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Report
Environmental Impact Assessment
- objective and content
Finnish Experience on the Licensing of NPP’s
VN/RA/01 Task 1 and 2 Workshop
October 2012
Confidential
Ilari Aro
STUK
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
What is siting
• Siting is the process of selecting a suitable site for a facility,
including appropriate assessment and definition of the related
design bases. (IAEA Safety Guide NS-R-3, 2003)
• Existing sites
– site characterization is updated for new units
– site related design requirements are determined according to
current regulatory requirements
• New sites
– an extensive siting process
• Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is part of the
siting process
– role of EIA depends on national legislation
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
2
Relevant legislation and conventions
•
NPP siting is covered by several fields of legislation, e.g.
– nuclear
– environmental
– land use and building
•
International regulations and treaties are implemented in national legislation
– IAEA regulations and IAEA sponsored conventions
– Espoo convention 1991
•
•
Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context
(UNECE, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe)
International hearing processes may be quite extensive
– Aarhus Convention 1998 (UNECE)
•
Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and
Access to Justice in Environmental Matters
– marine protection conventions (OSPAR, HELCOM)
•
EU directives in the European Union
– EIA Directive (85/337/EEC, 97/11/EC )
– environmental directives (biodiversity, birdlife)
•
•
Natura 2000 network of natural reserves
sometimes extensive clarifications are required
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
3
Environmental Impact Assessment (wider view)
• EIA is done for all large industrial and infrastructure projects
• In the European Union the general requirements are set forth
in the Council Directive
• The Directive is implemented in national legislation
– EIA Act and EIA Decree
• Goals of EIA
– promote assessment of environmental impacts and their uniform
consideration in planning and decision making
– improve citizens’ access to information and possibilities to
participate
• EIA report is used as background information in, e.g.,
– decision making according to the Nuclear Energy Act
– land use planning
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
4
Topics
1. Siting
– Some factors have technical, economical, environmental and
safety aspects
•
grid connections, cooling water supply, fresh (process) water supply
– Site effects in plant design
•
•
site characterization
design bases for external events
– Emergency planning issues
•
•
radiation safety
protection / evacuation
– Interaction with land use planning
2. Environmental impact assessment (EIA)
– Legal basis
– Contents
– Emphasis on new projects
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
5
Nuclear power plants in Finland
Olkiluoto NPP (TVO)
• 2 operating units - ABB BWRs
• New EPR under construction
Loviisa NPP (Fortum)
• EIA completed for a new unit
• 2 operating units - VVERs
• EIA completed for a new unit
Fennovoima Ltd
• EIA completed for a plant
with 1 or 2 units on three sites
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
6
Licensing is divided in two stages: political
decision and safety demonstration
Political decision on a new nuclear power plant is needed as a
precondition before major investments are permitted.
Political decision is called Decision in Principle (DiP). It concludes
whether
“a new NPP is in line with the overall good of society”.
•Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has to be completed
first for each alternative site
•EIA report has to be annexed to the application for the DiP.
•Plant vendor and design are not chosen before the DiP, but
main safety features of several alternatives are evaluated
during the DiP process.
