
INSULATION FOR COMMERCIAL
EXTERIOR WALL ASSEMBLIES
Date & Place
Carlisle, Inc. is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of
Architects Continuing Education Systems. Credit earned on completion of
this program will be reported to CES Records for AIA members. Certificates
of Completion for non-AIA members available on request.
This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuing professional
education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or
construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of
construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing
in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods, and
services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.
Thank you!
Energy Use in the Built Environment
• The commercial real estate
U.S. ENERGY USE BY SECTOR
industry spends
approximately $24 billion
annually on energy.
• Energy represents the single
largest controllable
operating expense for office
buildings - typically a third of
variable expenses
•
Source: www.boma.org BEEP (BOMA Energy Efficiency
Program)
The Importance of Good Insulation
• Government and private
initiatives call for aggressive
reduction of energy
consumption
• High-performance insulation
is crucial for achievement of
these objectives!
Today we will learn about polyiso insulation – a commerciallyavailable, cost-effective material that easily enables construction of
more energy-efficient buildings.
Learning Objectives
• List the basic characteristics and important physical
properties of polyiso foam board insulation.
• Describe the track record and market adoption of
polyiso insulation in building construction applications.
• Explain the benefits afforded by polyiso insulation when
used in exterior wall assemblies.
• List the important elements of successful installation of
polyiso insulation in exterior wall assemblies.
Learning Objective 1:
List the basic characteristics and
important physical properties of polyiso
insulation.
•
•
•
•
Chemistry.
How it’s made.
Properties – Polyiso Spec ASTM C 1289
R-Value
Polyiso Foam
• Similar to polyurethane
• Starts as pourable resin. 2-component rapid reaction causes expansion and
cure
• Forms a rigid plastic, closed-cell foam
• In production, reaction occurs in-line, while facers are laminated on both sides
to form boards.
Boards are cut to size,
packaged, cured and shipped
Beads of mixed 2-part
resin extruded onto
facer
Resin expands and cures, filing
space between facers
Polyiso – Green Features
• No CFCs, zero ozone depletion
potential (ODP)
• EPA compliant blowing agents
• Recyclable through re-use or downcycling
• FSC-Certified wood used on woodfaced products
• Durable, long service life material
• National manufacturing network available regionally
Polyiso Insulation Properties
• ASTM C 1289 “Standard Specification
for Faced Rigid Cellular
Polyisocyanurate Thermal Insulation
Board”
– Classification: Facer composition, foam
core compressive strength
– Physical Properties: Dimensional stability,
flexural strength, water absorption, water
vapor transmission
• R-Value
– Measure of heat flow through specimen
– Test methods dictated in ASTM C 1289
Polyiso Insulation Facers
facer
polyiso foam core
facer
• Most roofing applications use glass-reinforced organic felt facers
• Polyiso for wall assemblies has coated-glass or foil facer
– Coated-glass facers improved fire resistance, moisture resistance and
dimensional stability
– Foil facers improve fire resistance, UV resistance, moisture resistance
and R-Value
• Polyiso can be easily laminated to plywood or OSB to form an insulating nail
base
Many Facer Options for
Different Polyiso Applications
R-Value –
The Key Property of Insulation
Material
R Value
8” concrete
2.3
3.5” brick
0.6
5/8” plywood
0.7
5/8” gypsum board
0.3
18 gauge steel stud
0.0
2” thick pine timber
1.7
0.040” bitumen
membrane
0.0
1” of air
5.5
1” of water
0.2
R Value of common
building materials
R value is a material property indicating resistance to heat flow
though the material. Insulating materials have higher R-Value.
R-value of insulation
comes primarily from
air or some other gas
How Insulation Provides R-Value
FOAM
FIBER
• Foam: Cells are filled with air or other gas
• Fiber: Air is trapped among the fibers
Foam vs. Fiber Insulation
FOAM
•
•
•
•
•
Plastic Based (combustible)
Board foam or spray foam
Closed Cell or Open Cell
Closed cell type is an air barrier
Closed cell type resists water
absorption
FIBER
• Mineral Based (noncombustible)
• Semi-rigid boards, batts or
loose (blown-in)
• Permeable to air and
moisture
R-Value of Common Types of Insulation
Insulation
20 psi Polyiso Board
2# CC Spray Polyurethane Foam
25 psi Extruded Polystyrene (XPS)
25 psi Expanded Polystyrene (EPS)
Mineral Wool
Fiber Glass
R/ inch (@75°F)
5.6 to 6.7
6.0 to 6.7
5.0 to 5.5
3.9 to 4.4
4.2
3.7
How do Foam Insulations Provide Such
High R-value?
