Bioassay Laboratory QA/QC Expectations

Report
Meeting the Environmental
Challenges of Water Recycling in
Shale Gas Plays
John Candler, Rahul Dixit, Daniel Gallo,
Andrea Shramko, Kayli Clements, M-I SWACO
Water challenges in shale plays
•
Water supply
- Groundwater
- Water Discharge
Treatment and reuse is a solution to water
challenges
Water Returned
For Reuse
Processing Technologies:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Closed loop system
100% recycle
Clean Water Returned To
Hydrologic Cycle
Chemical
Mechanical
Thermal
Filtration
Membranes
Electro coagulation
Challenges for recycling
and reuse



Business
Technical
Regulatory
Business Issues
Two Recycle Approach Options
Flowback Water
Treated water
Offsite/Local
Treatment Facility
Onsite treatment
CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION ©2009 M-I
L.L.C.
Mobile and Central Treatment
Facilities

Mobile Treatment for single wells





5,000 to 10,000 bbl per day
Quick rig up and rig down
Trailer mounted for transportation
Small footprint
• Filtration Unit: 35 ft x 10 ft
• Reclamation Unit: 120 ft x 120 ft
Central Treatment Facilities






60,000 to 100,000 bbl per day
Central Facilities for Multiple wells in the area
Strategically located
In-line with drilling program requirements
Treatment and re-use of 100% of produced waters
Minimum operating volumes required to justify the investment
Service based approach offers
comprehensive services from
characterization to treatability.
Traditional
Water
treatment
solutions
Oilfield Service
based approach
Shale Gas Reservoirs: The Need for Frac
Flowback Treatment
Each well is initially fractured in 8
to 12 stages
 Average 10,000 bbl of water are
used per stage
 130 bbl/truck – 77 trucks per
stage
 18-30% of the water flows back

H2O2
Fe 2+
9
Water Recycling Treatment
Technologies – Summary





Provide environmental control
and limiting future
environmental liability
Use best available technology
and practices
Quality control of water and
waste
Minimize use of valuable
natural water sources
Consistent HSE management
and controls
State Summary
State
Shale Play
Major Issue
Marcellus
Disposal
Louisiana
Haynesville
Recycling/Sourcing
Texas
Haynesville
Sourcing
Pennsylvania

Sourcing
• Regulated by seasonal availability
Water needs varies from region to region based
on factors from regulations to transport cost
SOURCE: M-I SWACO; EIA; Deutsche Bank; shalegas.com; USGS; NPC; McKinsey analysis
Disposal/Recycle
Technology
Flowback Water Management
Flowback Storage in
Tanks or Lined Pits
Almost always trucked
Less frequently (but
increasing) operators
may recycle …
Treat and recycle,
or…just dilute with
makeup water and
reuse for next job
Regions without disposal
wells may use
commercial treatment
works, which then
dispose to waterways
Typically
injected in
Class II Brine
Injection well
some distance
away ~ 10
minutes to 6
hours
Issues with recycle and beneficial
reuse:
• Is the secondary material similar to an analogous raw
material or product?
• What degree of processing is required to produce a
finished product?
•What is the value of the secondary material?
•Is there a guaranteed market for the end product?
• Is the secondary material handled in a manner
consistent with the raw material/product it replaces?
Specifications for Frac
water
•
•
•
No regulatory specifications set for frac
water quality
Currently no regulations for fracking
process (except casing)
EPA currently evaluating whether
hydraulic fracturing should be
regulated as underground injection
wells and under the same jurisdiction
Fracturing Fluid Makeup
Why do we need to treat the
flowback for reuse?
Concerns
Culprits
Potential Impacts
Scaling
Hardness,
Metals
Plugging Formation, Increase equipment cost
Corrosion
Hardness,
Bacteria
Plugging Formation, Increase equipment cost
NORM
Barium,
Strontium
QHSE
Gel Stability
Divalent
cations
Too high divalent cations can cause conflict with gel
stability to support proppant conduction
H2S
Sulfate
Reducing
Bacteria
Strong environmental and safety concerns
Water Treatment
Specifications
Haynesville Shale Area:
TSS
pH
(mg/L)
Operator #1
TDS
(mg/L)
Calcium
(mg/L)
Barium
(mg/L)
Iron
(mg/L)
Bacteria
(CFU/ml)
7-8
< 10
Operator 2:
7-9
<10
< 65,000
3,000
1,200
<25
No spec
<20,000
<300
<100
<10
100
Marcellus Shale Area:
TSS
pH
(mg/L)
Operator #1
TDS
(mg/L)
Calcium
(mg/L)
Barium
(mg/L)
Iron
(mg/L)
Bacteria
(CFU/ml)
7-8
< 10
Operator 2:
< 100,000
<3,000
<100
<25
No spec
<10
<20,000
<300
<100
<10
100
<10
No spec
No Spec
<10
<10
No spec
7-9
Operator 3:
7-9
TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES
Water Management Solutions
Blending
Blending Treatment
Operation
Water Management Solutions
Filtration
Filtration System
Targets removal of TSS, using filter cartridges/socks.
Filtration System Example
Operational Highlights (Filtration System Central Site)
Processed over 1M bbls of flowback water
Treats and processes average of 5,000 bbl/12 hours
99.9% water recovery
1,000 bbls of waste sent to disposal
Contaminates removed from flowback water (ppm):
Water Management
Solutions Reclamation
Reclamation System
Flowback Water
Reclamation
System Trial
Results:
 Calcium Removal:
9,400 ppm to 34 ppm
 Magnesium Removal:
570 ppm to 6 ppm
 TDS reduction
61,100 ppm to 39,100
Reclamation System
Example


