Implementation of the Roadmap for TVE reform

Report
Implementation of the Roadmap for
TVE reform
Dr. Vladimir Gasskov
for the Project «Development of Strategic Directions for
Education Reforms in Kazakhstan 2015-2020»
([email protected])
Astana June 2014
The milestones for development of the roadmap for
TVE reform (2015-2020)
• Findings on the situation in the TVE system and processes and
related problems in Kazakhstan were presented in June 2013
and discussed with the MoES
• A draft Roadmap for TVE reform presented in 2013
• The Roadmap proposal was utilized by the TVE Department,
MoES in the development of their reform proposal
• There is a broad similarity of opinions between the project
team and the MoES on the principle directions and activities
for the TVE reform in the country for 2015-2020
2
Architecture of the Roadmap for the TVE reform
in Kazakhstan, 2015-2020 (proposal by the project team)
The National Vision Statement for education:
“By 2020, Kazakhstan will have become an educated country with smart economy and highly qualified labour force”
Strategic Priority Areas for the Education Reform in Kazakhstan
Strategic Priority Area I: Selected components of the Human
Strategic Priority Area II: Occupational and qualification structures
Development Index improved
of the labour force (in comparison with that of EC or OECD
countries) improved
Strategic Objectives
Strategic Objective 1: To ensure equal
Strategic Objective 2: To introduce a system Strategic Objective 3: To improve
access of various consumer groups to TVE
of quality assurance and quality improvement effectiveness of governance and
and improve its relevance to the labour
in TVE
management of TVE
market demand
Strategic Outcomes
Outcome 1.1: National educational policy
Outcome 2.1: A national policy of TVE
Outcome 3.1: National TVE policy
and legislation promote equal access of
quality assurance and improvement is
development and steering process
various consumer groups to TVE
developed
established with broad stakeholder
Outcome 1.2: TVE system has developed a
Outcome 2.2: National qualifications system participation
capacity for identification of learning and
is improved and administered by a dedicated
Outcome 3.2: TVE system has developed a
employment needs of various consumers
national agency
capacity for evidence-based decision making
groups
Outcome 2.3: National system for quality
Outcome 3.3: The appropriate forms of
Outcome 1.3: TVE system has developed a
assurance of TVE institutions is established
public-private partnerships in TVE identified
capacity for responding to the learning and
Outcome 2.4: National standards and
and supported
employment needs of various consumers
procedures for developing the quality-assured Outcome 3.4: The appropriate model of the
groups
TVE programs introduced
“cooperative learning system” developed
Outcome 1.4: TVE system has developed a
Outcome 2.5: The quality-assured assessment and introduced taking account of employers’
capacity for identification of the labour
of learning outcomes is introduced
and students’ interests
market demand for the competent workforce
Outcome 2.6: A national system for
Outcome 3.5: A collegial governance and
and for responding to this demand adequately preparation of TVE teaching personnel is
management is introduced in public TVE
Outcome 1.5: A national TVE financing
improved
institutions
system supports the equality in TVE across
Outcome 2.7: TVE funding mechanism
Outcome 3.6: Funding mechanism provides
regions, rural/urban areas, consumer groups,
ensures that institutions receive adequate
support for the access, equity, quality,
and individuals
funding for delivering quality education
efficiency, and excellence in education
programs
3
Strategic Objective 2: To introduce a system of quality assurance and
quality improvement in TVE (from the proposal by the project team)
•
Outcome 2.1: A national policy of TVE quality assurance and improvement is
developed
•
Outcome 2.2: National qualifications system is improved and administered by a
dedicated national agency
•
Outcome 2.3: National system for quality assurance of TVE institutions is
established
•
Outcome 2.4: National standards and procedures for developing the qualityassured TVE programs introduced
