Singapore: Tackling Future Mobility demand

Report
SINGAPORE:
TACKLING FUTURE MOBILITY
DEMAND
WAQAS CHEEMA
LKY CENTRE FOR INNOVATIVE CITIES
SINGAPORE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY AND DESIGN
The Journey
• For the first 30 years, road and public transport systems
managed separately
• In 1995, Land Transport Authority as one major
governing body
The White Paper (1996) identified 4 key strategies:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Integrating transport and land use planning
Expanding the road network and maximizing its capacity
Managing demand for road usage
Providing quality public transport choices
‘..convinced that Singapore is well
placed to create a world class system’
(Hasegawa et al, 1997) –
Independent International Audit Panel
Road Development
• Over last 19 years, road network has been expanded by
about 16%
Road density (km/sq. km)
Tokyo
New York
London
Hong Kong
Singapore
0
5
10
15
20
Road Development
• 1995 to 2010, rate of total vehicle population growth outstripped
growth of road development
Vehicle growth - 3% p.a.
Road growth - 1% p.a.
300
Vehicles/km (#)
250
200
150
Cars/km
Vehicles/km
100
50
0
2002
2004
2006
2008
Year
2010
Vehicles to Road length ratio
2012
2014
Road Management
Maximize Capacity
Regulate Vehicle Use
i-transport
EMAS
MyTransport.sg
Intelligent
Transport
Systems
TrafficScan
GLIDE
J-Eyes
i-Transport System
• Integrated and unified platform that centralizes the
management of all Intelligent Transport Systems
• 24/7 ITS operating centre
• Includes:
- Traffic signal control
- Traffic monitoring
- Incident management
- Provision of real-time traffic advisory information
Expressway Monitoring and Advisory System
(EMAS)
• Intelligent incident management tool that manages traffic
along Expressways
• Detects accidents, vehicle breakdowns and other
incidents promptly, ensuring fast response to restore
normal traffic flow
- Recovery crew arrives within 15 minutes
• Provides real-time information of travelling time from the
entry point of Expressway to selected exits
Green Link Determining (GLIDE) System
• Controls all traffic signals in Singapore
• Wire sensors beneath the road surface of junctions to
sense the presence of vehicles
• Adjust ‘green time’ in response to changing traffic flow
• Also, links adjacent traffic signals to allow vehicles to
travel from one junction to another with minimal stops
Traffic Scan system & Junction-eyes (J-Eyes)
• TrafficScan - provides updated travel information on
roads to motorists
- Taxis equipped with GPS give information on their locations and speeds as
they ply along roads
• J-Eyes - system of surveillance cameras at strategic
signalized junctions for traffic conditions monitoring
purposes
MyTransport.sg
• App empowering commuters, motorists and cyclists to make
informed decisions and better plan their journeys
• Features include:
- Public transport journey planner
- Search nearby bus stops and arrival times
- Search nearby taxi stands and book taxis
- Report road defects via crowdsourcing
- Get real-time parking lots availability
- Traffic news
- Explore cycling towns, routes, and parking facilities
Regulate Vehicle Use
1. Congestion pricing
• In 1999, Electronic Road Pricing (ERP) system to
charge vehicles
in central zone
Regulate Vehicle Use
2. Demand management
• Previously, mechanisms such as import fee worth 130%,
and an excise tax of 20%
• In 1990, Government cut the growth of car population
from 6% to 3% a year. And further to 1.5% in 2009, 1% in
2012, and 0.5% 2013 onwards
Vehicle Quota System - prospective car owners to bid for
Certificate of Entitlement (COE)
Number of Cars / 100 persons
Tokyo
New York
London
Hong Kong
Singapore
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Average Speed of vehicles on roads
70
60
Avg. Speed (km/h)
50
40
Expressway (km/h)
30
CBD (km/h)
20
10
0
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
Year
2010
2012
2014
Taxi network
• 18000 taxis carrying around 1 million passengers a day
• Liberalized market with few operators
• Quality of Service Standards by the government
• Highest number of taxis per million population among
Hong Kong, London, and New York
At one of the lowest fares
Bus Network
• By 1990s, two multi-modal Public Transport Operators –
