2.3 The New England Colonies

2.3 The New
Angela Brown
Learning Targets: I Can…
 Summarize
French exploration and
colonization in North America.
 Describe the Plymouth and Massachusetts
Bay colonies in New England.
 Explain why war broke out between the
Indians and the Puritans.
 Review
Terms…which do
you need to
 Suppose an
unfamiliar group
suddenly took over
your classroom.
How would you
Key Terms:
 New
Colonies, Puritan,
persecute, Pilgrim,
Compact, Great
Migration, religious
tolerance, Salem
witch trials,
sachem, Pequot
War, King Philip’s
The French in North America
 The
French had been exploring the region for
decades looking for trading opportunities.
 Giovanni da Verrazano
He was an Italian sailing for the French in 1523 –
1524 searching for the Northwest Passage.
He explored the coast of North Carolina to
Newfoundland and entered New York Harbor.
Jacques Cartier
He made 3 voyages to Canada in 1534,
1535, and 1541-42.
 The French king claimed a region called
New France based on his exploration.
 New France included land in both present
day Canada and the Northern U.S.
 He explored the St. Lawrence River as far
as Montreal but did not succeed in
establishing a permanent settlement in
Samuel de Champlain
He founded the first
successful French colony
in NA in 1608.
Quebec sits on the high
ground above a narrow
stretch of the St.
Lawrence River.
He also mapped the
Atlantic shores as far as
Massachusetts and
traveled the inland lakes
Huron and Champlain.
Saint Lawrence River
They traveled
together from the
Great Lakes to the
Mississippi River in
They canoed south
as far as Arkansas
looking for the
Pacific Ocean.
They learned from
NA that the river
flowed instead into
the Gulf of Mexico.
Realizing they had
not found the NW
passage they
returned to New
Louis Joliet and
Mississippi River
The Fur Trade
 The
French discovered that fur could be sold for
great gain in Europe.
 Clothing made from skins of deer, beaver, and
other animals became highly fashionable in
Europe in the 1600s.
 NA trapped and traded furs to the French.
 New France was a long, narrow colony stretching
along the St. Lawrence and Great Lakes because
water was vital for transporting goods.
The Great Lakes
The Iroquois
 NA
fought over hunting territories to
further their fur trade in order to trade for
guns, cloth, and jewelry.
 Several Indian nations joined together
during the late 1500s to form the Iroquois
 The Iroquois lived in New York State
between the Hudson River and Lake Erie.
 They fought a series of wars in the mid
and late 1600s pushing their rival NA west
of the Great Lakes.
Plymouth Colony
The English were
beginning new
colonies in the NW
region of the US known
as New England.
The states of
Connecticut, Rhode
Island, Massachusetts,
Vermont, New
Hampshire, and Maine
would develop from
this region and would
be called the New
England Colonies.
Map of Plymouth Colony showing town locations
Puritans and Separatists
In 1534 England’s King Henry VIII had broken with
the Catholic Church and had founded the Anglican
Church, England’s national Protestant church.
Some complained that the Anglican Church
continued too many of the Catholic practices and
they wanted a “purer” kind of church so were
called Puritans.
Some Puritans started separate churches and were
called Separatists.
Both groups were persecuted, or attacked because
of their beliefs.
This lead to the first successful colony in NE.
The Voyage of the Mayflower
 In
1620 the Pilgrims, separatist decided to
come to NA to worship freely.
 100 pilgrims and some non-separatists
sailed to NE on the Mayflower.
 Afraid the group would break up, the
Pilgrims made a compact, or agreement,
called the Mayflower Compact.
 They agreed to obey all of their
government’s laws.
The Mayflower Compact
 The
compact kept the Pilgrims together
and showed they expected to govern
 Self-government would become one of
the founding principles of the U.S.
 William Bradford, who helped draft the
compact, was elected governor of the
colony 30 times from 1621 and 1656.
 He later wrote the History of Plymouth
Mayflower: Compact, 1620 Fine Art ...
Early Difficulties
They started that
colony at a harbor they
called New Plymouth
after the English port
from which they sailed.
Half of them died the
first winter.
The next summer the
colonists had the help
of a NA, Squanto, who
taught them how to
plant corn.
They held a great feast
of Thanksgiving in the
fall of 1621.
 Discuss
reasons why
people form political
and social groups.
 Compare the
formation of the
Mayflower Compact
to the formation of the
Iroquois League.
 What were the reasons
behind each group’s
philosophy? How were
they similar? Different?
The Massachusetts Bay Colony
 In
1630 a thousand
settlers crossed the
Atlantic to found the
MBC a few miles north
of Plymouth.
 This began a flood of
colonists to NE called
the Great Migration.
 By 1643 the MBC had
20,000 people living in
20 towns,
The Puritans
Many of the new settlers were Puritans hoping to
worship as they wanted.
They did not believe in religious tolerance – the idea
that people of different religions should live together
in peace.
They had no desire to live among people who held
beliefs different from their own.
By law, everyone in MBC had to attend the Puritan
church and pay taxes to support it.
They believed that they were creating a new, pure
society to serve the will of God.
John Winthrop, a founder and governor, delivered
this City on a Hill sermon on board the Arbella in 1630.
Stating America would be an example to people
throughout the world.
A well-ordered Community
Due to their shared
goals the Puritans were
united and strong.
When they established
a new town, they left a
large are of open land
as a “common” to be
used by all.
Facing the common
was a church or
meeting house, the
house for the minister
and a school were
 The
rest of the land
near the common
was divided into
house lots.
