Mad, dannelse og didaktik – maddannelsesbegrebet til

Report
Food Literacy - maddannelse
begreber og forståelser
Jette Benn
IUP(DPU), Aarhus Universitet
2013
Spørgsmål
•
•
•
•
Hvad er mad?
Hvad er literacy og food literacy (review)?
Hvad er maddannelse?
Hvilken betydning har det for didaktiske og
sundhedspædagogiske overvejelser?
• Hvilke temaer og udviklingsarbejder kunne
være relevante?
Min historie – forskning og erfaringer
• Maderfaringer:omsorg, opfostring,opdragelse,
oplevelse
• Børns møde med mad i skolen, i undervisning
og spisepause
• Aktionsforskning og udviklingsarbejde i
hjemkundskab - lærebøger
• Børns oplevelse, erfaringer, forståelser
Hvad er mad?
Model for madens niveauer
(Benn, 2009, 2013)
4
‘Food is a complex case. It’s consumption is
universal, mundane and polyvalent.
Everyone eats, most eat several times a day
without much reflection; yet the activity
is integrally connected with many other
highly meaningful aspects of living.
It is meaningful because social;’
(Warde 1997 s. 181)
Food literacy review
Søgeord
Intro-søgning
Food literacy, nutrition literacy,
kitchen literacy, cooking literacy
Children and adolescents
Google Scholar, alle dpb baser
Søgning
Sprog
Hits
Udvælgelse
Anvendelse
Proquest, peer reviewed,
Engelsk, tysk, svensk, norsk
221
21
14 + 2 udover review-resultater
Literacy
• ‘Reading the word and the world’ (Freire, 1987)
• ‘A dialectical relationship between human beings and the
world’ (Giroux i: Freire & Macedo, 1987)
• ‘To be well educated, learned’ (UNESCO, 2013)
1) som et autonomt sæt af færdigheder (i bred
forstand, min tilføjelse)
2) som anvendte, praktiserede og situerede
3) som en læreproces
4) som tekst (i bred forstand, min tilføjelse)
Food literacy bekymringer &
begrundelser
• Mangel på kundskab om hvor maden kommer fra
(Vileisis, 2008)
• Mangel på madlavnings- forbrugerfærdigheder
og -kundskaber – ‘deskilling’ (Caraher & Lang, 1998
Caraher et al, 1999, Jaffe & Gertler, 2006, Thonney & Bisogni, 2006)
• Mangel op kundskabe i forhold til evnen til at
læse og forstå ernæringsinformationer
• Det voksende ‘obsogene’ (overvægtige) samfund
• For at udvikle et nyt begreb og mål for
maddannelse og –undervisning (ex
madkundskab)
Review resultater
1. Teoretisk forskning af ‘food literacy begrebet’
2. Empiriske undersøgelser(med teoretiske
tilgange til)
3. Undervisningsprogrammer og guidelines
4. Interventionsstudier
No., Author(s)
Year
1.Bartsch, S
2008
Title
Method
Subjektorientierung in Theoretical analysis
der Ernährungs- und
Gesundheitsbildung
2.Block, LG, et al
2011
From Nutrients to
Theoretical analysis
Nurturance: A
Conceptual
Introduction to Food
Well-being
3.Bublitz, MG et al The Quest for Eating
Theoretical analysis
2011
Right: Advancing Food
Well-being
4.Carlsen, HB
Food and aesthetics
Theoretical analysis
2011
5.Evers, Tony
2009
6.FordyceVoorham, S
2011
Building skills for
health literacynutrition
Program built on
Wisconsin Model,
Academic Standards
for Nutrition &
National Health &
Ed. standards.
Identification of
Empirical study.
Essential Food Skills
Interviews of experts
for Skill-based
within food,
Healthful Eating
nutrition, and
Programs in Secondary education
Schools.
