Kent State Kraft KM Presentation

Report
Knowledge Capture and Transfer
at Kraft Foods
[email protected] KSU Webinar Series
March 20, 2014
Kraft Foods RDQ&I Knowledge Management
Nanako Mura
Jeni Wolf
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
AGENDA
• Context
– About Kraft Foods and KM
– Our KM strategy and approach
• Defining and Capturing Critical Knowledge
– Assessing and prioritizing areas for Knowledge Capture
– MASK method for capturing and modeling tacit knowledge
– Knowledge Mapping for role transitions
• Final Thoughts
2
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
Kraft at a Glance
•
•
•
•
•
Our products are found In 98% of U.S. households, 99% in Canada
10 brands with more than $500MM in 2012 annual sales
Another 19 brands over $100MM
$18+ billion net revenue
More than 23,000 employees
Source: Kraft Foods Group, Nielsen
3
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
Over 300 Years of Iconic Brands… and Counting
1897
1906
1880
1979
1957
1930
1988
1777
1862
1700
1903
1889
1927
1800
1900
1905
1780
1892
1870
1896
1883
Source: Kraft Foods Archives
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
1899
2000
1959
1928
1982
2011
1972
1933
1983
1954
4
2004
1965
1937
1966
1975
Kraft has over 750 R&D employees located
across US and Canada
Toronto
Madison
Glenview
Montreal
Tarrytown
East Hanover
Memphis
RDQ&I Centers
Satellite locations
5
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
Research, Development, Quality and Innovation Organization
Chuck Davis
EVP
RDQ&I
Business Units
Canada
Center Support
Quality and Food
Safety
Research & Supplier
Integration
Packaging Research
and Innovation
Strategy
Foodservice
Beverage
Cheese & Dairy
Assoc. Director- IP, KM,
Training
Nanako Mura
Oscar Mayer
Enhancers and Snack
Nuts
Meals and Desserts
6
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
Assoc. Prin. Scientist - KM
Jeni Wolf
KM, IP Analyst
Kathy Sullivan
Assoc. Prin. Scientist Training
Open
Assoc. Prin. Scientist – IP
Rathna Koka
Role of the Knowledge Management Team
Provides foundational • Internal knowledge capture, transfer & reuse
capabilities for RDQ&I to • Access to external knowledge and information
create winning products • Training Academy
• Knowledge capture tools
Source of best practices
• Documentation tools
and tools
• Collaboration tools
Capture and lever
economies of scale
• Management of subscription databases, licenses,
print resources, doc delivery
Subject matter expertise • Technical landscape search
that BU’s cannot fully • Management of physical libraries
• Administration of tools
establish on own
7
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
Impetus for creating a Knowledge Management
strategy
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
Situations resulting in knowledge at risk
Retirements
Internal moves
Attrition
R&D center relocation
Geographic dispersion
Re-structuring and decentralization
Spin-off/divestiture
9
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
Over the last 3-4 years, the KM strategy has
focused on helping R&D “Know What We Know”
Expertise Management
Connect to and lever experts
Collaboration & Social Networks
Lever the collective power of the organization
Documentation & Content Management
10
Capture, organize, transfer & archive information
Tacit Knowledge Capture
Capture experiential knowledge, know how
Underlying everything are tools/processes and change management
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
Knowledge management plays an important role in
supporting Kraft’s mission and key strategies
Make Kraft THE North American
Food & Beverage Company
11
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
Assessing Tacit Knowledge Needs
Identify
Knowledge
Fields of
Interest
12
Collect
Information on
Criticality
Analyze of Each
Field
Prioritize Critical
Fields for
Capture
•
Based on MASKII a technique developed by the French Atomic Energy
Commission by staff at the Universite de Technologie de Troyes
•
Structured approach
•
Identify most critical fields at risk
•
Match those fields with an appropriate KRT method
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
Identify Fields of Knowledge for Retention
• Solicit a list from RDQ&I Leadership
• Representation from each Business Unit
• Focus on areas most important to the Business
– Employees likely to retire in the next 1-3 years
– Technical areas with uni-personal knowledge
– Technologies that are critical but not formally documented
KM Group Role: Prioritize needs against resource availability
and available techniques
13
