pptx - DDL

Present Sociolinguistic Survey
Nepalese Languages
Bhim Lal Gautam
Central Department of Linguistics
Tribhuvan University
[email protected]
Linguistic Survey of Nepal (LinSuN)
Sociolinguistic Survey of Nepalese Languages
Methodology used in SLS
Progress Report of SLS
Challenges and Difficulties
• Nepal’s Linguistic Diversity
- Natural and Geographical Diversity
- 123 plus languages
- 4 different sign languages
- 125 plus ethnic groups and cultures
- 4 different language families
- 1 language isolate : Kusunda
Linguistic Surveys of Nepal
- 1828-88
- 1898-1927
- 1965-68
- 1981-84
- 1988
- 1996
- 2002
Hodgson – Royal Asiatic Society
Grierson’s LSI
BalKrishna Pokharel
German Research Council
Boyd Mikhailovsky
The Central Dept. of Linguistics
Toba et al.
Linguistic Survey of Nepal (LinSuN)
2008 GoN/NPC
• Objectives
- Developing a sociolinguistic profile of all the
languages of Nepal
- Producing a basic description of at least 10
- Developing and maintaining a complete database
of the languages of Nepal
- Developing a description of the use of mother
tongues in education (formal and non-formal)
LinSuN Support
• Management
- Steering committee, NPC, GoN
Evaluation and Supervision
- LISMAC (Linguistic Survey Management
Policy making and monitoring
- Administration
Central Department of Linguistics, TU
• Technical Support
- Training and workshops(Nepal & Abroad)
- Infield and summer schools
Infield (2008),3L Summer School( 2012)
• Financial Support
National Planning Commission, GoN
Ministry of Education and Culture
University Grants Commission
SIL, Nepal and other Institutions
Sociolinguistic Survey of Nepalese
Languages (SLS)
• Methodology
Sociolinguistic Questionnaire
Recorded Text Tests (RTT)
Sentence Repetition Test (SRT)
Lexical Similarity (210 word list)
Participatory Method (PM)
SLS Methodology
• Sociolinguistic Questionnaires
1. Sociolinguistic Questionnaire( A)
-Real speakers
1. Sociolinguistic Questionnaire (B)
-Participatory Method
1. Sociolinguistic Questionnaire (C )
- Language Activists & Local leaders
SLS Methodology
• Recorded Text Tests (RTT)
-Level of intelligibility among language groups
- A better way to compare different dialects
• Sentence Repetition Test (SRT)
-Attitudes of MT speakers
-Levels of competence in the National language
Participatory Method (PM)
Biographical information
Opinions about the language
Use and attitude towards the language
Resource for literacy and education
Participatory Method (PM)
SLS Progress Activities
• Pilot Survey (2008)
- Jhapa District of Nepal
- Objective: Testing of questionnaires
- Surveyed Languages (13)
Indo-Aryan (7): Malpande, Karuwa, Sadri (Kissan),
Danuwar, Marwari, Nepali, Maithili, Urdu,
Tibeto-Burman (2):Bantawa, Meche
Dravidian (1):Uraun
Austro Asiatic(1): Khadiya
SLS Progress Activities
• Field Visit (Survey) and Data Collection
• 2009 ( 5 Languages)
Tibeto-Burman(3): Chepang, Newar, Yakhha
Indo Aryan(2): Maithili, Nepali
• 2010 (6 languages)
Tibeto-Burman (4): Nepali, Maithili
Indo-Aryan (2): Bhujel, Dolakha Newar, Lepcha
SLS Progress Activities
• 2011 (6 languages)
Tibeto-Burman (4): Chulung, Dhut Magar, Jirel,
Indo-Aryan (1): Bote
Austro-Asiatic (1): Santhali
• 2012 A (13 languages)
Indo-Aryan (10): Achhami,Awadhi, Bajhangi, Bajureli,
Baitadeli , DangoraTharu,Doteli,Rana Tharu, Sonah,
Tibeto-Burman (3): Byansi,Raji,Raute
SLS Progress Activities
• 2012 B (7 languages)
Indo-Aryan (4): Awadhi,Bhojpuri, Kumal,Tharu
Tibeto-Burman (3): Chantyal, Gurung, Kham,
• 2013 (15 languages)
Indo-Aryan (7): Angika,Gangai,Kissan, Malpande,
Tibeto-Burman (6): Dumi, Dhimal,Koyee, Koche,Meche,Tilung
Austro Asiatic (2): Khadiya,Uranw
• 2014 ( 8 languages)
Tibeto-Burman (6): Khaling,Nachhiring,Kulung,Sampang
Thulung, Wambule,
Indo-Aryan (2): Bajjika, Kathariya
SLS Report Writing
• Completed Report( 22 languages)
Tibeto-Burman (11): Bhujel,Byansi,
Chepang,Chhantyal, Jirel, Magar Kham, Magar
Dhut, Meche, Newar,Raji,Raute
Indo-Aryan (9): Achhami, Awadhi, Bajhangi &
Bajureli, Baitadeli & Darchureli, Dangora Tharu,
Dotyali,Kumal ,Rana Tharu, Rajbansi & Tajpuriya
Austro-Asiatic (1): Santhali
Dravidian (1): Urawn
SLS Report Writing
• Report in progress(13 languages)
Dhimal,Gurung,Kaike,Koche/Gangai, Koyee,
Bhojpuri,Bote, Majhi, Nepali, Maithili,
Summary of SLS
• 58 Languages Surveyed
• 22 Language report completed
• 13 Language report on progress
Challenges & Difficulties
• Financial Difficulties
- Government Role
- Other Agencies
Lack of education & motivation
Difficult geographical conditions
Lack of effective tools for creating data base
Conflicts among the linguistic community
Political instability
• The Central Department of Linguistics, TU
• LinSuN Management Committee
• Dr Anetta Kopecka
राष्ट्रिय योजना आयोग, नेपाल सरकार (२०६५): नेपालको भाषिक सर्वेक्षण: प्रस्तार्व, भािाषर्वज्ञान केन्द्रीय
षर्वभाग, त्रिभर्व
ु न षर्वश्र्वषर्वद्यालय।
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Central Bureau of Statistics. 2012. National Population and Housing Census 2011: National Report. Kathmandu:
National Planning Commission.
Eppele, M. John, Paul Lewis, Dan Raj Regmi and Yogendra P. Yadava (eds.) 2012. Ethnologue: Languages of Nepal,
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Grierson, George A. [1909] 1967. Linguistic Survey of India. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas.
Gordon, Raymond G. Jr., (ed.). 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 15th edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International.
Government of Nepal. Interim Constitution of Nepal, 2007. Kathmandu.
Lewis, M. P. and Simons, G. F. 2010. “Assessing Endangerment: Expanding Fishman’s GIDS.” Revue Romaine de
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