General perspectives
Remarks
Uses educational, didactical competence oriented In German
German concept and Antonovsky’s concepts
sense of coherence as meaningfulness,
manageability, comprehensibility
Suggest a paradigm shift from foods seen as health Suggest a 5-pin
to food well-being (FWB). Food literacy is seen as 1 wheel model
of 4 parts of FWB both at societal and individual
level. Builds on Nutbeam,
Food literacy is seen as one part of 5 core areas of
food wellbeing. Food literacy is knowledge of
nutrition and foods, and cooking.
Food ‘Bildung’ is based on Klafki’s understanding
as self-determination, participatory democracy
(citizenship) & solidarity built on 6 different
dimensions of ‘Bildung’ and on aesthetic
philosophy
Content of nutrition literacy described as
Nutrition, food safety, critical thinking skills,
nutrition for health promotion, diversity,
identification & classification of food.
Social constructivist paradigm used and grounded
theory to identify essential food skills.
In Danish,
suggest more
models for
learning and
aesthetic
experience
Primarily a
handbook for
nutrition
profes-sionals
No., Author(s) Title
Year
Method
General perspectives
Remarks
7.Heindl, I
2003
Theoretical analysis
based of European
works of health
education and health
literacy theory.
Food Bildung involves the consideration
of 7 theses necessary for education,
meaning to deal both with foods,
meals, nutrition and eating in a critical
and aesthetic perspective.
German textbook
for teacher
education, home
economics and
health
Curriculum program
Food literacy builds on ‘hands on’
physical acitivities (growing), cooking,
science and social studies to increase
‘food literacy’.
Empirical study of
private food courses,
and participants’
motives to join.
Food education is understood here as
food literacy, and as a conservative
ideal to cook at home, and to keep
feminine traditional ideals concerning
food.
Empirical study, content
analysis of posts
regarding cooking
education in Australia,
refers to the health
literacy concept of
StLeger
Concept map from findings, 3 themes
were seen: Informal food literacy,
formal food literacy learning I schools,
formal food literacy in home
economics.
Studienbuch
Ernährungsbildung.
Ein europäisches
Konzept zur
schulischen
Gesundheitsförderung
8. Nowak, AJ, Building Food Literacy
Kolouch, G,
and positive
Schneyer, L & Relationships with
Roberts, KH, Helathy Food in
2012
children through
School Gardens
9. Kimura,
Food education as
AH, 2010
food literacy:
privatized and
gendered food
knowledge in
contemporary Japan
10.Pendergast Insight from the
, D, Garvis, S, Public on Home
Kanasa H
economics and
2011
Formal Food Literacy.
Nutbeams health
literacy components
transferred to food
literacy.
No., Author(s)
Year
11.Smith, MG
2009
Title
Method
General perspectives
Food or nutrition literacy?
What concept should guide
Home Economics education
Food and nutrition literacy is related to
Nutbeam's health literacy components.
12.Schnögl, S
et al,
2009
Savoury dishes for adult
education and counseling
Food Literacy Report with
guidelines and toolbox
Theoretical and empirical
analysis of some curricula
hold against health
literacy
Food literacy program and
toolbox
13.Snyder, S
2009
Ethnographies of Taste:
Theoretical and empirical
Cooking, Cuisine, and Cultural study, analysis of four
Literacy
works
‘Food literacy is the ability to organize
one’s everyday nutrition in a selfdetermined, responsible and enjoyable
way.’(p.9)
Remarks
Targeted
towards
adult
education, &
socially
disadvantage
d groups
Food literacy draws on the following
components: Meals, and meal
preparation, food skills, nutrition
knowledge, food involvement, and
cooking
14.Thomas, H Cook it up! A communityCooking literacy program Food literacy seen as ability to healthy
& Irwin, JD
based cooking program for
for adolescents – a
food choices, skills and knowledge to
at-risk youth: overview of a
community intervention
buy, grow and cook food with
food literacy intervention
implications for improving health
15.Vidgen, H & What is food literacy and
Empirical survey - phone Eight potential components of food
A conceptual
Gallegos, D
does it influence what we
interviews and online
literacy were identified: Access, planning model was
2011
eat: A Study of Austalian food surveys of Australian food & management, selection, knowledge of developed.
experts
experts understanding of food origin, preparation, eating,
food literacy.
nutrition, and language
16.Vidgen, H & Food literacy: Time for a new Theoretical literature
Gallegos, D
term or just another
review.