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
7
Licensing Steps in Finland
Operating license
• Government Decision
• STUK’s safety assessment on the technical
and organisational aspects of the as build plant
Operating License
Construction License
• Government Decision
• STUK’s Safety assessment on the acceptability
of Technical principles and requirements of the
plant
• Issued in February 2005 for Olkiluoto 3
Construction
Construction License
Bidding & site preparation
Nuclear safety
Energy policy
Decision in Principle
Feasibility studies
Environmental Impact
Assessment
(by utility)
New NPP’s scheduled on spring 2010
Decision in Principle: Political debate on whether using nuclear energy
is for the overall good of society
• Government decision and Parliament ratification/rejection
• STUK’s preliminary safety assessment
• Issued in May 2002 for Olkiluoto 3
New NPP’s FS started on June 2007
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
Construction:
• Review and approval of the detailed design
• Oversight of manufacturing and construction
8
Authorities involved in NPP licensing and
regulation in Finland
Licenses for nuclear facilities in Finland are issued by the Government
• Ministry of Employment and the Economy (TEM) provides
administrative support for processing license applications
STUK is the regulatory body dedicated to safety oversight:
• preparation of national nuclear safety regulations
• safety evaluation (necessary prerequisite for issuing a license)
• inspections needed to verify the safety state of the facility and the
compliance with license conditions over the plant lifetime
• inspections on nuclear waste management and nuclear material
safeguards
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
9
Main contacts between STUK and Ministries
MINISTRY OF SOCIAL
AFFAIRS AND HEALTH
- administrative authority
for the use of radiation
MINISTRY OF EMPLOYMENT AND
THE ECONOMY
- administrative authority for the use
of nuclear energy
Budget and supervision
Expert advice
and service
STUK – RADIATION AND NUCLEAR
SAFETY AUTHORITY
- independent regulatory and research
organisation
MINISTRY OF THE INTERIOR
- rescue and protection duties in
emergency conditions
- security and physical protection
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
MINISTRY FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS
- nuclear safety in neighbour countries
- non-proliferation of nuclear weapons
10
Stakeholders in Licensing of nuclear facilities
Public, other authorities,
and expert organizations
PARLIAMENT:
Confirms Decision in Principle
GOVERNMENT:
Opinions
Three step licensing:
•Decision in Principle
•Construction Permit
•Operating License
Makes licensing decisions
Ministry of Employment
and the Economy:
Conducts preparations
Statement on safety
STUK
(regulatory body) Regulatory
Advice
review and
oversight
Expert organizations
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
Application
Agreement on site
APPLICANT
MUNICIPALITY
OF PLANT SITE
Design documents
Suppliersnuclear industry
11
Three licensing steps
1. Decision in Principle (DiP): main emphasis in energy policy
•
•
•
process involves both public hearings and Parliament hearings
Environmental Impact Assessment and siting have important role
DiP opens the way for implementation: licensee can start tendering
process.
2. Construction License (CL): main emphasis in nuclear safety
•
main design features are assessed and fixed at this stage
At receiving application for Olkiluoto 3 CL, Government committed to issue
license as soon as STUK (regulatory body) had found readiness for safe
implementation.
3. Operating License (OL): main emphasis in nuclear safety
•
OL is granted after STUK has verified that the plant has been built
according to the approved plans, its safety has been demonstrated
with adequate analysis, and the operating organization is prepared to
operate it safely.
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
12
Decision in Principle (DiP) - General criteria
of approval
• a new NPP is in line with the overall good of society
• this is to be decided by the Government and confirmed by
the Parliament
• no safety issues can be foreseen that would prevent the
proposed plant(s) from meeting Finnish nuclear safety
regulations
• this is assessed by STUK, full veto right
• proposed host municipality agrees to provide the site
• also municipality has full veto right
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
13
Plant designs studied in DiP phase (OL 3)
D esign
D esign er
T ype, po w er
V V E R 91/99 A tom stroiex port
E volutionary
S W R 1000
Innov ative
E P 1000 /
A P 1000
EPR
EABW R
B W R 90+
PW R
1000 M W e
S iem ens
BW R
1000 M W e
W estinghouse
P W R :iä
1000 M W e /
1000 M W e
N uclear P ow er Inter- P W R
national
1500 M W e
G eneral E lectric
BW R
1400 M W e
W estinghouse A tom
BW R
1500 M W e
C haracter
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
14
Innov ative
E volutionary
E volutionary
E volutionary
Siting - Role of Environmental Impact Assessment
•
•
•
•
For the application of Decision in Principle, Environmental Impact
Assessment Report is needed as an application document - STUK
gives its statement on the Environmental Impact Assessment Report
Suitability of site of the NPP is one of the factors in the Decision in
Principle phase; location must be appropriate with respect to safety
of planned operations and environmental protection must be taken
into account.
Site must have been reserved for the constructing of NPP in a town
plan or a building plan in accordance of with Land Use and Building
Act and the applicant must own the land.
Effects of local conditions on safety and on physical protection and
emergency preparedness arrangements shall be taken into account.
Threats posed by the facility to its environment remain extremely
minor and heat removal to the environment is reliable.