Operational Highlights (Reclamation System Mobile Unit)
Typical Flowback Water Processed per Well 10,500 bbls
 Treats and processes 3,000 bbl /12 hours
 97% water recovery
 125 bbls of waste sent to disposal
Contaminates removed from flowback water (ppm):
Water Management
Solutions RO
Pretreatment - Membrane Technology
pH adjustment
Flow Back
Water
Oil Removal
Oil
Clarification
Sludge
Ion
Exchange
Ultra
Filtration
Antiscalant &
pH
Adjustment
• Hardness
• Iron
Reverse
Osmosis
Reverse Osmosis - RO







Features:
Remove TDS and can handle up to 40K TDS.
Pre-treatment includes:
TSS, oil, and some hardness removal
35 - 40% recovery drinking water quality
Inexpensive with less than 40K TDS flow back & produced waters
Low energy input required
Water Management
Solutions Thermal
Pretreatment - Thermal Technology
Antiscalant
• Defoamer
• Corrosion Inhibitor
•
pH adjustment
Flow Back Water
Clarification/
Filtration
Suspended Solids
Thermal Technology
Mechanical Vapor Recompression
Flow
(m3/day)
Na
Mg
Ca
Sr
Ba
Fe
Cl
HCO3
SO4
TDS
Feed Concentrate
2450
450
13750
74861
161
877
1480
8058
292
1590
16.4
89
28.4
155
23900
130122
536
0
79.7
434
40243.5
216185
Distillate
2000
6
1.75
2.45
0.8
0.159
0.23
18.4
0
0
29.789
Regulatory challenges
Disposal/Recycle
•RCRA rules apply for all waste
•States have jurisdiction for
treatment and disposal
•Produced/Flowback waters
cannot be directly discharged
General Commonalities


Well Activities
• No specifications set for frac water quality
• Currently no regulations for fracking process
(except casing)
• EPA currently evaluating whether hydraulic
fracturing should be regulated as underground
injection wells and under the same jurisdiction
Initial Design of EPA Research. Study on Potential Relationships Between Hydraulic Fracturing and Drinking Water
Resources. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development. March 2010.
http://yosemite.epa.gov/sab/sabproduct.nsf/0/3B745430D624ED3B852576D400514B76/$File/Hydraulic%20Frac%20Sco
ping%20Doc%20for%20SAB-3-22-10%20Final.pdf
Laboratory Requirements
Waste Characterization
 Water Analysis
 Treatment Evaluations
 Regulatory Compliance

Water Characterization
Requirements

Analytical laboratory offers
state-of-the art instrumentation
for data validation and methods
development purposes
 Field Kits available to all
operations
Analytical
Laboratory
Analyte
Field Kit
AA or ICP-MS
Al, Ba, Ca, Fe,
Mg, Mn, Si, Sr,
SO4,
X
IC
Sulfate
X
Gravimetry
TDS
X
Titration
Alkalinity, Cl
X
Gravimetry
TSS
NTU (Clarity)
X
AA: Atomic Absorption
ICP-MS: Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy
IC: Ion Chromatography
NTU: Nephelometric Turbidity Units
Water Analysis and Bench Treatment
Evaluation
Personnel & Equipment
• Water analysis before and
after
•Bench scale Treatment
Before Treatment
After Treatment
Regulatory Compliance Testing




Identification of test parameters
Development of test protocols for field
testing and offsite lab testing
Sampling procedures and frequency
Documentation and reporting
procedures
THE PATH FORWARD
Life Cycle Analysis





Air Discharges
Water Discharges
Solid Waste
Biodiversity protection
Resource consumption



Use of Good Science
Transparent Operations
Dedication to waste
minimization approach
The Big Picture




Operators
Service Companies
Regulators
Other Stakeholders
–
–
–
–
–
Public Participation
Research Organizations
NGOs
Industry trade groups
Technology providers
Positive Change


Remain engaged with local authorities
Conserve resources
• Practice Responsible Withdrawal
• Implement Recycling
• Identify other industrial water sources


Be proactive in the community
Protect groundwater/ surface water
resources

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