2011
buzzword
Food literacy : Meals, and meal
preparation, food skills, nutrition
knowledge, food involvement, and
cooking
Forståelser af ‘food literacy’
1.
2.
3.
4.
som en generel maddannelse
som del af food well-being/madtrivsel
som kulturel ‘literacy’
som fødevarekundskaber om dyrkning og
madlavning
5. som sundhedsundervisning/dannelse og ‘health
literacy’
6. som opfattet af almindelige borgere og
professionelle på madområdet
7. som sundheds- og ernæringsintervention
Figure 2:
1. Generel ‘food literacy’ / maddannelse’
Eksempler på ‘food literacy’ som en generel
maddannelse (Heindl)
7 teser i forhold til ‘Ernährungsbildung’
1. Tese: sanselighed og nydelse hører
sammen med spisning
2. Tese : spiseoplevelser hænger tæt
sammen med erindringer
3. Tese: næring, spisning og mad er midler til
kommunikation
4. Tese: personlige og kollektive varetagelser
af spise.. Har forandret sig
5. Tese: moderne fødevarer legemliggør
ønsker og projektioner fra hverdagen
6. Tese: armod i velstanden gør syg
7. Tese: Facit: manglende dannelse mindsker
livskvaliteten og forkorter livet
Krav til undervisning:
• Aktualitet
• Indholdsaspekter –
alle sider af maden
• Kompetencer
• Fagovergribende
behandling
(tværdisciplinær)
2. Food literacy as part of food well-being
• conceptual or declarative knowledge, procedural
knowledge
• ability or opportunity and motivation to apply or use that
knowledge(ibid. p.7)
3. ‘Food literacy’ som kulturel ‘literacy’
• Culturel literacy el.køkken literacy indeholder
følgende komponenter: Måltider,
måltidstilberedning, madfærdigheder og kundskaber, ernæringskundskab, involvering I
mad og madlavning.
‘Konklusionen er, at ‘food literacy is so important to
understanding not only our food, but our culture.
Understanding culture, then, demands knowing
about ourselves and all our culture’s intricate,
messy, cultural, political, yet tasty, elements. ‘
(Snyder, no. 13)
4. ‘Food literacy’ gennem praktiske kurser,
eksempelvis ved dyrkning, indkøb,
madlavning og servering
•
Growing and cooking food is necessary so ‘they form personal opinions about food and
learn that, even at their age, they can create dishes they enjoy eating’ (Novak ,8, p.393)
and they
•
‘are becoming part of the food supply chain for the school lunch program. They gain an
appreciation of the hard work and effort by farmers and the safety concerns of all
people that handle the food from the farm to their school’ (Novak, 8, p.393)
•
Food literacy is defined as ‘supporting people all over Europe with organizing their
everyday nutrition in a self-determined, responsible and enjoyable way’ (Schnögel, p.7).
And as ‘a contribution towards the sustainable, democratic development of European
citizenship’ (p. 7)
•
•
Nutrition literacy is ‘The capacity of an individual to obtain, interpret and understand
basic health information and services, along with the competence to use such
information and services in ways that enhance health. Health-literate citizens are critical
thinkers, problem solvers, and self-directed learners’ (Evers, 5, p. ix)
5. ‘Food literacy’ som health literacy*
1) Food literacy se som funktionel, interaktiv og kritisk
(Smith, 2009, no. 11 and Vidgen & Gallegos, 2011, no. 16)
2) ‘Food literacy ses som et dannelsesmål, der indebærer en tilføjelse af den
komponent til vores ideal om en dnnet educated person’ (Smith s.57),
3) ‘En ‘food literate’ student ville kunne forstå, at der er det, som Vaines (1999) kalder
“Mange former for kundskaber”. Det betyder at de kommer fra ‘livsverdenen
(verdenen af levede erfaringer), fra videnskaberne (de analytiske/empiriske,
hermeneutiske og kritisk) og fra det narrative’ (Smith, p.57).