Gas
R/ inch (@75°F)
Air
5.5
Argon
8.1
Pentane
10.0
Dichlorodifluoromethane
15.1
Most common blowing agent
used in polyiso and
polystyrene foam insulation
CFC, banned for use in
insulation production
• Foam insulation consist of plastic resin and gas
• Cells in polyiso insulation are filled with a higher-Rvalue gas than air
How does Polyiso Compare with other
Foam Board Insulations?
Polyiso
XPS
EPS
R/ inch
$/in
$/R*
Moisture
High temp
Vertical burn
Solvent resist
Sizes/ shapes
* Based on 2” thick board, R-14.4 foil-faced polyiso
Note: all 3 insulation types are suitable for exterior wall applications. The check mark
indicates the insulation that is best in that characteristic.
Learning Objective 2:
Describe the track record and market
adoption of polyiso insulation in building
construction applications.
Polyiso History
• Derived from polyurethane chemistry,
which first appeared in the 1950s
• Polyiso foam insulation for
construction first appeared on the US
market in the late 1970s
• Polyisocyanurate Manufacturers
Association (PIMA) established in 1988
• More than 70% of all roof insulation
used in the USA is polyiso
• Growing use in exterior wall
assemblies
Polyiso in a wall assembly
Polyiso directly over steel
roof deck
Polyiso Use - Construction
Roof
Wall
• Polyiso has high service temp – up to 250°F
• Unaffected by most solvent-based adhesives and coatings
• Thermoset plastic – performs well in roof and wall assembly fire
testing
• High R-value per inch allows thinner board
Polyiso Heat Resistance
and Dimensional Stability
• Heat Resistance
– Polyiso service temp up to 250°F
– Can be installed directly under metal and
under roofing membrane
• Dimensional Stability
– Won’t shrink or warp with heat and
humidity.
Polyiso boards directly under black
roof membrane
Polyiso Moisture Resistance
• ASTM C 209, 2h room-temp water
immersion, <0.1% volume
• Closed cell polyiso foam resists
moisture absorption from ambient
humidity
• Moisture-resistant facers, such as foil
and coated glass greatly enhance
performance
• Polyiso is suitable for use in abovegrade exterior wall assemblies and in
covered roof assemblies.
Behind wall cladding
Under roof membrane
Polyiso R-Value Measurements
• Felt-Faced Roofing Insulation
– CAN-ULC S770 Long-Term Thermal
Resistance (LTTR)
– R-5.6 to 6.0 per inch
• Wall Insulation ASTM C 518
Coated-glass-faced
– 75°F mean temp
– ASTM C 1289 requires 180 day aging at
room temp and minimum 40°F temp
difference
– R-6.0 to 6.7 per inch
Foil-faced
Learning Objective 3:
Explain the benefits polyiso insulation affords
when used in exterior wall assemblies.
•
•
•
•
•
“Continuous insulation” in building code
High R-value per Inch
Heat & moisture management
Air & vapor barrier
Fire performance
The Colder the Climate, the more
Insulation is Required
• USDOE Heating Zones
• 8 in the USA
• 1 is warmest, 8 is coldest
Component R-Value vs. Assembly U-Value
Material 1
Material 3
Material 2
Material 4
RAssembly
UAssembly
R1
R2
R3
=
= R1+R2+R3+R4
1
R1+R2+R3+R4
R4
• Building Code Gives 2 Compliance Options:
– Meet a minimum R value of insulation prescribed for that type of assembly
– Meet a maximum assembly U Value designated for that type of assembly
Requirements for “ci”
R-13 in the stud cavity
• Example: IECC 2012 Steel
Stud Wall Requirements
• R-13 + 7.5 ci
Stud Cavity
Insulation
Continuous Insulation
“ci” is insulation installed continuously
across studs.
R-7.5 minimum
“continuous insulation”
Energy Loss Through Insulation Discontinuity
Batt insulation installed
between steel studs
IR camera image showing thermal bridging
Continuous Insulation Requirement
Insulation placed between studs loses much of its nominal R-Value
Nominal
Stud Size (a)
Space of
Framing (in)
Cavity Insulation
R-Value
Correctio
n Factor
Effective Framing/
Cavity R-Values
2X4
16 o.c.
R-11
R-13
R-15
0.50
0.46
0.43
R-5.5
R-6.0
R-6.4
2X4
24 o.c.
R-11
R-13
R-15
0.60
0.55
0.52
R-6.6
R-7.2
R-7.8
2X6
16 o.c.