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
15
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
• EIA is based on environmental legislation that was issued
later than the Nuclear Energy Act
• EIA fits well with the nuclear legislation: it provides useful input
for the Decision in Principle which is the first step of NPP
licensing according to the Nuclear Energy Act
• EIA does not require specific information on the plant design
• EIA was done separately for two alternative (existing) sites:
Loviisa and Olkiluoto (for the fifth unit)
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
16
Contents of the EIA (1)
Conventional industrial type impacts
• impact of the construction phase in local municipality and its
surroundings
• impact to the life of local residents and society (social issues,
economic activities, services)
• impact to land use and landscape
• impact of power transmission lines
• impact of increasing traffic
• sewage and other conventional waste
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
17
Contents of the EIA (2)
Nuclear power plant specific impacts
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
releases to the atmosphere and their consequences
releases to the water and their consequences
heat impact to the sea water and fishing
impact to the soil and groundwater
impact to the vegetation, animals, and protected nature objects
impact of nuclear fuel production and transport
impact of facility dismantling
solid radioactive waste and its disposal
consequences of potential accidents
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
18
Parties in EIA and their roles (1)
•
Project developer (power utility)
– produces EIA program and report
– developer’s own organization and/or consultants
• Contact authority
– Ministry of Employment and the Economy for nuclear facilities
– Regional Environmental Centre for all other projects
– arranges hearing on EIA program and report
– issues statements on EIA program and report
• Ministry of the Environment
– arranges the international hearing according to the Espoo
Convention
EIA procedure (STUK)
• STUK issues statements to the Ministry of Employment and the
Economy on the EIA programme and on the Environmental Impact
Assessment report drawn up on the basis of the programme.
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
19
Parties in EIA and their roles (2)
Statements or opinions are given by:
•
Central and local authorities, e.g.
–
–
–
–
–
ministries
STUK
state provincial offices
regional environment centres
regional rescue services
•
Municipalities
•
Non-governmental organizations
– site municipality
– neighbouring municipalities
– regional councils (land use planning)
– environmental groups
– national and local industrial and business groups
– local citizens’ groups
• fishermen’s associations
•
Individual citizens
– in practice participation is not limited
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
20
Phases of EIA
• EIA Program
– preparation
– EIA program submitted to Contact Authority (official start of the
EIA process) by the project developer
– hearing arranged by the Contact Authority (~ 2 months)
– statement issued by the Contact Authority, additions to the
program (~ 2 months)
• EIA Report
–
–
–
–
assessment according to the program (several months)
EIA report submitted to the Contact Authority
hearing arranged by the Contact Authority (~ 2 months)
the EIA ends with the Contact Authority’s statement (~ 2
months)
• input for the licensing process
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
21
The scope of EIA
• Environment is defined in a broad sense
– natural environment, built environment and social environment
• Radiological issues are considered on a general level
– more detailed treatment in the licensing process according to the
Nuclear Energy Act
• Non-radiological impacts are emphasized
– impacts on the natural environment
• eutrophication due to warm outlet water
– societal impacts, especially local
•
•
•
•
•
impacts on land use
property values
traffic
local economy and employment, agriculture and fishing
social structure
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
22
Radiological issues in EIA
• The scope of radiological is to be considered in EIA is not
exactly defined in legislation
• Radioactive releases during normal operation is described:
– Noble gases 0.65 TBq from OL1-OL2 in 2006 and estimated
release per reactor from OL3/OL4 is 0.1 - 10 TBq
– Iodines (I-131 eq) 0.00016 TBq from OL1-OL2 in 2006 and
estimated release per reactor from OL3/OL4 is 0.000001 - 0.001
TBq
– Aerosols, Tritium and Carbon 14 also given in EIA report
• Health effects of the population because of radiation are
handled in the EIA report
• Based on discussions with STUK, a release corresponding to
the severe accident limit 100 TBq Cs 137 was analysed and
described in the EIA report
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
23
Non radiological impact issues
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Land use
Cooling water
Water quality and biology
Fresh and waste water
Monitoring programme
Transport and local infrastructure
Soil and groundwater
Energy economy
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
24
Land use
• The Land Use and Building Act and Decree prescribe
planning pertaining to land use and construction. Regional
plans and local master plans are, by nature, far-reaching,
general land use plans. Detailed plans are drawn up for the
detailed arrangement, construction and development of land
use at local level.