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
Identify Critical Knowledge
•
Rare
– Number and availability of knowledge holders
– Availability of knowledge outside Kraft
– Are we a leader in this field
•
Useful
– Alignment with mission and goals
– Emergence of the field
– Adaptability of the field
•
Difficult to acquire
– Difficulty of identifying sources for the knowledge
– Role of networks
•
Difficult to apply
– Depth of the knowledge
– History of the field
– Role of external factors
14
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
Evaluate both present
and predicted future
criticality
Interview Process
• 2 technical experts + 1 manager per knowledge field
• Scored the knowledge field against the 11 questions
– Questions were not shared prior to the interview
– Interviews were less than 30 minutes each
• Gathered commentary
– Gives meaning and depth to the score
– Used to help scope out knowledge capture
– Gathered names of additional people with expertise
15
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
Rarity of the Knowledge
Criteria
Number and Availability of
Kraft Knowledge Holders
Availability of Knowledge
Outside of Kraft
Difficulty of Using the Knowledge
Difficulty of Acquiring the
Knowledge
Strategic Breadth of the Knowledge
Leadership
Alignment with Kraft's
Mission and Goals
Emergence
Adaptability
Difficulty of identifying
sources for the knowledge
Level 1
Rare:
Few people at Kraft share
the expertise and they are
not very available.
Interest not expressed:
The strategy does not
mention this field.
Expressed interest:
The strategy mentions this
field, but depends only
slightly on it to achieve its
objectives.
Old or substitutable:
Field under development:
It is an old field of
The field is emerging, but
knowledge and can be
the way in which it is
replaced by a more current developing doesn't
field
correspond to Kraft's
objectives.
Strong expections:
The field plays a larger role
in achieving strategic
objectives, but is not the
largest factor.
Current field:
The field is emerging at a
steady rate and developing
in a way that links to Kraft's
objectives.
Non adaptable:
Reuse is never considered,
adaptation for another
context is impossible.
Slightly adaptable:
Knowledge can be used in
different contexts, but it is
difficult to adapt.
Adaptable:
It is possible to use and
adapt the knowledge to
different contexts.
Structured:
Everyone has the means to
id the person and/or
information that they need
in the field.
Organized:
Kraft has tools or networks
in place for people to find
what they need, but these
resources are not always
known to everyone.
Personalized:
Each individual has their
own network, tools or
method of finding the
information that are not
shared.
Technical:
We have the knowledge we
need to solve problems,
but not to really explain the
problems.
Specialist:
We have the knowledge to
solve problems and explain
why the solution worked.
Non expert:
This field isn't one where
anybody is considered an
expert.
Insignificant history:
The field is recent, or its
history isn't known.
Dependence on the
environment
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
Priority:
The field is identified as
integral to achieving
strategic objectives.
Emergence
The field is emerging
quickly and in a way that is
strongly linked with Kraft's
objectives. We have an
interest in pushing the
emergence of the field.
Easily adaptable
The knowledge is reusable
and easily adaptable to
other contexts.
Unorganized:
It is difficult for all to find
what they need. Everytime
a need arises is an
emergency. No or few
networks, tools or standard
methods.
Accessible network:
Complicated network:
Complex network:
It is simple and easy to
It is simple and easy to
It is difficult and time
build a network in the field build a network in the field, consuming to build or
of knowledge. Networks
and a network is necessary connect with a network.
are useful, but not
to have command of the
The people involved with
absolutely necessary.
field.
the field are
heterogeneous and aren't
thought of as a single
community.
Existance of history:
There are some notable
events in the history of the
field, and understanding
just the notable events is
enough to understand the
field.
No dependence:
Internal dependence:
The field is self contained. The development of the
There is very little
field relies on Kraft
dependence on internal or regulations and
external factors.
environmental factors.
Additional Commentary
16
Level 4
Unipersonal:
There is a single expert are
unavailable most of the
time or is no longer with
Kraft.
