4_3_AMORY

Report
Vienna February 2014
Space Weather COPUOS
AFRICAN DUAL FREQUENCY GPS NETWORK
Deployment of tools
Training on GNSS and space weather
GNSS and Space weather
Christine Amory-Mazaudier
LPP/Polytechnique/UPMC/CNRS
[email protected]
Introduction
UNBSSI [1990-2012]
United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative
• IEEY: International Equatorial Electrojet Year [1992-1994]
• IHY: International heliophysical Year [2005-2009]
http://www.ihy2007.org
• ISWI : International Space Weather Initiative [2010-2012]
http://www.iswi-secretariat.org
Since 2013 French National Program PNST
http://pnst.obspm.fr/Meteo_espace/
Scientific Associations : IAGA, SCOSTEP, COSPAR
DELOYEMENT OF GNSS RECEIVERS
• not only GPS -> GNSS
• Research and applications
GLONASS K1
GPS IIR
GIOVE-B
BEIDOU
Provided by T. Tsugawa (NCIT, JAPAN)
JAPAN
Region
# of GPS Rec. ~1,200 receivers
N. America
~2,700 receivers
Europe
~1,200 receivers
Detrended
TEC Map
(60-min
Window)
4
January 2010
IGS
http://sopac.ucsd.edu
http://cddis.gsfc.nasa.gov
http://igs.ensg.ign.fr
AMMA stations are now in IGS
NOAA et UNAVCO
http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/CORS
http://www.unvaco.org
November 2013
Main provider : AFREF
Free on the web
Many networks of GPS
Burkina Faso, Algeria, Egypt, Rwanda etc…
Necessity to share -> Work of the AGS
The satellite signal is strongly modified by
ionosphere and troposphere
TEC
LAYERS
> 600 km
EXOSPHERE
few collisions, Particles follow
balistic orbit
80-600 km
THERMOSPHERE
Ionization by the solar X-EUV
radiation
IONOSPHERE
30-80 km
MESOSPHERE
Absorption of the radiation UV by
the ozone layer
11-30 km
Turbulence
There is a strong interest to
use GPS for meteorology
STRATOSPHERE
0-11 km
TROPOSPHERE
Meteorological phenomena
Equatorial Fountain : map in East Africa now possible
Amory-Mazaudier et Fleury, 2013
ISWI : very successful project => we have to continue
Objective 1 – Map of TEC / Bangalore 2006
Objective 2 – African scientific Leaders / Ethiopia 2007
Leaders in : Nigeria, Côte d’Ivoire, Kenya, Egypt, Burkina Faso, Algeria,
Morocco etc…
1st President : Prof Babatunde RABIU
Uses of GPS
Water vapor
Motions
of Earth
TEC
S4
Motions
of ocean
Water vapor
Training - Research -> ISWI
GIRGEA (26 countries /13 in Africa)
Europe -Africa + Asia + America
•
•
•
•
•
•
Capacity Building
25 PhD -> 1992-2013
15 PhD -> 2007-2013 (IHY and ISWI)
10 countries ( Africa (5) – Europe (2)-Asia (2))
Actually 30 PhD in progress
GNSS is a tool for research and development
GNSS MASTER -> UN SCHOOLS in MOROCCO and NIGERIA
MAGHREB ISWI SCHOOL - each 2 years
School each year
Egypt
Workshop on Space Weather
Nigeria each year
PERENNITY
• Need of International cooperation
• Need of tools in Africa (GPS, magnetometers,
radars etc…)
• Schools are very important -> to attract PhD
students.
• Programs of exchange (PhD and post doc)
=> Need of mentors
• African countries in International scientific
associations as SCOSTEP, COSPAR URSI
• Next AGS meeting at Abuja in June 2014
RESEARCH
2003/10/28 : 11h12
X17.2
1
2003/11/04 : 19h48
X28
2
2003/10/28 : 11h12 2003/11/04 : 19h48
SOHO Extreme ultraviolet Imaging
Telescope (EIT) of the fourth largest (1)
and the largest solar flare (2)
STUDIES OF EVENTS :
SOLAR FLARES
Sun Earth distance : 8 minutes
Liu et al, 2006, Solar flare signatures of the ionospheric GPS total electron
content, JGR, vol 111, A05308
Signature of TEC storm on 6
november 2001, Maruyama et al., 2004
JGR, Vol 109, A 10312
Large network of GPS stations
Real time
Units = 1x 1016 el/m2
EXB
Quiet
days
DTEC
= UT + 9h
First PhD in Spain 1992 Observatory of Ebre -J.J Curto
1
2
3
4
1 : the solar flare
2.: ionization => DTEC
From Curto ‘s PhD 1992
3 : Ionospheric electric
current densities
4 : Magnetic signature of the solar flare
Solar flare -> black arrows
Curto et al., JGR, 1994
Sun CME departure
Transport
CME arrival
Magnetosphere
Magnetosphere- Ionosphere-Thermosphere
coupling
Auroral
zone
DEVELOPMENT OF MODEL AND TOOLS FOR DATA ANALYSIS
ARRIVAL NEAR THE EARTH
Direct driven
process/DDP
No shielding
Loaded driven
process/RC
PPE
Shielding
Overshielding
Penetration of auroral electric fields at equator during a substorm,
Kikuchi et al., 2000, JGR, Vol 105, N° A10, 23251-23261
CONNECTION HIGH AND LOW LATITUDES : Electric Field
DP2 : Nishida, 1968
Richmond/ school in Algeria 2013 - TIEGCM model simulation
ASSIMILATION OF DATA
Electrodynamic coupling of high and low latitudes observations on May, 27,
1993 Kobéa et al. 2000, JGR, Vol 105, A10, 22979-22989
PPE
Richmond and Kamide, 1988
JGR vol 83 n°A6, 5741-5759
AMIE
CONNECTION HIGH AND LOW LATITUDES :
Neutral wind
Robble 1977
Richmond/ school in Algeria 2013 – numerical simulation
EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC FIELD AND NEUTRAL WIND
Richmond/ school in Algeria 2013 – numerical simulation
RESEARCH => SYSTEMIC APPROACH from the ground to the sun
a fisrt necessity
TRAINING:
Schools on space weather and GNSS => global approach
ANALYSIS OF EXISTING DATA BASE : many PhD
Assimilation of data in model
DATA BASE OF SIMULATION:
All the cases analyzed can be used later
AFRICA:
To continue the deployment of ground based instruments over Africa
Capacity building in Africa => need of Mentors
OPERATIONAL SPACE WEATHER :
Researchers produce knowledge and data

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