Effectiveness of Coconut Oil Concentrate on Cleansing

Report
The Effect of Coconut
Oil Concentrations
on Soap
Sara Sheridan
Question
• How do different concentrations of coconut
oil used in the saponification process affect
the cleaning abilities of soap?
Background Information
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First records of soap were found in Egyptian ruins
Base
Soap: salt of a fatty acid
Saponification: process through which soap is made
Natural saponification: glycerin is not removed
Purification of soap requires sodium hydroxide
Soap molecules are essentially fatty acid chains
Soap is used to remove dirt and oils from other solutions and
surfaces
Hypothesis
• If three different concentrations of coconut
oil are used during saponification then the
highest concentrated soap will be the most
effective and produce the most amount of
suds.
Materials
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Coconut oil
Sodium hydroxide solution, 3 M
Distilled water
Stirring rod
Supersaturated sodium chloride solution
Cheesecloth
Filter paper
Soap mold
Peppermint oil
(1) 500 mL graduated cylinders
3 (50) mL graduated cylinders
3(200) mL graduated cylinders
Stirring rods
Beaker tongs
Hot plate
Parafilm
Procedure (Saponification)
• Place 10 mL coconut oil and 15 mL of 3 M sodium hydroxide into a
100-mL beaker
• Using a hot plate, heat the mixture to a gentle boil. Stir constantly
for twenty minutes.
• Wash this crude soap mixture with 15 mL of distilled water and 5 mL
of hot saturated sodium chloride (“salting out” the soap).
• Break up lumps of soap with a stirring rod
• Decant the wash solution by pouring it through the cheesecloth.
• Repeat the washing procedure twice.
• After the last washing, press the soap between two pieces of filter
paper to expel as much water as possible
• Add a few drops of peppermint oil, pack it into the soap mold, and
let it dry overnight.
• Unmold the soap and test its sudsing ability.
Procedure (Sudsing)
• Mix .5 grams of each variation of soap with 10 mL of water in
a 50 mL graduated cylinder
• Cover the graduated cylinder with Parafilm
• Shake consistently for 2 minutes straight
• Measure volume of suds
Effectiveness of Coconut Oil Concentrate on Cleansing
25
Suds Produced (mL)
20
15
10
5
0
10 mL
20 mL
30mL
Amount of Coconut Oil Concentrate Soap
Trial 1
Trial 2
Trial 3
Average Effectiveness of Coconut Oil Concentrates on Cleansing
25
Amount of Suds Produced (mL)
20
15
Series1
10
5
0
10 mL
20 mL
Amount of Coconut Oil
30mL
Variables
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Temperature of water during saponification process
Temperature of water during testing process
Consistency of shaking
Purity of coconut oil
Temperature of coconut oil solution
10 mL of coconut oil did not produce enough soap for
sufficient or equal trials
Conclusion
• It can be concluded that the soap with the highest
concentration of coconut oil produced the most suds. This
suggests that the fattier a soap is, the more able it is to
dissolve oils and dirt from other solutions. The 30 mL
concentration produced the most suds therefore making the
hypothesis accepted.
• The qualitative results also suggest that the more oil in soap,
the more moisturizing it is.
• To further this experiment, the sodium hydroxide solution
could be boiled at different increments and/or the crude soap
could be washed more or less times.
Works Cited
Addison, Keith. "Glycerine: Journey to Forever." Journey to Forever: Hong Kong to
Cape Town Overland - An Adventure in Environment and Development,
Join Us on the Internet, All Welcome, Participation, Online Education,
School Projects, Free of Charge. Web. 24 Feb. 2011. <http://
journeytoforever.org/biodiesel_glycerin.html>.
Bellis, Mary. "The History of Soap and Detergent." Inventors. Web. 24 Feb. 2011.
<http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blsoap.htm>.
Hallenstine, Anne M. "Soap and Saponification - Chemistry." Chemistry - Periodic
Table, Chemistry Projects, and Chemistry Homework Help. 2001. Web. 24
Feb. 2011. <http://chemistry.about.com/library/weekly/blsapon.htm>.
"Saponification: Soap Making, Old Fashioned Style." ChemLab. 2009. Web. Nov.
2010. <http://chemlab.truman.edu/CHEM100Labs/SAPONIFICATION.pdf>.
"Synthesis of Soap." Chemistry. 2008. Web. 24 Feb. 2011. <http://
www.chem.latech.edu/~deddy/chem122m/L06U00Soap122.htm>.
Whyte, David B. "The Chemistry of Clean: Make Your Own Soap to Study Soap
Synthesis." Science Fair Project Ideas, Answers, & Tools. 2010. Web. 24
Feb. 2011. <http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fairprojects/project_ideas/
Chem_p096.shtml>.
Thank You
• Questions?

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