• Nuclear Energy Act decrees that before a detailed plan is
drawn up for the area intended for the site of a nuclear facility,
and prior to the approval of such a plan where a site is
reserved for the construction of a nuclear facility, a statement
must be obtained from the Radiation and Nuclear Safety
Authority.
• The environmental permit procedure prescribed in the
Environmental Permit Procedures Act applies to the
construction and operation of nuclear power plants.
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
25
Emergency zones: protective zone
• The plant site is surrounded by a protective zone extending
to about a five kilometres' distance from the facility.
• Land use restrictions are in force within the zone.
– Dense settlement and hospitals or facilities inhabited or visited
by a considerable number of people are not allowed within the
zone.
– The zone may not contain such significant productive activities
as could be affected by an accident at the nuclear power plant.
– The number of permanent inhabitants should not be in excess
of 200. The number of persons taking part in recreational
activities may be higher, provided that an appropriate rescue
plan can be drawn up for the area.
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
26
Emergency zones: emergency planning zone
• In accordance with the Ministry of the Interior Order, the
nuclear facility is to be surrounded by an emergency
planning zone extending to about 20 kilometres from the
facility;
• The zone shall be covered by detailed rescue plans for public
protection drawn up by the authorities. The authorities also
bear responsibility for the implementation of the plans. In
implementation, special attention shall be paid to the
characteristics of the site's surroundings, such as
archipelagos that are difficult to cross and recreational
settlements, for example.
• The emergency planning zone may not contain such
populations or population centres as would render impossible
the efficient implementation of rescue measures applicable to
them.
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
27
Cooling and fresh water, waste water
•
Large volumes of seawater are needed for the cooling of turbines.
No obstacles are foreseen in the intake or outlet arrangements. The
effects of elevated outlet seawater temperature on the sea have
been studied in EIA Report.
– about 60 m3/sec in addition to 120 m3/sec for OL1-OL3
– temperature increase is about 11-12 oC (to average 16 oC, max 25 oC).
•
The processes of NPP need a lot of purified fresh water. Fresh raw
water arrangements are appropriate at the site. Raw water is
pumped from the 8 km distance from the river via pipeline. Company
has plans for water and they will be reviewed in the construction
license phase. Tap and process water need for operation is:
– current daily intake is 300 m3 for OL1-OL2 (2 x 800 MW)
– estimated daily intake for OL3 is 200 m3 (1600 MW)
– estimate for the new reactor (OL4) is 200 - 400 m3
•
Effects of waste water are minor
– estimated daily outlet may be about 700 m3
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
28
Cooling water
•
•
•
•
•
•
Effects of cooling water into the environment has been studied
experientally through modelling and by using three dimensional
dispersal calculations. The modelling has taken into account
different intake and outlet possibilities. Detailed results have been
presented in the EIA Report. In the summer time, results depend on
the selected cooling water arrangements and wind direction:
temperature increase more than 5 oC in surface waters - estimated
area is 1.4 - 3.6 km2
temperature increase 3 - 5 oC in surface waters - estimated area is
about 5 - 10 km2
temperature increase 1 oC in surface waters - estimated area is
about 25 km2
Summer average 500 m and 1000 m from the discharge point is 27
and and 24 oC respectively and the maximum values are 35 oC and
31-32 oC respectively
In the winter time ice conditions have been estimated ( e.g. unfrozen
area)
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
29
Impact on water quality and biology
• Biological functions are speeded up. Some species may be
increased compared to others because of better living
conditions. E.g. there is slight increase in algal growth.
Eutrophication may have some negative effects on shore
areas.
• The vegetation period will become extended and the
increased temperature generally improve the living conditions
for plants. The visible changes are limited into areas where
temperature is larger than 1 oC above the environment.
• For fishing, main impact is during winter time because of
extended unfrozen area and weak ice. In summer time,
valuable fish that like colder waters such as salmon and
whitewish stay outside the nearby waters. Generally, effects
for fishing are minor. They are expected to remain similar to
the present.
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
30
Waste water
• OL1-OL2 generate about 70 m3 waste process water on daily
basis, OL3 will produce about 200 m3 and the new NPP from
70 to 400 m3 on daily basis.
• Amount of laundy waste water is currently 3 m3 per day and
from the construction sites OL3 and OL4 it is 1,5 m3 per unit
per day. When all four units are in operation amount of
purified sanitary waste water is expected to be about 180 m3
on daily basis.
