+ Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition KABC-II Jenna Satrang September 30, 2012 + Changes to KABC-II • Covers an extended age range: 3-18 • Provides measurement of 5 Scales Learning/Glr Sequential/Gsm Simultaneous/Gv Planning/Gf Knowledge/Gc Includes a measure of verbal ability Provides two theoretical models for interpretation (Luria & CHC) Places new emphasis on learning ability and reasoning ability Helps identify processing disorders for the assessment of specific learning disabilities (SLD) + Dual Theoretical Model Luria Model Sequential Processing Simultaneous Processing CHC Model (Cattell-Horn-Carroll) Short-term Memory (Gsm) Visual Processing (Gv) Planning Ability Fluid Reasoning (Gf) Learning Ability Long-term Retrieval (Glr) -------- Crystallized Ability (Gc) Mental Processing Index Fluid-Crystallized Index (MPI) (FCI) + Dual Theoretical Foundation Name of Luria Term CHC Term KABC-II Scale Learning Ability Long-Term Storage & Retrieval (Glr) Learning/Glr Sequential Processing Short-Term Memory (Gsm) Sequential/Gsm Simultaneous Processing Visual Processing (Gv) Simultaneous/Gv Planning Ability Fluid Reasoning (Gf) Planning/Gf Crystallized Ability (Gc) Knowledge/Gc Mental Processing Index (MPI) Fluid-Crystallized Index (FCI) + Selecting the Model Selection must be made before administering the KABC-II and should consider reasons for referral. The CHC model is given priority because Knowledge/Gc is an important aspect of cognitive functioning. The Luria model is preferred when the validity of the global composite would be compromised by including acquired knowledge. Models are selected primarily with “fairness” in mind. + Nonverbal Index (NVI) Story Completion Triangles Block Counting Pattern Reasoning Hand Movements + Not measured in KABC-II Auditory Processing (Ga) Processing Speed (Gs) Reaction Time/Decision Speed (Gt) Reading & Writing (Grw) (achievement) Quantitative Ability (Gq) (achievement) + Selecting the CHC Model The CHC model is recommended when evaluating children with: known or suspected disabilities in reading, written expression, or mathematics mental retardation behavior disorders attention disorders Also recommended for determining gifted and talented eligibility. + Selecting the Luria Model The Luria model would be preferred, for example, when testing a child: • from a bilingual background • whose non-mainstream cultural background may have affected knowledge acquisition and verbal development • with known or suspected language disorder • with known or suspected autism + Administration Times for Core Battery Ages MPI FCI Luria Model CHC Model 3-4 30 Minutes 40 Minutes 5 40 Minutes 50 Minutes 6 50 Minutes 60 Minutes 7-18 55 Minutes 70 Minutes Preparing for Administration • Select CHC or Luria Model (or Nonverbal Index) • Identify tests that will be administered. Depending on AGE and MODEL selected: • Luria Model requires 5-8 tests • CHC Model requires 7-10 tests • Nonverbal Index requires 4-5 tests • Arrange testing materials. • Supplementary tests can be chosen later. (except for Delayed) Tests in 4 Easels Easel 1: 1. Atlantis (3-18) 2. Conceptual Thinking (3-6) 3. Face Recognition (3-4) 4. Story Completion (7-18) Easel 2: 5. Number Recall (4-18) 6. Gestalt Closure 7. Rover (6-18) 8. Atlantis Delayed 9. Expressive Vocabulary (3-6) Core Tests in bold Easel 3: 10. Verbal Knowledge (7-18) 11. Rebus (4-18) 12. Triangles (3-12) Easel 4: 13. Block Counting (13-18) 14. Word Order (3-18) 15. Pattern Reasoning (5-18) 16. Hand Movements 17. Rebus Delayed 18. Riddles (3-18) Tests 9, 10, & 18 are omitted if using Luria Model. Tests for Nonverbal Index Easel 1: 2. Conceptual Thinking (3-6) 3. Face Recognition (3-5) 4. Story Completion (7-18) • 4 tests at ages 3-4 • 5 tests at all other ages Easel 2: None Easel 3: 12. Triangles (3-18) Easel 4: 13. Block Counting (13-18) 15. Pattern Reasoning (5-18) 16. Hand Movements (3-18) + Norm Samples N = 3,025, ages 3:0-18:11 Conormed with KTEA-II Comprehensive Form at ages 4:6-18:11 Tested from September 2001 through January 2003 Matches March 2001 Current Population Survey (Census Bureau) by: Sex Ethnicity SES (mother’s education) Region SES within ethnicity + Validity Validity Comparisons with ability and achievement instruments. Global mean differences between the comparison instruments (except K-ABC and WPPSI-III) the KABC-II MPI and FCI scores generally fell within two points of each other. KABC, WISC-IV, FSIQ and MPI= .88 (adjusted correlation means across age groups) .89 between FSIQ and FCI .79 between FSIQ and NVI WPPSI-III, .73 between FISQ and MPI .81 for the FSIQ and FCI .81 FSIQ & NVI (younger age); .43 FSIQ & NVI (older age) WJ III Based on a sample of 86 students ages 7 to 16 Adjusted correlation means between global scales in the mid to high .70s WIAT-II Correlation between KABC-II FCI and total achievement score = .87 Studies of clinical Validity ED, ADHD, AU, ID, LD, and those classified as Gifted. + Reliability Reliabilities of the global scale indexes are extremely high. Averaging in the mid to upper .90s for FCI and MPI Low .90s for the NVI Reliabilities of core and supplemental subtests across age ranges. Mean range from .69 (Hand movements) to .92 (Rebus) for ages 3 to 6 All but three subtests (Hand Movements, Face Recognition, Gestalt Closure) have mean coefficients of .80 or above. Mean range from .74 (Gestalt Closure) to .93 (Rebus) for ages 7 to 18 All but four subtests (Number Recall, Hand Movements, Gestalt Closure, Story Completion) have mean coefficients of .80 Supplemental subtests have slightly lower reliabilities on average. Test-Retest: Global Scales Range from the mid .80s to the mid .90s for the FCI and MPI (lower for the Nonverbal Scale) Scale Level Approximately .80 except for Gc which is in the high .80s to low .90s. + Personal Review Very kid-friendly and fun Practice- especially with triangles and Rover Doesn’t cover all the Gs, but it is useful if you need a nonverbal index Intelligent Testing “We are the most important element in evaluation…not the tests.” Alan S. Kaufman + References Bain, S.K.,& Jaspers, K.E. (2010). Test Review: Review of Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Second Edition. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 28(2), 167-174. Carroll, J.B. ( 1997). The three-stratum theory of cognitive abilities. In D. P. Flanagan, J. L. Genshaft, & P. L. Harrison (Eds.), Contemporary intellectual assessment: Theories, tests, and issues (pp. 122-130). New York: Guilford. Kaufman, A.S., & Kaufman, N.L. ( 2004a). Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition. Bloomington, MN: Pearson, Inc Kaufman, A.S., & Kaufman, N.L. ( 1983). Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service. Reynolds, M. R., Keith, T. Z., Fine, J., Fisher, M. E., & Low, J. A. (2007). Confirmatory factor structure of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children--Second Edition: Consistency with Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory. School Psychology Quarterly, 22(4), 511-539.