4) De lærende er ‘medskabere’ (Smith fra Pollan)
5) Food literacy er hvis den tages alvorligt som om ‘den almindelige opgave I
hverdagslivet såsom det at sørge for mad bliver meningsfuldt og helligt’ (Smith, p.59)
•
* kan ses i tekster af Nutbeam, Kischbutch, St.leger
6. a. Food literacy understood by
professionals, participants and public
Professionals in the food area:
• ‘A critical component to include in a skill-based healthful eating
program.
• Food is mainly as an individual’s ability to read, understand, and act
upon labels on fresh, canned, frozen, processed and takeout food.’
(Fordyce- Voorham p. 119)
Public Views on food literacy:
• Three main themes came out: Informal food literacy learning,
formal food food literacy in general and formal literacy in home
economics classes. A great part of the respondents (36%) found
that food literacy should be informal learning and be a
responsibility of the parents whereas 18% found it was necessary to
learn formal in school within home economics, and 23% asked for
more compulsory teaching. (Pendergast, Garvis & Kanasa)
6 B Food literacy in food ed. courses
Kimura’s Critique
•
‘Idealiazation of “a family meal” where families sit together to eat dinner,
•
“food from scratch” made at home could exabcerbate the conservative cultural
mood that nostalgically constructs an ideal past which revolves around the
“traditional” (and implicitly heterocexual and upper-middle class) family
completed by its male breadwinner-female homemaker icon’ (p.466)
•
food literacy is seen as a narrow concept, which is ‘embedded in the power
configuration of society’ (p.466)
Kimuras visions
• food education to hold a broader societal perspective and wishes ‘the food literacy
framework contrasted with a more structural understanding of food-related
behaviors and practices as functions of cultural and social influence, one’s class
position, gender stereotypes, social infrastructure, and the macrosturcture of food
and agricultural systems’ (p.480).
7. Food literacy as health intervention
• Food literacy defined as ‘ the ability to make healthy food choices
by having the skills and knowledge necessary to buy, grow, and cook
food with implications for improving health’ (p.2). ’
• Objective was to provide education and to increase skills and
awareness of agriculture, healthy eating, food preparation, and
food purchasing skills.’ (p.2)’
• Courses as hand-on food literacy education that highlighted general
nutrition, food safety, selection, preparation, and cooking skills’(p.2)
• Evaluation – pre and post baseline measures (Thomas & Irwin,
2011, no. 12)
Competencies
Aims
Examples
To know
Understanding of coherence
(knowing)
Prudency and ability to make decisions
e.g. To know coherence between intakes and
health
To do
Everyday life competencies
(capable and cope-able)
Practical and technical competencies
e.g. grow, lifeworld concerning foodracy
llowing.choose and cook to handle everyday
life problems
To sense and
express
Aesthetic impression and
expression
Explore, experience , and express with all
senses
e.g. food through cooking and tasting
To want
Responsibility and willingness
(participation and action)
Citizenship and democracy
e.g. to participate in solving general food
problems in society
To be
Caring
Ethical considerations concerning oneself,
others and environment
e.g. choices reflecting care
Competencies regarding food literacy/ ‘Bildung’
(Benn, 2013)
Aspects
Broad understandings
Narrow understandings
Aims
Empowerment, self-decision, codecision and critical understanding
concerning food, meals and well-being
Food literacy as plain literacy;
understanding nutrition informations,
recipes and labels
Healthy choices, proper nutrition
and/or cooking competencies.