• Waste water is routed via outlet cooling water channels to be
distributed into large area
• The waste water causes minor nitrogen and phosphorous
load and oxygen-consuming load in the sea.
• Their effect is expected to remain so small that the impact
probably cannot be distinguished from other nutrient and solid
matter loads in the area.
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
31
Monitoring programme
• The impact of the environmental loads on the water system
will be monitored in accordance with a programme approved
by the permit authority. Topics include:
–
–
–
–
–
–
temperature measurements
physical and chemical monitoring of water
biological state of water
fish populations and fishing conditions
in the winter people are warned about weakened ice
operation of waste water treatment plant is supervised by
monitoring the treatment efficiency
• There is also radiological environmental monitoring
programme as a license condition of operating license
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
32
Effects on transportation and roads, local
infrastructure
•
Traffic routes,
–
–
–
–
•
•
•
•
more trafic - more noise, however, effect is very small
benefits are more important: better roads in the area
Water transport routes prepared for large component deliveries
Airline routes / may mean some restrictions for private and military
airplanes
Grid connections: extra high voltage transmission lines are needed.
They require a separe EIA procedure in Finland. This has an effect
on land use in the nearby areas.
Local infrastructure is developing, services are needed: employment
is increased.
Tax income is increased in the area because of increased number
of taxpayers and presence of large industrial company.
Landscape: one extra building in the existing site. In the new site,
some natural preservation or other nature values may be in conflict
with the industrial development.
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
33
Impact on soil and groundwater
• In Finland, we have old bedrock - good base for industrial
facility
– Foundations need to be prepared: waterproof concrete
– Final disposal facilities for nuclear waste causes underground
excavations
– Discharges of waste water polluting the soil has been prevented
by suitable structures
– NPP is situated outside the important groundwater areas
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
34
Cost estimates for power from future plants
E L E C T R IC IT Y G E N E R A T IO N C O S T S , W IT H O U T E M IS S IO N T R A D IN G
60
F u e l c o s ts
50
€ /M W h
40
5 1 ,2
O & M c o s ts
3 5 ,3
4 5 ,5
4 5 ,0
4 2 ,5
C a p ita l c o s ts
3 4 ,4
3 0 ,8
3 0 ,5
30
2 7 ,7
2 5 ,9
3 ,0
20
3 5 ,9
1 7 ,6
1 8 ,8
8 ,0
10
1 4 ,9
4 ,0
5 ,1
0
E
ls p o t spot
E lsmarket
pot
Eprices
ls p o t F o rw a rd N u c le a r
Nordic
2003
2004
2005
2008
G as
1 0 ,0
3 5 ,9
8 ,5
7 ,5
7 ,0
9 ,3
1 0 ,2
1 2 ,0
Coal
Peat
W ood
(estimate)
R e a l in te re s t ra te 5 ,0 %
3 5 ,5
W in d
O p e ra tin g
h o u rs 2 2 0 0
h o u rs /ye a r
O p e ra tin g h o u rs 8 0 0 0 h o u rs /ye a r
M a y 2 0 0 6 p ric e s
R .T a rja n n e 1 7 .0 6 .2 0 0 6
GENERATION COSTS IN MAY 2006 PRICES, WITHOUT SUBSIDIES AND
EMISSION TRADING, REAL INTEREST COST 5 %
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
35
W o o d a n d w in d
w ith o u t s u b s id ie s
Example - OL4 EIA
• Project Developer Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO)
• Main consultant Pöyry Engineering Oy
• OL4 EIA Program
– 60 pages
– program submitted in May 2007
– contact authority’s statement in September 2007
• OL4 EIA Report
–
–
–
–
187 pages + 33 p. appendices
report submitted in February 2008
contact authority’s statement in June 2008
some additional assessments were required by the contact
authority
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
36
Example of Contents of EIA Report (OL4)
1 Preface, 2 p.
2 Project, 8 p.
3 EIA Procedure, Communication and Participation, 6 p.
4 Technical description of the project, 4 p.
5 Licences, permits, plans, notifications and decisions required for the project, 4 p.
6 Relationship of the project to regulations, plans, and programmes concerning
environmental protection, 4 p.
