Métis and FN in the Northwest, Riel Returns, Métis Bill of Rights Métis in the Northwest territories 1884 losing patience with Canadian Government - Unclear status under the Indian Act Not part of the treaty process Increasing immigration of settlers - - Feared loss of rights First Nations Starving - - - FN signed treaties gave up their land and moved to reserves. government broke promises about providing food after the buffalo were all but killed off. Government refused to feed “difficult people” “They made us many promises, more than I can remember, but they kept only one; they promised to take our land, and they did.” Chief Red Cloud First Nations in need of help First Nations came to the Métis and settlers for help and aid The Métis and settlers angry felt they had to pay for the government’s broken promises. - Sent to the government to try to make sure Métis rights are recognized Métis Petitions Canadian Government Agenda Surveys told the government that 6. 4 million hectares of land = 71 million dollars in government revenue NO Métis petition was going to stand in the way Here we go, the start of the Northwest rebellion Métis take action! Where is riel? After Red River Sent into exile 5 years, lasted 15 - Turned to religion - Convinced he is a profit - Time in a asylum - Settled in Montana - Married, 2 kids, teacher (like me!) - 1884 Métis needed a strong and iconic leader Gabriel Dumont asked Riel to return as the Métis Leader Return of the king! Métis Bill of rights Addressed Métis grievances Written by Riel and William Henry Jackson (local farmer representative) Included concerns of Métis and nonMétis people (FN, European farmers) living in the Northwest Territories Sent to Ottawa Dec 1884 and acknowledged by gov., but rights ignored! Rebellion would prove: -the Métis were violent and unruly Did the government want a rebellion? Crushing the Rebellion would: -Prove the value of and need for the CPR -Free up Métis land for settlement -Ensure Métis did not gain land rights -Did HBC Factor Clarke promote a rebellion? Government prepares for rebellion The government passed a law making it illegal to sell bullets to the Métis living in the Northwest Territories. AGAIN Riel sends another Petition -Riel knew the government was in possession of the Métis Bill of Rights -This petition demanded responsible government for the Northwest Territories Government prepares for the rebellion HBC Chief Factor and Magistrate Lawrence Clarke became the government’s informant Wants the Métis gone Made a ton of cash in land speculation Feared lose everything if Métis granted land rights - Riel and Clarke- the final straw! Riel picked Clarke as their representative - Political connections Riel assumed sympathetic Clarke went to Ottawa - The only answer the Métis will receive for their petition was bullets 500 NWMP sent to arrest Riel - Justice Commands us! - - March 19 Riel at Batoche Peaceful solution impossible Canadian government determined to make war “justice commands us to take up arms” Battle of Duck Lake May 26 1885 Métis moved on Fort Carlton to seize supplies NWMP Superintendent Lief Crozier confronted Métis army at Duck Lake - Negotiations failed- 2 Métis shot! - Both sides open fire - Métis Victory at Duck Lake the Métis were better marksmen, and, they knew the land better…they were victorious at Duck Lake. 12 NWMP dead, 25 wounded Fort Carlton evacuated Empire STRIKES BACK! Canadian government mobilized 5000 troops Troops arrive in just 5 days! Entire force in 10 days!- Thanks CPR General Middleton in charge Battle of fish creek Dumont knew to ambush Canadian troops before they reached Batoche - Ambushed at Fish Creek 300 Métis stopped 1600 militia soldiers - Canadian Army has Gatling Gun Riel’s mental state? Said God himself was talking to him and telling him he was “the chosen leader of the Métis people”. During battles, he would find a hill and climb to the top, hold a crucifix over his head to bless the Métis soldiers. Battle of Batoche May 9 - Métis strongholdBatoche attacked by Canadian troops Had canons and Gatling Gun Métis short on bullets and used rocks Battle of Batoche Métis defeated- surrender or flee Dumont fled to the US - Riel surrendered May 15- thought trial could bring his cause to attention - Death toll 53 Canadian soldiers and volunteers - 35 Métis and First Nations - Chief Poundmaker - - Refused to join the NW Rebellion Believed resistance was futile His people attacked by Canadian troops at Cut Knife Hill Arrested for treason, sentenced to 3 years Chief Big Bear Refused to join the NW Rebellion - 1885 his people refused supplies at Frog Lake Wandering Spirit took 9 hostages- killed Big Bear convicted of treason- 3 years Wandering Spirit executed - Chief Crowfoot Refused to join NW Rebellion Railway dispute - Railway building on his reserve - Peaceful negotiations - Got compensated with extra land - Willaim Van Horne awarded him CPR lifetime pass Trial of Riel July 28 1885 Taken to Regina and charged with treason Lawyers wanted Insane defense Riel wanted to argue Métis forced to fight Not allowed to testify or question witnesses 6 man jury Found Guilty of treason August 1 Found guilty after 1 hour- jury recommended mercy Law required death penalty Quebec petitions demanded mercy Hanged November 16 1885 Métis and First Nations No land titles, forced to squat on public land reserved for roads Half-breed became an insult Moved into cities to hide ancestry Métis 81 charged with murder or treason- 44 convicted No translation in court 8 hanged for murder in Battleford November 17 At the mercy of the government First Nations Hero or villain?