10:30-10:50 T. Temim

Multi-wavelength Observations of
Composite Supernova Remnants
Patrick Slane (CfA)
Eli Dwek (GSFC)
George Sonneborn (GSFC)
Richard Arendt (GSFC)
Yosi Gelfand (NYU Abu Dhabi)
Paul Plucinsky (CfA)
Daniel Castro (MIT)
Evolution of PWNe inside SNRs
Early Evolution:
SNR is in the free expansion stage
PWN expands supersonically inside the SNR
and is bounded by a strong shock
The PWN shocks the inner SN ejecta that have
not been re-heated by the reverse shock
Late Evolution:
The reverse shock heats the inner SN ejecta
and crushes the expanding PWN
PWN expansion becomes unstable and
PWN continues to expand subsonically through
Gaensler & Slane 2006
Asymmetric Reverse Shock Interaction
• Reverse shock encounters one side of PWN first
and disrupts the nebula – moving pulsar or a
density gradient in the ISM
tSNR = 1000 yr
• After passage of the reverse shock relic PWN
remains (typically observed in the radio) and a
new PWN forms around the pulsar
tSNR = 1800 yr
Bow Shock Nebula
tSNR = 3000 yr
When pulsar’s motion becomes
supersonic, new PWN deforms
into a bow shock - occurs when a
pulsar has traveled 0.67RSNR (van
der Swaluw 2004)
tSNR = 11 400 yr
van der Swaluw et al. 2004
Early Evolution – SN Dust and Ejecta
Kes 75
[Fe II]
Zajczyk et al. 2012
Herschel 70 mm,Chandra X-ray
3C 58
Slane et al. 2004
Chandra X-ray image
VLJHK (Mignani et al. 2012)
Crab Nebula
Dust around PWNe
• Information about grain properties can
provide clues on the progenitor type
• Dust surrounding PWNe is ejecta dust, not
mixed with the ISM material
• Dust not been processed by the reverse
shock, no dust destruction
• Dust radiatively heated by the PWN
broadband spectrum of the heating source well
Hester 2008
Dust formation in SN ejecta: Theoretical Predictions
• High amount of can form in dense cooling SN ejecta within the first 600–1000 days - consists
primarily of the most abundant refractory elements (e.g., C, Mg, Si, S, and Fe)
• Total dust masses range between 0.1 – 1 M with 2-20% surviving the reverse shock
• Forms in the He envelope where density is high and velocity low – grain properties depend
on mass of the hydrogen envelope
Type IIP
Type IIb
Mass dominated by grains:
> 0.03 μm in Type IIP SNe
< 0.006 μm in Type IIb SNe
(Kozasa,Nozawa et al. 2009)
Kozasa et al. 2009
(Kozasa et al. 1989, 1991; Clayton et al. 1999, 2001; Todini and Ferrara 2001; Nozawa et al. 2003; Bianchi and Schneider
2007; Kozasa et al. 2009, Cherchneff and Dwek 2010)
Crab Nebula: Dust Heating Model
Hester 2008
Heating rate
H 
Cooling rate
L  4a
 L Q( , a)d 
H4  d
  B (T )Q ( , a) d 
Ln  non-thermal spectrum of the PWN
Power-law grain size distributions
F(a) = a-a
amin = 0.001 mm amax = 0.03-5.0 mm
a = 0.0-4.0
Distance = 0.5-1.5 pc
(location of the ejecta filaments in 3D models
of Cadez et al. 2004)
Qabs  silicates, carbon (Zubko et al. 2004),
carbon (Rouleau & Martin 1991)
Temim & Dwek 2013
C2 Contours (amax vs. a)
• Size distribution index of 3.5-4.0 and larger
grain size cut-offs are favored
• Larger grains are consistent with a Type IIP
SN – Mass dominated by grains with radii
larger than 0.03 μm in Type IIP, and less than
0.006 μm in Type IIb SNe (Kozasa,Nozawa et
al. 2009)
Best-fit parameters:
a = 3.5
a = 4.0
amax > 0.6 mm amax > 0.1 mm
Md = 0.13 +/- 0.01 M for silicates
Temim & Dwek 2013
Md = 0.02 +/- 0.04 M for carbon
Late Evolution – Interaction with the Reverse Shock
Reverse Shock Interaction: G327.1-1.1
Outflow –
• Composite SNR with a shell and
an off-center pulsar wind nebula
• Complex morphology likely
produced by a combination of an
asymmetric reverse shock and
the pulsar’s motion
Sedov model (for d = 9 kpc):
R = 22 pc
104 yr
T = 0.3 keV
MOST Radio, ATCA Radio, Chandra
n0 = 0.12 cm-3 t = 1.8 x
Mtot = 31 Msol
vs = 500 km/s
Temim et al. 2009
G327.1-1.1: X-ray Morphology
• A compact core is embedded in a
cometary PWN
• Prong-like structures originate
from the vicinity of the core and
extend to the NW – outflow from
the pulsar wind?
Compact PWN is more
extended than a point
350 ks Chandra observation
Two possible scenarios may give rise to cometary
1. Asymmetric passage of the reverse shock from
the NW – PWN expanding subsonically
2. Bow shock formation due to pulsar’s motion in
the NW direction 
pulsar velocity ~ 770 km/s
Gaensler et al. 2004
Temim et al. 2009, 2014 (in prep)
RS Interaction: MSH 15-56
X-ray, Radio
Pulsar velocity =
410 km/s
Sedov model (for d = 4 kpc):
Chandra X-ray
R = 21 pc
n0 = 0.1 cm-3
t = 16.5 kyr
Mtot = 100 Msol
T = 0.3 keV
vs = 500 km/s
Temim et al. 2013
• Composite SNRs serve as unique laboratories for the study of
• SNR/PWN evolution
• Interaction of the PWN with the SNR and surroundings
• Properties of progenitor, pulsar, SN ejecta, freshly formed SN dust
• Nature and evolution of energetic particles in PWNe
• Evolution can be divided into three stages
• Expansion of the PWN into cold SN ejecta (ejecta and dust properties, mass,
dynamics, progenitor type)
• Interaction with the SNR reverse shock (complex morphologies and mixing of
PWN with ejecta)
• Post-reverse shock, subsonic expansion (bow shock formation if pulsar is
moving at a high velocity)
Patrick Slane (CfA)
George Sonneborn (GSFC)
Richard Arendt (GSFC)
Plucinsky (CfA)
Daniel Castro (MIT)
Eli Dwek (GSFC)
Yosi Gelfand (NYU Abu Dhabi) Paul

similar documents