R-19
R-21
0.37
0.35
R-7.1
R-7.4
2X6
24 o.c.
R-19
R-21
0.45
0.43
R-8.6
R-9.0
2X8
16 o.c.
R-25
0.31
R-7.8
2X8
24 o.c.
R-25
0.38
R-9.6
Source: ASHRAE 90.1, 90.2
Example – IECC Requirements for “ci”, NonResidential Steel Stud walls
Min R-value of ci required
5
NR
NR
5
NR
‘06 ‘09 ‘12
Zone 1
NR
NR
‘06 ‘09 ‘12
Zone 2
3.8
7.5
7.5
7.5
NR
‘06 ‘09 ‘12
Zone 3
‘06 ‘09 ‘12
Zone 4 (Exc. Marine)
IECC
version
3.8
7.5
7.5
‘06 ‘09 ‘12
Zone 5 & Marine 4
3.8
7.5
7.5
‘06 ‘09 ‘12
Zone 6
7.5
7.5
7.5
‘06 ‘09 ‘12
Zone 7
7.5
7.5
7.5
‘06 ‘09 ‘12
Zone 8
Common Types of “ci”
•
•
•
•
•
Polyiso
XPS
EPS
SPF
Rockwool
R-Value of Common Types of Insulation
25
20
15
POLYISO
XPS
EPS
10
ROCKWOOL
5
0
1'
2'
2.5"
3"
• Polyiso has the Highest R-Value per Inch
– Use thinner board to comply with minimum code requirements
– Use same size board and put more R-value into limited wall space
Benefits of Thinner Insulation
• Reduced cost of insulation
• Simplify and reduce cost of cladding attachment
– Shorter fasteners
– Larger spacing
– More cladding options
Example: Polyiso vs. XPS
Component RValue
XPS Wall
POLYISO
Wall
1
5/8” Interior Gyp
0.5
0.5
2
R-13 w/4”SS 16”
OC
6.0
6.0
3
5/8” Exterior Gyp
0.5
0.5
4
40 mil membrane
0.0
0.0
5
2” foam
10.0
14.4
6
1.5” air space
0.9
2.3
7
3.5” brick
0.6
0.6
Assembly U Val.
U-0.054
U-0.041
•
5
5
4
7
6
1
3
4
1
3
7
2
6
2
6
2” Foil-Faced POLYISO
2” XPS
R-14.4
R-10
On 10,000 SQ FT of wall, what is the difference in heat loss through the wall,
given a ΔT of 30°F?
– XPS Wall: 16,216 BTU/h; POLYISO Wall: 12,300 BTU/h
– POLYISO wall presents a 24% improvement
“ci” on the Exterior Keeps walls
Drier during Winter
Wall is dry where insulation
is installed on the exterior
Condensation of interior
moisture on cold block
Indoor moisture condenses on cold
steel studs and gypsum sheathing.
Vapor retarder traps this moisture.
“ci” and Air/Vapor Barrier
Membrane work Together
Continuous insulation (ci)
installed over air/vapor barrier
• Air/vapor barrier prevents air
and moisture transmission
through wall, even seals
around fasteners
• “ci” keeps steel studs,
gypsum sheathing and stud
cavity above dew point,
preventing condensation Exterior cladding
fastened to structure
Steel studs and
insulation
Gypsum sheathing
Fully-adhered
air/vapor barrier
membrane on
gypsum
sheathing
Polyiso Board Can be
Installed as an Air and
Vapor Barrier
FOIL-FACED POLYISO, FOAM SEALANT
BETWEEN BOARDS
• Vapor Barrier (ASTM E 96):
– 1” board has < 1 Perm w/ coated glass facer,
<0.1 Perm with foil facer
• Air Barrier (ASTM E 2178):
– 2010 ASHRAE 90.1 and 2012 IECC qualify
minimum ½” thickness foil-faced as an “air
barrier”
POLYISO INSULATION AIR/VAPOR BARRIER –
BRICK CAVITY WALL
Reduced cost assembly, but less redundancy than wall with membrane + “ci”
NFPA 285
• 2-story wall assembly burn test
• Applicable to Type I-IV Construction
• Simulates an interior fire, with flashover
effect through window opening.
•
Vertical and lateral fire propagation is
evaluated.
• Insulation, cladding and wall membranes
can trigger Code Requirement!
NFPA 285 Test Set-Up
1st: burn room burner is ignited
Thermocouples here cannot
reach 1,000 deg F
2nd after 5 min, window burner is ignited
Test Wall
3rd after 30 minutes, both burners are shut off.