ComfortDelgro, the parent of SBS Transit, and SMRT
Corporation
• In 2008, Land Transport Authority (LTA) took the role of
centralised bus planner
• Today, buses dominant public transport mode –
over 3.6 million journeys per day
Population – Buses Ratio
335
330
325
People/bus (#)
320
315
310
305
300
295
290
2002
2004
2006
2008
Year
2010
2012
2014
One of the highest in comparison
Bus fleet / million persons
Tokyo
New York
London
Hong Kong
Singapore
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
At one of the lowest fares
Avg. Bus fare ($/pax-trip)
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
Singapore
Hong Kong
London
New York
Tokyo
Rail Network
• Realized in 1972 that buses alone would not be able to
cater for all Singapore’s public transport demand
• Construction began in 1982
• First line opened in 1987
• Today, 153km of MRT line (tube) and over 2.6 million
passengers a day
Strategy – Connect Regional, Sub-Regional, and Central Area
Population – Rail length Ratio
Rail density (km/million people)
40
Rail density (km/million people)
35
30
25
20
15
10
1985
1990
1995
2000
Year
2005
2010
2015
In comparison to other metropolitans
Rail Length (km) / million persons
Tokyo
New York
London
Hong Kong
Singapore
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
At one of the lowest fares
Avg. MRT fare ($/pax-trip)
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
Singapore
Hong Kong
London
New York
Tokyo
Recent years & Future
Changing dynamics
• GDP 28% higher in 2012 as compared to 2008
• Expected to grow 3-4% every year over the next 10-15
years
• Population grew from 4.8 million in 2008 to 5.3 million
in 2012
• More than 12.5 million journeys today. Expected to reach
to 14.3 million by 2020
Areas of focus
More Connections
- 8 in 10 homes to be within 10-min walk to MRT
- Integrated Hubs to make transfers easily
- Majorly Public Transport dependent
1.
Better Service
- Ramp up capacity to reduce over crowding
- Improve reliability and provide information on arrival and
journey times
2.
Liveable and Inclusive Community
- Make public transport system barrier free
- Promote lower emissions and green vehicles
3.
Road Development
• Already 12% for road as compared to 14% for housing
• Slower growth of road development in future as limited capacity -
prioritization of new roads for bus lanes
• Innovative methods – Reversible flow on expressway
Public Transport Share
80%
75%
70%
65%
60%
55%
50%
1997
2004
2008
2013
2030
Dip because of faster growth in private transport as compared to public transport
Bus Network
• Bus Service Enhancement Program (BSEP) in 2012
- Increase fleet by 20% (800 new buses) over 5 years
- Government to fund 550 of them, rest by operators
- Decrease waiting time - 4 in 5 bus services run every 10 minutes or less during
weekday peak hours, improvement from every 15 minutes in 2008
• Other advancements:
- Bus priority schemes: Mandatory Give-Way on more than 350 bus stops
- Bus-triggered signal priority system in test-bedding
- Premium Bus Service scheme - commuters willing to pay higher fare for better service
- Fast Forward Bus service - fewer stops between long distances
Rail Network
• Between now and 2021, a new train line or extension to open every
year – even more between 2020 and 2030
• Double rail network from 138km to approximately 280km by around
2020
• More trains to existing lines to increase capacity by 110%
• Upgrade signaling system by 2018 on two major existing lines –
20% increase in capacity
Trains will run at 100-second intervals down from 120 seconds today 6 trains every 10 min instead of current 5
Rail Length (km) / million persons
Tokyo
New York
London
Hong Kong
Singapore
Singapore 2030
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
MRT system by 2030
Taxi Network
• Taxi standards revised in 2013
- 80-85% of the taxis to be on the road at peak periods by 2015, as
compared to 65-70% today
- 85% of the taxis to achieve daily minimum mileage of 250km as
compared to 70% today
• Innovative private Taxi Apps – Uber, GrabTaxi,
EasyTaxi, allowed in the market
Cycling
• Recent shift towards cycling
• As of 2012, 6.4km of cycling path in 5 out of 26 residential
districts
• By 2015, 100km of cycling path
• By 2020, 190km in all of 26 districts
• Paths will lead to neighboring areas around districts e.g.