 Outside the town,
each family had a
strip of farmland.
It was a successful plan.
The Puritans worked
hard, took care of
themselves and each
other, and enjoyed
relatively good health.
Children could be
expected to live at
least twice as long as
children born in early
By 1700, NE was home
to over 93,000 people
living fairly comfortable
The Salem Witch Trials
In 1692, several girls in
Salem, Massachusetts,
claimed the devil had
taken control of them.
They accused three
people of being
In the public uproar
that followed,
neighbors accused one
another of dealing with
the devil.
The Salem Witch Trials
Trials were held.
Authorities ordered 20 men and women to die by
Historians believe the witch trials reflected fears
about political changes taking place at the time.
The Glorious Revolution had recently occurred in
William and Mary, the new monarchs joined MBC
and Plymouth into one royal colony called
Culture: How do the Salem Witch trials reflect the
Puritans’ passion for social order?
The Accused
Accusations of
witchcraft in Salem
were used to punish
people who deviated
from social norms.
Historian John Demos,
found that accused
women were most likely
to be middle-aged(40 –
60), married but without
children, of low social
status, and involved in
medical care such as
Other Puritan Colonies
 With
increases, farmland
grew scarce.
 Some Puritans were
given permission to
search for better
farmland and
create new
communities in NE.
Other Colonies
 Puritan
Thomas Hooker, led a
group of settlers in the
mid 1630s.
 In 1639
representatives from
several Connecticut
towns wrote a new
plan of government
for their colony called
the fundamental
New Hampshire and Maine
Both settlements
were populated by
Puritans from
England and Mass.
NH became a
separate colony in
Maine was part of
Mass. Until it became
a separate state in
Other Separatist Colonies
Some left because of religious conflicts with
the Puritan leaders not farmland.
Rhode Island
 In 1636 Roger Williams, a Separatist minister,
was banished from Mass. After quarreling with
Puritan authorities and started a settlement
called Providence in Rhode Island.
 In 1644 Providence joined with other
Separatist communities in Rhode Island and
received permission to be self-governing.
 It guaranteed religious tolerance to all settlers.
Other Separatist Colonies
New Haven
 In
1638, a new
group of
Separatists from
England founded
New Haven.
 In 1662, New
Haven and
Connecticut were
combined into a
single royal colony.
In 1638, John
founded the
settlement of Exeter
after disagreement
with Puritans.
It soon became part
of the NH Colony.
Wheelwright was the
brother-in-law of
Anne Hutchinson.
Anne Hutchinson
Born in England in 1591, Anne Marbury married A
wealthy merchant named William Hutchinson in 1612.
In 1634 she moved with her husband and 12 surviving
children to Boston to escape religious persecution and
join other Puritans.
Hutchinson did not accept Puritan authority.
She believed it was wrong to obey the church if the
person felt by doing so he or she was disobeying God.
Critics of John Winthrop and the Mass. Government
gathered in her home, along with women interested in
studying the Bible, and others who wanted to think for
Hutchinson Banished
She was called to trial to explain her actions in
November 1637.
She defended herself with references to law and the
She proved a match for her accuser and judge,
Governor Winthrop.
The judges rejected her claim that her own beliefs
about God could override the authority of Puritan
laws and leaders and declared her “unfit for our
She was banished from the colony.
Hutchinson Banished
 The
Hutchinsons left for Rhode Island early
the next year.
 In 1642, after the death of her husband,
She moved with her family to Long Island,
New York.
 In 1643, Indians engaged in a war against
Europeans murdered Hutchinson and her
War with the Indians
English settlers were pushing NA out of their
homelands resulting in numerous wars.
The Pequot War
 The Pequot people of Connecticut were
among the first to strike against the English
 In 1637 the MBC responded to several
incidences of violence by sending an army to
attack them. This became known as the
Pequot War.
Pequot War
 The
burned a Pequot
fort near Mystic,
Connecticut, killing
over 500.
 They then hunted
down and killed or
captured the rest
of the Pequot.
 A hand full of
Pequot survived.
King Philip’s War
 In
the 1660s, Metacom, was a strong leader of
the Algonquin people of NE.
 His English name was King Phillip.
 He had spent much of his life moving between
NA and white society.
 He was the son of Massasoit, the leader of the
Pokanokets, who helped the Pilgrims survive the
first years at Plymouth.
 Trade could not erase the basic tension
between the Indians and English.
King Philip’s War
By 1670 some 45,000 English people were living in
about ninety towns in NE.
They were cutting down forests, putting up fences,
and creating pastures which threatened the
livelihood of NAs.
In 1675 Metacom united Indian groups from Rhode
Island to Maine in a determined effort to drive out
the English.
King Philip’s War it was called.
He and his warriors destroyed 112 English towns,
attacked 52 others and killed 600 settlers.
They ruined fields, slaughtered cattle, and
kidnapped dozens of people.
The English Struck Back
 They
killed or wounded about 4,000 NAs.
 In August of 1676 soldiers caught Metacom
sleeping in his hideout near Mount Hope,
Rhode Island.
 He was shot through the heart while trying to
 The war continued for more than a year and
devastated the economy in northern NE.
 When it ended, the English conquest of the
region was nearly complete.
Exit Slip:
What challenges did the Puritan colonists
face and why do you think they succeeded
in establishing permanent settlements in
New England?
Create a graphic organizer that compares
the main characteristics of New France,
Plymouth, and Massachusetts Bay Colonies.
What was the Mayflower Compact and why
was it important?

similar documents