•
Outcome 2.5: The quality-assured assessment of learning outcomes is introduced
•
Outcome 2.6: A national system for preparation of TVE teaching personnel is
improved
•
Outcome 2.7: TVE funding mechanism ensures that institutions receive adequate
funding for delivering quality education programs
4
Plan of the reform proposed by the MoES involves the
Objective: «Development of the quality system for TVE»
III.1. Improvement and introduction of the national system
of qualifications
1.Analysis of the qualifications system adopted in
Kazakhstan and its improvement taking account of the
international experience
2.Organization of development and approval of occupational
standards for economic sectors
III.2 Development of a proposal for setting-up a national
qualifications authority for TVE sector
III.3 Analysis and improvement of procedures of registration
and accreditation of TVE providers
III.4 Review and improvement of the learning content of TVE
programmes
III.5 Development of a proposal for independent assessment
and certification of TVE graduates
5
Project support for implementation of the
TVE reform in Kazakhstan in 2014
• Report of the international practice on: National
Qualifications Frameworks and their application to the
development of standards-based qualifications (review of
NQFs and of the methodologies for development of
occupational standards and qualifications in Australia, UK, and
France)
• Report of the international practice on: National
Qualifications Authorities for TVE and HE: Alternative
Concepts, Structures, Functions, and Procedures (based on
experiences of Australia and UK)
Reports will be produced with participation of international
experts from the countries under review
6
The purpose of National Qualifications Frameworks
• NQF is an instrument for the development and classification of
qualifications, their comparability and their recognition; it supports
progression between NQF levels and across qualifications and occupations
• NQFs are based on structured descriptions of outcomes of learning
(qualifications), but not on descriptions of learning programmes;
• Countries which adopt NQFs make a commitment to put greater
emphasis on the outcomes of learning and recognize that the same
learning outcomes may be achieved through many learning avenues
• NQFs have level descriptors which are defined by learning outcomes
(statements of what the learner must know, should be able to do, and
apply in defined work contexts)
• The major feature of NQFs is that they contain national Qualification
Types, describe their specifications, and show their place on NQF levels
• NQFs describe policies and regulations regarding the development and
recognition of national qualifications (based on NQF qualification types)
• NQFs are expected to prescribe whether or not national qualifications
should be based on occupational standards, etc.
7
TVE qualifications in Australia placed on NQF levels
NQF Qualificati Purpose
Level on Type
6
5
4
3
2
1
Advanced
Diploma
Diploma
Certificate IV
Certificate III
Certificate II
Certificate I
Senior
Secondary
Certificate of
Education
Certificate IV
qualifies individuals
who apply a broad
range of specialised
knowledge and skills
in varied contexts
to undertake skilled
work and as a
pathway for further
learning
Knowledge
Skills
Application of
knowledge and
skills
Volume
of
learning
Graduates of
Certificate IV will
have broad factual,
technical
knowledge in a
specialised field of
work and learning
Graduates of
Certificate IV will
have:
-skills to analyse,
compare and act
on information
from a range of
sources
-technical and
communication
skills to apply
technical solutions
Graduates of Certificate
IV will apply knowledge
and skills to:
-tasks and functions in
known or changing
contexts
-with responsibility for
own functions and
outputs
- with limited
responsibility for output
of others
The
volume of
learning of
up to 2
years
8
NQF level descriptors in Kazakhstan (matched to the
European Qualifications Framework)
Qualification
Level
Knowledge
Skills
1 No
National
Qualification
Types
- The way
-Skills for routineknowledge has non-routine tasks,
been acquired? -Skills for creative
decisions, etc.