schools, MRTs, and shopping center
• Long term vision - Island-wide cycling path of 700km
• Test-bedding bicycle sharing scheme in one district in 2015
EZ-link card
• One card for all public transport modes
• Since 2010, fare calculated based on total distance,
irrespective of number or modes of transfers
• Extension of services to other lifestyle elements such as
shopping payments
Decentralization of Commercial Centers
• Decentralize commercial and other economic activities
through the development of regional, sub-regional and
fringe centres at MRT stations
• Reduce the needs to travel by locating employment
centres near to residential areas
• These ‘Integrated Hubs’ becoming fun and convenient
lifestyle places for commuters to embark on their journey,
or meet, live, work and play
ITS Vision for 2030
“Moving towards a more connected and
interactive land transport community”
Smart Urban Mobility of the Future where people and the
transportation system are seamlessly connected,
interacting through innovative, state-of-the-art
ITS technologies
Real-time
Information
Green
Vehicles
Smart
Agent
Vision
2030
Autonomous
Vehicles
Interactivity
Satellite
tracking
Shared
Vehicles
Real-time information of everything
• Includes:
- Travel times
- Crowdedness in buses / trains
- Arrival times of buses, trains, and taxis
- Queue lengths at junctions and stations
- Parking availability
• Achieved by embedded sensors, satellite trackers, HD
cameras, and crowd sourcing
Smart Agent
• A mobile App or a device able to:
- Interact with various modes of transport for locating shared
vehicles, booking taxis, etc
- Provide smarter information of journey planning with combination of
choices
- Take care of logistics
e.g. making payments
Interactivity V2V
• Communication between nearby vehicles wirelessly,
sharing useful information on surroundings
Interactivity V2I
• Communication with infrastructure on signals, traffic
availability, and road conditions
Shared Vehicles
• Intelligent vehicle-sharing system - users to locate
vehicle on their smart devices and drive to destination
without having to return it to its original location
• Vehicle will subsequently be picked up by another user
from the previous location
Shared Vehicles
• Ride-sharing to provide smarter way of car pooling and
maximizing capacity
• Such smart on-demand vehicle sharing mobility solution
can reduce vehicle ownership and congestion drastically
Satellite-based tracking & ERP
• GNSS technology to provide next generation Electronic
Road Pricing (ERP)
- overcomes the constraints of physical gantries
- allows more flexible distance-based congestion charging
Autonomous Vehicles
• Autonomous driving signifies a paradigm shift
• Driverless buses to provide greater connectivity for the
first and last mile travel, mitigate driver shortages and
improve productivity
Autonomous Vehicles
• Driverless cars to maintain a safe distance from other
vehicles and comply with speed limits automatically,
hence eliminating human errors
• Driverless vehicles can move in platoon formation in
compact and systematic manner to optimise road capacity
Green Vehicles
• 20% of the total carbon emission & 75% of air pollution
attributed to motorised traffic
• Electric powered vehicles and diesel-hybrid systems
more energy efficient and less harmful to the environment
Metric for
Ideal Future City
Objective is to highlight areas each city should focus on
developing in order to reach the vision by 2030
Integrated System
• seamless integration of multi-modal transportation services; taxis, AVs, shared vehicles, buses and trains
• 100% penetration of smart card
Mass Public Transport
•
•
•
•
Modal split of at least 75%
Coverage to every residential and commercial district
No over-crowding (high frequency) and reliable information on arrival and journey timings
Less fare in comparison to the same journey by private transport
Interactivity
• No boards, traffic signs, and other physical hardware to communicate with drivers. Instead in-vehicle communication
• Both V2I and V2V communication
Telepresence
• Employees can work from mobile locations, children can attend real-time classroom sessions, and any person can virtually
walk through lanes of shopping mall
• Holographic rather than online
Smart Agent
• Able to interact and integrate with all the transportation modes
• Provide intelligent information and assistance
Shared Vehicles
• At least 50% of the total non-mass public transport journeys via shared vehicles
Autonomous Vehicles
• At least 50% on road vehicles to be Autonomous
Bicycles
• At least 10% share in the modal split
Metric for Future City
Mass public transport
Interactivity
Shared vehicles
Telepresence
Intergrated system
Autonomous vehicles
Bicycles
Smart Agent
Metric for 'City X’
Mass public transport
Interactivity
Shared vehicles
Telepresence
Intergrated system
Autonomous vehicles
Bicycles
Smart Agent
WAQAS CHEEMA
LKY CENTRE FOR INNOVATIVE CITIES
SINGAPORE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY AND DESIGN
[email protected]

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