4th residual burning is allowed to progress for at least
10 minutes
18’
7’ 6” min.
10’
Burn room burner
Window
burner
Section View – not drawn to scale
7’ 6” min.
NFPA 285 Acceptance Criteria
cladding insulation stud
interior finish
EXTERIOR: Fire propagation not to
occur beyond area of flame plume
impingment
CORE: Fire propagation within the
wall is allowed only a certain
distance above window opening,
indicated by thermocouples
Air space
Sheathing
Air barrier
INTERIOR: Temp not to exceed 750 F
in 1st story stud cavity and flames
shall not reach second story.
• Measures lateral and vertical propagation of fire
• Pass/fail determined by amount and layering of combustible components.
• Mineral wool fire stopping required in stud cavity between floors
NFPA 285 Pass – what does it mean?
Assembly test includes…
•Base Wall System
•Approved Exterior Finish
•Insulation Material Options
•Floor line Fire-stopping
•Stud Cavity
•Exterior Sheathing
•WRB Membrane
Polyiso Performs well in Vertical Burn!!
• Inspection
– Polyiso stays
in place
– No formation
of burning
drips
– Protects
underlying
rubberized
asphalt
membrane
NFPA 285 test, in progress and inspection after burn
Polyiso Passes the NFPA 285 Test
with Many Types of Claddings
Projects showing polyiso
insulation and aluminum compsite
(ACM) rain screen cladding
Class A Polyiso Passes NFPA 285 Even
When Applied Over Open Studs
• Install air, water, vapor and thermal barrier in one layer
• Build a high-performance wall at a reduced cost!
Polyiso Allows Simple Window
Details in the NFPA 285 Test
• Polyiso passes NFPA 285
without any fire blocking
in window opening!
XPS NFPA 285 Window Detail: Specifies Mineral
Wool Pinned across Window Head
Other Fire Tests
• ASTM E 84
ASTM E 84
– “Tunnel Test”: horizontal burn of material
– Limited applicability to vertical wall
performance.
– Standard Polyiso: flame spread 75 or less,
smoke 450 or less
– “Class A” Polyiso: flame spread 25 or less
and smoke 450 or less
• NFPA 286
– Corner burn test
– Some polyiso foam/facer configurations
can pass this test
– Required if insulation will be left exposed in
interior wall and ceiling applications
NFPA 286
Learning Objective 4:
List the important elements of successful
installation of polyiso insulation in
exterior wall assemblies.
•
•
•
•
Details and Instructions
Qualified installer
Field quality control
Reliable supplier
Insulation Manufacturer shall Provide
Standard Details
• Windows
• Foundation
• Penetrations
• Wall-to-Roof
• Inter-Story
• Corners
• Expansion joints
• Termination at existing
Barriers Shown in Details Shall Align
• Thermal barrier
• Air barrier
• Water resistive barrier
Thermal image showing alignment of wall
insulation with window’s thermal break
Installation Instructions
• Board pattern
• Joint treatment
• Fastening
• Bonding
• Exposure and Protection
Installer Training
• Installer shall be trained and
approved by Insulation
manufacturer
• Insulation manufacturer
training can be executed
through partnership with
professional organizations
– Trades
– Air Barrier Association of
America ABAA
Training Mockup
Field Quality Control
• Coordination of work
• Mockups
• Air Leakage Test (ASTM E 1105)
• Water Leak Teat (ASTM E 783)
• Visual inspection of Polyiso Insulation (not limited to these things…)
– Tight at joints OR joints are sealed
– Tightly secured to wall
– Weeps and drainage in place
– Insulation aligned with window thermal break
– Penetrations detailed properly
– Termination at grade and at existing construction
Select a Reliable Polyiso Supplier
• Multiple plants for nationwide service (typically within 500 miles
of project)
• Financially secure and established in the business
• Dedicated sales and support personnel for WALL APPLICATIONS
– Ready to assist with order fulfillment, instructions, product knowledge
training and field technical issues
Recap
• Specify polyiso, with coated glass or foil facer, for use in the
exterior wall assemblies.
• Polyiso is a conventional, commercially-available material with
a long, successful track record in construction
• Polyiso provides solutions for modern commercial wall
construction – delivers high R-value per inch and passes the
NFPA 285 fire test in many wall assemblies
• Several large, reputable manufacturers offer polyiso insulation,
produced locally and available at a competitive price.
• Partner with a polyiso insulation manufacturer who is reliable
and will provide support throughout the Project for a successful
installation.
THANK YOU
QUESTIONS?

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