Specific:
Exclusiveness:
Very few organizations
Kraft is the only org that has
practice the field - it is rare. competencies and knowhow in the field, it is
impossible to get from the
outside.
Minor:
Secondary:
Major:
Dominant:
Kraft plays a very minor role Kraft plays in this field, but Kraft is one of the most
Kraft has proven dominance
in this field.
is not known for our
active organizations in this in the field and is
contribution.
field.
recognized as a leader.
Role of networks
History of the knowledge
Level 3
Shared:
Many people with the
company share expertise
and they are readily
available.
Externalizable:
Common:
Other orgs practice the field Other orgs practice the
and can carry out work. Can field, but it cannot be easily
be easily externalized.
externalized.
No need of network:
Having command of the
field does not require a
network.
Depth of the knowledge
Level 2
Universal:
Everyone in the Kraft unit
controls the knowledge of
the field.
Marked history:
Understanding the history
of the field is helpful in
mastering the area.
Controllable dependence:
The development of the
field relies on
environmental factors, but
it has some influence over
those factors. (Contracts,
org. objectives)
Expert:
We have the knowledge to
solve complex problems
with complex solutions that
are understood, identified
and explained.
Historical base:
It is impossible to
understand the field
without knowing its history.
History is an integral part of
the field.
Uncontrollable
dependence:
The development of the
field is dependent on
unavoidable external
factors which it does not
have influence over.
(Regulations, budgets)
Expert 1
Choice
Expert 1 Commentary
Expert 2
Choice
Expert 2 Commentary
Manager
Choice
Manager Commentary
Analyze Each Field of Knowledge
Criteria
Planning
Experts
Difficulty of Using the
Knowledge
Difficulty of Acquiring
the Knowledge
Strategic Breadth of the
Knowledge
Rarity of the Knowledge
Impacts
Beverages
Dairy
Quality
Snacks
J. Baril
D. Parker
A. Thompson
(juice)
D. Reddy
B. Dias
C. Galer?
P. Gass?
D. Seman
S. Quickert
C. Austin?
D. Smyth
R. Sauer
Y - Reddy
None
Y- Baril Extended
to 12/2013
Y - Barron (conf. no
Y - Andy
extension)
Thompson
extended to
08/2013
Packaging
Meals
Coffee
Shared Tech.
T. Tedeschi
A. del Castillo
R. Villota
G. Haro
R. Apiscopa
J. Zimmerman
D. Hayes
N. Rerngsamai
D. Johnson
M. Bordonaro
None
T. Tedeschi
None
Y - Apiscopa (no
extension) and
Hayes
None
Number and Availability of
Kraft Knowledge Holders
6
5
7
6
4
6
7.5
6
5
Availability of Knowledge
Outside of Kraft
6
4
3
4
4.5
6
6
6
4
Leadership**
3
4
2
4
4
3
3
3
3
TOTAL
15
13
12
14
12.5
15
16.5
15
12
Alignment with Kraft's
Mission and Goals**
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
Emergence
5
6
7
8
5
6
3
4
2
Adaptability
4
5
6
5
5
8
2.5
3.5
6
TOTAL
12
15
17
17
14
18
9.5
11.5
12
Difficulty of identifying
sources for the knowledge
6
4
6
6
6
4
7
6.5
5
Mobilization of networks
6
6
6
7.5
6
6
8
7
6
TOTAL
12
10
12
13.5
12
10
15
13.5
11
Depth of the knowledge
7
8
6.5
5.5
4
6
6.5
7
8
History of the knowledge
6
8
5
6
7
6
3
6
8
Dependence on the
environment
6
6
5
6
6.5
6
3
6
4
TOTAL
19
22
16.5
17.5
17.5
18
12.5
19
20
58
52
60
52
57.5
51.5
62
54
56
48
61
54
53.5
46.5
59
52
55
48
OVERALL TOTAL
TOAL MINUS MANAGER INPUT
17
Meat
W. Barron
S. Brackebusch
C. Sawyer
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
Prioritizing Each Field of Knowledge
18
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
Prioritized Fields for Capture
• Scores sub totaled for each area of criticality
• Scores totaled for each Field of Knowledge
• Final recommendation based on 3 factors:
– Scores
– Commentary
– Timeline of retiring experts
19
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
Knowledge Books and the MASK Method
