Quality Assurance in Assessment and PLAR Presented by: Nicole Drapeau, Responsable reconnaissance des acquis au CCNB Presentation overview Define Quality Assurance in PLAR. Politicy Procedure Transparency Support services Appeals Process Audit Process (internal and external) Presentation overview Do pan-canadian PLAR standards exist? What to look for in regard to a candidates prior learning? Is the evidence authentic, sufficient et current? Does the prior learning conform to an institution’s course objective, to industry standards or professional standards? Presentation overview What to look for in an assessment tool? Validity Accuracy Usability Process for prior learning validation. Ingredients: • • • • • • • • • 1¾ cup of pastry flour 2 tsp baking powder ¼ tsp salt ¾ cup of milk 2 tsp pure vanilla extract ½ cup unsalted butter 1 cup granulated sugar 3 egg whites Add for decoration: white chocolate chips, dark tube frosting, mini chocolate chip cookies Preparation 1. Preheat the oven to 350℉ (175℃). 2. Combine all dry ingredients. 3. Measure the milk and add the vanilla. 4. Cream the butter and sugar. 5. Lightly whip the egg whites. 6. Alternate adding dry and liquid ingredients in 4 measures. Mix well between each addition to obtain a light and creamy mix. 7. Fill each mold with the mix. 8. Cook 15 to 20 minutes or until they are well done. 9. Check with the aid of a toothpick. Ingredients for the frosting ● 2 cups of unsalted butter ● 3 to 4 cups of icing sugar (to taste) ● 1 tbsp hot water ● 2 tbsp corn syrup ● ½ tsp pure vanilla ● Add-ins: blue food colouring, unsweetened grated coconut Preparation for the frosting 1. Se good quality butter at room temperature. 2. Cream the butter with an electric mixer. 3. Sift in sugar and gradully incorprate the corn syrup into the mixture. 4. Add the hot water. 5. Mix at medium speed to obtain a creamy mix. 6. Add the food colouring and coconut. Source: Muffins et cupcakes par Louise Rivard Name of the recipe Petit gâteau du monstre dévoreur de biscuit (Cookie Monster Muffin) Defining Quality Assurance in PLAR Quality Assurance in PLAR depends on the implementation of transparent and appropriate policies and procedures at the core of the institution in order to ensure a credible process and result Policies and procedures Integrate PLAR into institutional Quality Assurance mechanisms. Establish policies and procedures acros the PLAR process. Establish adequate support servies for candidates. Establish adequate support servies for assessors. Policies and procedures Establish assessment procedures keeping in mind that most PLAR candidates are adult learners. Ensure transparency in the PLAR process. Choose the appropriate assessment tools – ones that meet the need. Appeal Policy for the candidate. Audit Process (internal and external) Do Canadian PLAR standards exist? At the present time, CAPLA has undertaken a national project on Quality Assurance (QA), with program support for foreign credential recognition for the Department of Employment and Social Development Canada. The results can improve the practice and application of PLAR throughout the country. Project Duration : 2013-2016 There have been several documents developed in Canada related to PLAR. 14 National PLAR Standards (1997) – Canadian Labour Force Development Board (CLFDB) Developing Benchmarks for PLAR – Practitioner Perspectives: Guidelines for Canadian PLAR Practitioners (Day & Zakos, 2000) Research and report - Achieving our Potential: An Action Plan for Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition in Canada (Morrissey and Myers, 2008) Multi-stakeholder engagement: sector councils, academic institutions, regulators at a variety of CAPLA events – Standards and Guidelines for RPL Pre-Conference (Banff, 2008) CAPLA’s RPL Standards Working Group report – RPL Standards and Guidelines for Canada: Mapping the Road Ahead (Waples, 2009) Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials (CICIC): QA framework – Guiding principles for credential assessors CAPLA project and report – Assessing the Skills and Competencies of Internationally Trained Immigrants: A Manual for Regulatory Bodies, Employers and Other Stakeholders (Simosko, 2012) Experiences ≠ Competency What to look for in a candidate’s prior learning? One has to analyse the evidence presented by a candidate with regard to its: • currency; • sufficiency; • authenticity. What to look for in a candidate’s prior learning? To award credits, the prior learning has to satisfy: Course requirements; Program requirements; National Occupational Classifications (NOC); Professional Associations. What to look for in an Assessment Tool? • The credibility of an assessment tool depends on three qualities that it must possess: validity, reliability, usability. • One must make the right choice regarding (an) assessment tool(s). • Avoid underassessing or overassessing a candidate. What to look for in an Assessment Tool? Validity : Insuring that a test or exam measures what it intends to measure. Reliability : Reliability is the quality of an assessment tool with regard to its ability to meause with the same accuracy each time it is used on similar candidates in similar conditions. What to look for in an Assessment Tool? Usability : As usable as possible taking into account human resources, materials,etc. * An assessment tool is valid when it evaluates what it is intended to evaluate, all it intends to evaluate and only what it intends to evaluate. Choosing assessment methods 1. WRITTEN EXAMS a. Multiple Choice b. True or False c. Short Answer d. Essay e. Problem Solving Choisir la ou les méthodes d'évaluation (suite) 2. ORAL EXAMS a. Structured Oral Exam b. Structured Interview Choisir la ou les méthodes d'évaluation (suite) 3. Competency Assessments a. Simulation b. Presentation c. Role Play e. Observation d. Demonstration of competency Choisir la ou les méthodes d'évaluation (suite) 4. Assessment of Products a. Work Samples b. Portfolio ou evidences c. Self-evaluation Choisir la ou les méthodes Validation of a candidate’s prior learning d'évaluation (suite) The assessment of prior learning has no vlaue unless the assessor possess the necessary subject matter expertise or is a specialist in assessment. In other words the person who does the assessment has to possess the knowledge, the competencies and the attitudes related to the learning that is the object of the assessment. Choisir la ou les méthodes d'évaluation (suite) An assessment result never indicates failure, but simply a lack of information to be assessed. Choisir la ou les méthodes d'évaluation Summary (suite) The importance of PLAR policy and procedure Identifying candidate wants and needs Assessing the candidate to their full potential Questions ?