Personal and professional
competence
-Autonomy
-Responsibility for self and
for work of others
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
National Qualifications Framework (NQF) in Kazakhstan
• NQF in Kazakhstan does have descriptors of its levels (although the
descriptors for «knowledge requirements» need to be reviewed)
• NQF does not have QUALIFICATIONS TYPES; it remains unclear which
qualification types correspond to which NQF levels
• In order to place qualification types on NQF levels, it is necessary to
develop specifications for qualification types
• In terms of national qualifications, NQF claims that it is coherent with the
Republican Education Law; however the Education Law does not
determine educational qualifications and their specifications (it describes
a variety of education programmes)
• NQF in Kazakhstan has 8 levels (matched to the EQF levels); this means
that at least 4 upper levels are supposed to be assigned to the generic
qualification types - Doctors, Masters/Graduates, Bachelors, and
Technicians. Therefore only 4 NQF levels are left for workers’ qualifications
• However NQF also claims that it is coherent with the important document
called «A National Handbook of Qualifications and Pay Rates for Workers»
«ETKC: Единый тарифно-квалификационный справочник работ и
профессий рабочих «) which has 8 qualification levels only for workers
10
Conclusions: NQF in Kazakhstan needs to be
transformed into an operational instrument
• To develop specifications for National Qualification
Types allowing placing them on NQF levels
• To resolve a major contradiction between the NQF and
the ETKC (if the 8 NQF levels remain, the number of
ETKC levels will have to be reduced)
• To review the national Education Law to demonstrate a
clear focus on learning outcomes (that is national
qualifications), rather than on learning programmes
• NQF should introduce rules and procedures for
developing occupational standards and qualifications,
their accreditation, recognition, and delivery
11
Development of occupational standards
Report of the international practice on the NQF and their application
will also describe procedures for development of occupational
standards and their packaging into the standards-based qualifications
• Will be described:
- Methods of describing occupational standards (competencies)
- Templates for structuring occupational standards
- Methods of functional analysis of industry sectors and jobs
- Requirements for developing qualifications (scope, size, etc.)
- Methods of packaging occupational units into qualifications
- Methods of aligning packaged units with the NQF levels
- Examples of units of competency and of standard-based
qualifications will be provided (Australia, UK, and France)
The examined methodology and examples of occupational standards
developed recently in Kazakhstan suggest that the current practice
needs review and improvement
12
Fundamentals of occupational standards practice
• A “competency standard” is defined as the ability to perform particular
tasks and duties to the standard of performance expected in the
workplace (Australia)
• A competency standard should have same elements of definitions as the
NQF levels because standard-based qualifications should eventually be
aligned to the NQF levels
• There are dozens of applications of occupational standards, not all of them
are used for developing qualifications and education and programmes
• Occupational standards are initially developed for indivisible
«tasks/functions» not «jobs» or «occupations»
• Quality occupational standards are based on the functional analysis of
related industry sectors as a whole, and only then, on functional analysis
of individual tasks
• Occupational standards are primarily used for the development of
standard-based qualifications and only then they can be used for the
development of learning programmes
• In Kazakhstan, occupational standards are proposed for use mainly in the
development of TVE programmes but not for the development of standardbased qualifications
13
Template for a unit standard
Unit Title and Descriptor
Scope of the Unit of
Competency (UoC)
Industry-specific
competencies and
performance criteria
Task-specific competencies
and the critical elements of
performance
Employability skills
Range statement of the
workplace
Assessment guidelines (or
Evidence guide)
The unit title is a brief statement of the outcome of the specific
unit of competency. For instance, “Assess and monitor the
environmental impact of operations and activities”.
The scope should describe the industry competency area to
which the UoC belongs. For instance, Competency Area:
“Handling ship cargo”.
These are the competencies required to accomplish generic
(industry-specific) tasks by demonstrating critical elements of
performance.
These are the competencies required for accomplishing the
task-related functions and for demonstrating the related critical
elements of performance (will be specific for each function).
A range of employability skills enable people transfer/utilize
competencies across jobs/occupations and industries.
The range statement describes: types of technologies, products,
equipment, tools, materials, other inputs and processes to be
dealt with at the workplace; types of clientele; uncertainties
and risks; levels of required responsibility and autonomy, etc.
This provides information to the training providers and
assessors about how the described competency may be
demonstrated and assessed.
14
Support for setting-up a National Qualifications Authority
Report of the international practice on: National Qualifications
Authority for TVE and HE: Alternative Concepts, Structures,
Functions, and Procedures (based on experiences of Australia
and UK) will have the following structure:
• Chapter I: National Quality Assurance Systems in TVE/VET and
HE (alternative models, key principles, and legal basis for
educational QA systems)
• Chapter II: Governance and management structures of a
National Qualifications Authority (NQA)
• Chapter III: The NQA operational procedures and their
implementation
• Chapter IV: Quality assurance structures and procedures in
TVE/VET and HE providers and their interaction with NQA
15

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