(Method for Analyzing and Structuring Knowledge)
• First developed for the French Atomic Energy Commission
• Later developed at academic institutions
• Further developed through applications in large companies
20
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
Success Factors
•
The expert(s) must be available to participate and make the Knowledge Book a priority
–
–
•
The needs of future recipients of the Knowledge Book must be considered
•
Existing relevant documentation should be included in the Knowledge Book
–
–
•
•
A champion identified to own it and socialize it
Integrated into training on the topic
The field covered by the Knowledge Book must be largely stabilized
–
•
By reference or including the content
Important not to under estimate time requirements of this step
Knowledge Books should be living objects
–
–
80% well defined and stable; 20% exploratory and growing
Human factors
–
21
Management support is key
Engage a Recipient early to support the expert
Ability of experts to communicate knowledge in a structured format
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
End Product
•
•
22
PowerPoint in editable form
Table of Contents is the Entry Point into the Knowledge Book; click to navigate
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
Knowledge Book Steps
Scoping
Interview
Knowledge
Conversation
1
(Immersion)
2H
4H
…
Knowledge
Conversation
N
Integration of
relevant
documents
Validation
4H
TBD
2-6 Wks
All interviews are recorded
23
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
Sharing
Scoping the Knowledge Book
•
Define the breadth and depth of the field of knowledge
•
Identify areas for focus
•
Identify areas that are out of scope
•
Incorporate information gathered during the knowledge assessment
•
Validate and obtain feedback
– Direct manager of Expert
– Knowledge Book Champion
– Knowledge Book Recipients
•
24
Scope flexes during the process and is non-exhaustive
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
MASK Elicitation Interviews
•
1:1 meetings between the facilitator and the expert
– 1 expert at a time to avoid cross talk between experts
•
Facilitator has no prior knowledge of the subject
– Avoid assumptions and bias
– Common question are why, how, what else, what is next
•
Scope document helps initiate conversation
– Conversation is allowed to flow naturally
•
Modeling is done via notes on large pieces of paper
– Computer is avoided – digital distraction
•
Audio of conversation is recorded
– Used to help fill in the models
– 4 hours of elicitation takes 8-16 hours to fully model
25
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
MASK Modeling Fundamentals
A body of knowledge (Knowledge Corpus) can be reflected in 6 points of view:
26
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
Sample MASK Activity Model
Making a Pie Crust
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bowl
Pastry Cutter
Measuring Cups
•
•
Ingredient knowledge
Process knowledge
Flour
Butter
Water
• Refrigerator
• Plastic wrap
Prepare the pie dough
?
Dough
• Rolling pin
• Pie plate
Rest the dough
Dough know-how
Rested
Dough
• Oven
Shape the crust
• It is best to roll the dough on a smooth
surface like a stone countertop
• Use a small amount of flour to avoid
sticking. Too much flour will toughen
the dough
Knowledge of
baking phenomena
Crust
ready to
bake
Bake the crust
Baked
Crust
27
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
Sample MASK Phenomenon Model
Baking a Pie Crust
Influence
• Type of flour
• Type of fat
Source
Target
Flour particles coated in fat
Flaky pie crust
Triggering Event:
• Combining of
ingredients
• Cooking
• Steam is released
• Doug is slightly expanded.
• Water is converted to steam
during baking.