7 Limits of environmental impacts assessment, 2 p.
8 Impacts during construction, 10 p.
9 Impacts during normal use; assessment methods, present state of the
environment and estimated impacts, 86 p.
10 Nuclear safety and the impacts of exceptional situations and accidents, 10 p.
11 Impacts of the zero option, 8 p.
12 Comparison of alternatives and an assessment of the significance of
environmental impacts, 6 p.
13 Prevention and mitigation of impacts, 6 p.
14 Environmental impact monitoring programme, 6 p.
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
37
Experiences on EIA
•
The objective of EIA is to produce information
– to serve as a basis for decision-making and
– to increase the opportunities for citizens to receive information, become
involved in the planning of the projects and express their opinion.
•
•
The EIA process is an important forum of communication between the
licence applicant ant the local population and officials
An opportunity to build local confidence and acceptance of the project
– local acceptance is important as the acceptance by the council of the site
municipality is an absolute condition for a positive Government decision in
principle
•
•
Licence applicants have invested considerable resources in EIA
Examples of issues in the final statements by the contact authority
– effects of warmed cooling water
• eutrofication
– influences on Natura 2000 natural reserves
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
38
International EIA hearing
• Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a
Transboundary Context (Espoo, 1991) - the 'Espoo
Convention‘
– drafted by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
(UNECE).
– in force since 1997
– All parties to the Convention are entitled to participate in EIAs
conducted in other countries if the projects listed in the
Convention are likely to cause significant adverse environmental
impacts in their territories.
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
39
Hearings and interaction with the public
• The decision making on a NPP involves information to the
public and hearings at several stages
• EIA information meetings and hearings
– program
– report
• Decision in Principle hearing (oral and written)
• Land use planning information and hearing
– regional, municipal, detailed
• Nonmandatory information and discussion meetings arranged
e.g. by
– licence applicants
– STUK in cooperation with municipalities
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
40
Current status of new NPP projects in Finland
• EIA has been completed for all new projects
– some additional clarification have been required
• they will be considered in the decision-in-principle process
• Decision-in Principle processes
– Olkiluoto 4, Loviisa 3 and Fennovoima public hearings have been
completed and all statements have been submitted to the ministry
• The Government considered all decision-in-principle applications
at the same time
– Government and Parliament decisions were given in 2010
– Two of the candidates: Olkiluoto 4 and Fennovoima received DiP.
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
41
Conclusions on Finnish projects
• Site specific external events have been considered
extensively in the design and licensing of OL3
• The experiences from the operating units have been used
– operating events
– external events PRAs
• However, some development areas have been identified
– in plant design
– in design and licensing processes
– most safety issues have been resolved with design modifications
or more detailed analyses
– OL3 experiences will be considered in new projects
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
42
References
Finnish guides on siting and external events
available at www.stuk.fi > In English > Publications > Regulatory Guides
YVL 1.0 Safety criteria for design of nuclear power plants
YVL 1.10 Requirements for siting a nuclear power plant
YVL 2.6 Seismic events and nuclear power plants
YVL 7.1 - 7.7 Radiation protection
YVL 8.1 Waste
YVL 7.4 Nuclear power plant emergency preparedness
Guide VAL 1.1 Emergency response
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
43
References, EIA
•
Ministry of Employment and the Economy www-pages (Aug. 08)
– all projects
– www.tem.fi > In English > Energy > Nuclear Energy
> EIA Procedures for new nuclear power projects
– EIA programs, reports and Contact Authority’s statements
– OL4 EIA program and report, direct links
• http://www.tem.fi/files/17608/YVA_ohjelma_EN.pdf
• http://www.tem.fi/files/18506/YVA_selostusraportti_EN_Secured.pdf
•
TVO - Olkiluoto 3 and 4
– http://www.tvo.fi/ > What’s on > PDF documents
•
Fortum - Loviisa 3
– http://www.fortum.com > Environmental Impacts Assessement in Loviisa
•
Fennovoima - three candidate sites
– http://www.fennovoima.fi/> In English > Fennovoima
> Environmental Impacts Assessment
SÄTEILYTURVAKESKUS • STRÅLSÄKERHETSCENTRALEN
RADIATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY AUTHORITY
44

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