Gendered – female education
Content
Food from production to eating.
All aspects of nutrition, foods, meals,
diets in a critical view concerning both
the individual, the group and society
Exemplary, student oriented themes.
Food seen as single issues aspects:
Cooking, growing, nutrition, diet, …
Systematic courses external/teacher
decided
Competencies
Knowing, doing, experiencing,
exploring, being.
Cultural skills in a broad sense
Reading skills/Academic skills
Growing, consuming, cooking skills in a
narrow sense
Setting
From micro to macro
Mainly micro
Forslag til grundstruktur i
almendannelsen/ernærings-maddannelsen
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Spisning og emotionel udvikling, krop, identitet og selvopfattelse
Spisevaner, kulturelle og sociale indflydelser, ernæringsviden, spisestile,
spisning i social fællesskab
Ernæring og personlig sundhed, ernæringsanbefalinger, retningslinier og
nye koncepter
Avls-vækstprocesser, forarbejdning og fordeling af næring –
fødevarekvalitet og global handel
Levnedsmidler, mærker, forbruger og konsum – markedsføring og indkøb
Konservering og lagring af næring – fødevarefordærv, hygiejne,
bestemmelser
Kultur og teknik ved fødevaretilberedning – æstetisk-kulinarisk omgang
med fødevarer, (inter) kulturelle, historiske, sociale, religiøse træk
Heindl (2003): Studienbuch Ernährungsbildung, s.88-89
27
’Gatekeeper’ rollen
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Valg og fravalg ved et utal af ’gates’
Hvem vælger for hvem?
Hvad vælges? Hvorfor?
Hvordan tilberedes? Serveres?
Hvordan spises? Hvorfor?
Hvor?
Hvem?
Hvilken betydning for maddannelsen?
”Mad for mig”
Præget af præferencer
for:
• Fødevarer og retter
• smag
• sted/miljø
• tid
• følelser
”Kost for andre”
Præget af overvejelser om:
• Fødevarer og næringsstoffer
• Sundhed og sygdom
• økonomi
• moral
• forbud
”egocentrisk forbruger”
”eco-centrerede producent”
Mad for mig og kost for andre (Benn 2009 s.206)
29
’Food Literacy’ er forbundet til viden
og erfaringer fra
• Livsverdenen – en verden af levede erfaringer
• Videnskaben - analyse, empiri, fortolkning –
kritisk forståelse
• Narrative historier
(Smith inspireret af Vaines, 2009)
Centrale aspekter i forhold til
ernærings-/maddannelsen*
•
•
•
•
Aktualitet
Indholdsaspekter – alle sider af maden
Kompetencer
Fagovergribende behandling (tværdisciplinær)
* Ines Heindl (2003): Studienbuch Ernährungsbildung, s.89
Elementer i ’mad-dannelsen’
Elementer
mål
• at vide
= sammenhængsforståelse (kyndig)
• at kunne
= hverdagslivskompetence (kapabel)
• at ville
= omsorgsfuld (med- og indlevende)
• at være/blive = ansvarlighed og deltagelse (villig)
• at sanse
= sansemæssige oplevelser og indtryk og
udtryk (madmod)
32
Traditionel
- sund ernæringsadfærd
- sandt eller usandt
(uafhængigt af situation)
- normativt
(behov, kalkulerbare)
- samfundsmæssigt værdiorienteret
fremmedgjort beslutning
Ny
Mål
- bevidst og selvbesluttet kosthandling
- gunstigt/ugunstigt
(situationsafhængigt)
- emancipatorisk (frigørende)
(behov og ønsker)
-subjektiv værdiorienteret
selvbestemt, egenansvarlighed
Didaktik
- systematisk undervisningsforløb
- videnskabeligt orienteret
(fag/stof-struktureret)
- undervisning i kundskaber
(ernæringsviden: næringsstoffer,kJ,
dagskoster)
- gode råd, ofte ikke anvendelige i
hverdagslivet
- eksemplarisk læring og undervisning
- elevorienteret
- handlingsorienteret
- videnskaber tjener som informationsgiver
(hjælper til orientering og beslutning)
- konkret brugbar, lære at handle, relateret til
hverdagslivet
Ernährungserziehung, Selbst-Bewusstsein und Eigenverantwortlichkeit – Forderungen und
Überforderungen (Methfessel, 1996, i Benn’s oversættelse)
Hvilke temaer og udviklingsarbejder kunne
være relevante?