• Size of coated flour particle impacts
final texture
• Over mixing of ingredients can limit
steam
28
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
Consequence:
• Thin and flaky
crust
Flow
• Initial oven temperature
impacts steam generation
Sample Concept Model
Pastry
Pastry
Pie Pastry
Short Crust
Bread Dough
Flaky Crust
•
•
29
Cakes
Yeast Dough
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
Bread
Bagels
Sweet Dough
•
•
Sweet rolls
Donuts
Muffins
Sheet Cakes
Sample Task Model
Making Bread
Making Bread
//
//
Measure
flour into
a bowl
Knead the
dough
Set ½ cup
of flour
aside
Add yeast
Make a well
in the flour
Add water
Dust hands with
reserved flour
Form the loaf
Cover the loaf
and rise
Specialty bread
Add additional
ingredients
30
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
Bake the loaf
Plain bread
Leave as
is
History Model
Evolution of the Knowledge Domain
Timeline A
Ex. Product
Development
Generation 1
•
•
31
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
Generation 3
OBJECTIVE
Timeline B
Ex. Package
Development
Timeline C
Ex. Product Launch
Generation 2
Milestone (date)
Generation 1
Generation 2
OBJECTIVE
OBJECTIVE
Milestone (date)
Generation 1
Generation 2
Lineage Model
Evolution of Specific Concepts or Objects
Evolution Drivers
Pros and cons
1st Generation
2nd Generation
Start Date – End Date
Start Date – End Date
Pros and cons
3rd Generation
Start Date – End Date
Evolution Drivers
Pros and cons
32
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
Structure of a Knowledge Book
•
Table of Contents is the starting point
•
Divided into sections accessed by links from a Table of Contents
•
Many links within the models to additional explanation and related materials
•
Elicitation style and approach of the expert drives the end product
– Books that have fewer models and more text explanation
– Books that have more models and more pictures and charts
33
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
Example of a Highly Visual Book
34
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
Example of a Highly Textual Book
35
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
Advantages of Knowledge Modeling
•
A picture is worth a thousand words
•
Wide applicability – not case specific
•
Ability to reflect a complex knowledge area
– Captures decision processes and ways of thinking
– Several models taken together for a complete depiction
– Extensive linking of models and content
•
Integrates and incorporates information sources
– If a document exists incorporate rather than re-model
– Link to external content, reference it or add it verbatim within the book
– Ex. Technical Reports, photos, videos, books, journal articles
36
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
Socializing the Knowledge Book
• Expert and/or Knowledge Book Recipient presents the book
• Expert and/or Knowledge Book Recipient submits the book as a Tech
Report in R&D Suite
• Champion communicates the existence of the book
• Recipient updates the book
• Used as an element of formal training classes offered through Kraft
University
37
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
Process Cheese Knowledge Book – 18 Months Later
• Systematically shared via presentation
shortly after completion
• Contents are generalized for training for
non-technical internal audiences
• Verbatim excerpts for technical training
• Tool for new employee orientation
• Used by senior experts as a standard
reference
“I found it extremely enlightening because it highlighted and put structure
on what we learn. Often we create knowledge in seemingly random
efforts, but this exercise help organize our areas of expertise and even
highlight areas that could use more attention in the future” – Kraft expert
38
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
Additional Reading
How to capitalize knowledge with the MASK method?
Nada Matta; Jean-Louis Ermine; Gerard Aubertin; Jean-Yves Trivin
http://aries.serge.free.fr/document/How%20to%20capitalize%20knowledge%20with%20the%20MAS
K%20method.pdf
The MASK Method:
http://aries.serge.free.fr/document/The%20MASK%20Method%20.pdf
English Documents from Jean-Louis Ermine
http://aries.serge.free.fr/index.php?page=content/MASK/SA32#English
39
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
Knowledge Mapping
40
•
For fast knowledge retention and transfer
•
Mind map of responsibilities and activities that make up a role
•
Shows connections and interdependencies within a role
•
Act as a training guide for managers who are new to their roles
•
Identify knowledge that is unique to an individual
•
Blueprint for future knowledge transfer
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
Sample Knowledge Map (Concise View)
41
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.
Final Thoughts
• Keys to Success
– Senior Management support and advocacy
– Must be business driven
– Make it engaging and rewarding for the experts
• Involvement in Knowledge Retention and Transfer Activity
is the ultimate professional complement
42
Kraft Foods Group, Inc.

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