• Food Literacy – Food Bildung, yderligere teoretisk
belysning og udvikling af begreberne også set i forhold
til handlekompetence
• Børns ’maddannelse’ i institutionelle rammer gennem
aktiv deltagelse
• Praktisk klogskab – det praktiske i en
dannelsestænkning
• Betydningen af det sansemæssige og æstetiske i
sundhedsprojekter
• Udvikling af eksemplariske madprojekter
• Udvikling af nye ´laboratorier´ for udfoldelse og
afprøvning – køkkenværksteder
Litteratur*
* se artikel og lærebogskapitel
Algotson, Stina og Hagman, Ulla (2011): Mat för alla sinnen. Sensorisk träning enligt SAPERE-metoden.
Livsmedelsverket, Uppsala
Benn, Jette (2012): Mad og dannelse = maddannelse? Folkeskolen, Ernæring og sundhed
Benn; Jette (2009): Mad, kost, ernæring – er det et fedt? I: Carlsson, Monica, Simovska, Venka og Carlsson, Monica, red: Sundhedspædagogik
og sundhedsfremme. Teori, forskning og praksis. Aarhus Universitetsforlag, Aarhus: 193-210
Benn, Jette (2005): Praktisk klogskab – hverdagslivsområdet som dannelsesfelt. I:Kragelund, Minna og Otto,
Lene, red: Materialitet og dannelse. DPU’s forlag, København:91-112
Benn, Jette (2007) : Hjemkundskab, didaktik og dannelse. I: Jacobsen, Jens Chr. og Steffensen, Bo, red: Læreruddannelsens didaktik 2. Klim,
Aarhus: 25-46
Benn, Jette og Haugbøl, Bente (2002): Hjemkundskab i ord og handling. Elevens bog og lærerens bog. Alinea, København
Benn, Jette og Haugbøl, Bente (2003): Hjemkundskab i tanke, ord og handling. Elevens bog og lærerens bog. Alinea, København
Brønnum Carlsen, Helle (2011): Mad og æstetik. Hans Reitzels Forlag
Caraher, Martin, Dixon, Paul, Lang, Tim og Roy Carr-Hill: The state of cooking in England: the relationship of
cooking skills to food choice. I British Food Journal; 101,8: 590-609
Heindl, Ines (2003): Studienbuch Ernährungsbildung
Illum, Bent(2005): Processens dialog – læring i praksis. I:Kragelund, Minna og Otto,
Lene, red: Materialitet og dannelse. DPU’s forlag, København:113-134
Lewin, Kurt (1951): Field Theory in Social Practice. Harper & Row, N.Y.
Klafki, Wolfgang(2005): Dannelsesteori og didaktik- nye studier . Klim, Aarhus2. udgave
Mennell, Stephen, Murcott, Anne og van Otterloo, Anneke H. (1992): The Sociology of food. Eating, diet and culture. Sage, London
Nielsen, Frede V. (): Almen musikdidaktik
Smith, Mary Gale (2009): Food or nutrition literacy? What concepts should guide Home Economics education? I: International Journal of
Home Economics; vol 2, no 1: 48-63
Warde, Alan (1997): Consumption, food and taste. Culinary antinomies and commodity culture. London: Sage Publications.
Vileisis, Ann (2008): Kitchen literacy: how we lost knowledge of where food comes from and why we need
to get it back. Washington, Island Press/Shearwater Books

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