Organizational Behavior_Chapter 4

Report
Understanding
and
Managing
Organizational
Behavior
Chapter 4:
Perception,
Attribution, and the
Management of
Diversity
4th Edition
Insert photo from
case opening?
JENNIFER GEORGE
& GARETH JONES
4-1
©2005 Prentice Hall
Chapter Objectives
 Describe how perception is inherently
subjective and how characteristics of the
perceiver, the target, and the situation can
influence perceptions
 Understand how the use of schemas can
both aid and detract from accurate
perceptions
 Be aware of biases that can influence
perception without perceivers being aware
of their influences
4-2
©2005 Prentice Hall
Chapter Objectives
 Appreciate why the effective management
of diversity is an imperative for all kinds of
organizations and the steps that
organizations can take to ensure that
different kinds of people are treated fairly
and that the organization is able to take
advantage of all they have to offer
4-3
©2005 Prentice Hall
Chapter Objectives
 Understand why attributions are so
important and how they can sometimes be
faulty
 Describe the two major forms of sexual
harassment and the steps organizations
can take to combat sexual harassment
4-4
©2005 Prentice Hall
Opening Case: Proactively
Managing Diversity
 Why do organizations need to guard against
discrimination and proactively manage
diversity?
 Is discrimination a thing of the past?
 Who suffers from discrimination?
4-5
©2005 Prentice Hall
Perception
 The process by which individuals select,
organize, and interpret the input from their
senses to give meaning and order to the
world around them
 People try to make sense of their
environment and the objects, events, and
other people in it
4-6
©2005 Prentice Hall
Figure 4.1 Components of
Perception
Perceiver
Target
Situation or context in which perception takes place
4-7
©2005 Prentice Hall
Components of Perception
 Perceiver: person trying to interpret some
observation that he or she has just made or
the input from his or her senses
 Target of Perception: whatever the perceiver
is trying to make sense of
 Situation: the context in which perception
takes place
4-8
©2005 Prentice Hall
5
The Accuracy of Perceptions
 Not always accurate
 Perceptions are critical for managerial functions
– Motivating subordinates
– Treating subordinates fairly and equitably
– Making ethical decisions
 Accuracy can be improved by understanding
– what perceptions are
– how they are formed
– what influences them
4-9
©2005 Prentice Hall
6
Figure 4.2 Characteristics of the
Perceiver That Affect Perception
Insert Figure 4.2 here
4-10
©2005 Prentice Hall
Table 4.1 Factors That Influence
Perception
Characteristics Characteristics
of the Perceiver of the Target
Characteristics
of the Situation
Schemas
Ambiguity
Additional
information
Motivational
state
Social status
Salience
Mood
Use of
impression
management
4-11
©2005 Prentice Hall
Schemas
 Abstract knowledge structures that are
stored in memory
 Responsible for the organization and
interpretation of information about targets
of perception
 Based on past experiences and
knowledge
 Resistant to change
4-12
©2005 Prentice Hall
The Functionality of Schemas
 Functional
– Schemas help us make sense of a
confusing array of sensory input, choose
what information to pay attention to and
what to ignore, and guide perceptions of
ambiguous information
 Dysfunctional
– Schemas can result in inaccurate
perceptions
4-13
©2005 Prentice Hall
Stereotypes
 Set of overly simplified and often inaccurate
beliefs about the typical characteristics of a
particular group
 Dysfunctional schemas
– Based on inaccurate information
– Assigned based on a single distinguishing
characteristic
4-14
©2005 Prentice Hall
Motivational State and Mood
 Motivational State: The needs, values,
and desires of a perceiver at the time of
perception.
 Mood: How a perceiver feels at the time
of perception.
4-15
©2005 Prentice Hall
Ambiguity
 A lack of clearness or definiteness
 As the ambiguity of a target increases, it becomes
increasingly difficult for a perceiver to form an
accurate perception
 When a target is ambiguous, the perceiver needs
to engage in a lot more interpretation and active
construction of reality to form a perception of the
target
 The more ambiguous a target is, the more potential
there is for errors in perception
4-16
©2005 Prentice Hall
Social Status
 A person’s real or perceived position in society
or in an organization.
 Targets with relatively high status are
perceived to be smarter, more credible, more
knowledgeable, and more responsible for their
actions than lower-status targets.
4-17
©2005 Prentice Hall
Impression Management
 An attempt to control the perceptions or
impressions of others
 Targets are especially likely to use impression
management tactics when interacting with
perceivers who have power over them and on
whom they are dependent for evaluations, raises,
and promotions
 Individuals who are high in self-monitoring are
more likely than individuals who are low in selfmonitoring to engage in impression management
tactics
4-18
©2005 Prentice Hall
Table 4.2 Impression Management Tactics
Behavioral
Matching
The target of perception matches
his or her behavior to that of the
perceiver.
A subordinate tries to imitate her boss’s
behavior by being modest and soft-spoken
because her boss is modest and soft-spoken.
SelfPromotion
The target tries to present herself
or himself in as positive a light as
possible.
A worker reminds his boss about his past
accomplishments and associates with coworkers who are evaluated highly.
Conforming The target follows agreed-upon
to Situational rules for behavior in the
organization.
Norms
Appreciating
or Flattering
Others
Being
Consistent
4-19
A worker stays late every night even if she has
completed all of her assignments because
staying late is one of the norms of her
organization.
The target compliments the perceiver. This tactic works best when
flattery is not extreme and when it
involves a dimension important
to the perceiver.
A coworker compliments a manager on his
excellent handling of a troublesome employee.
The target’s beliefs and behaviors
are consistent. There is agreement
between the target’s verbal and
nonverbal behaviors.
A subordinate delivering a message to his boss
looks the boss straight in the eye and has a
sincere expression on his face.
©2005 Prentice Hall
Salience
 Extent to which a target of perception stands out in
a group of people or things
 Causes of salience
– Being novel: Anything that makes a target
unique in a situation (e.g., being the only young
person)
– Being figural: Standing out from the
background (e.g., by wearing bright clothes)
– Being inconsistent with other people’s
expectations: Behaving or looking in a way that
is out of the ordinary
4-20
©2005 Prentice Hall
Table 4.3 Causes of Salience
Being novel
Anything that makes a
target unique in a situation
Being
figural
Standing out from
the background
Being
Inconsistent
Behaving or looking in a way
with other that is out of the ordinary
people’s
expectations
4-21
Examples: Being the only person of a
particular age, sex, or race in a situation
Example: Being in a spotlight, sitting at
the head of the table, wearing bright
clothes
Example: A normally shy person who is
the life of the party
©2005 Prentice Hall
Table 4.4 Biases and Problems in
Perception
Primacy
Effects
The initial pieces of information
that a perceiver has about a target
have an inordinately large effect on
the perceiver’s perception and
evaluation of the target.
Interviewers decide in the first few minutes
of an interview whether or not a job candidate
is a good prospect.
Contrast
Effect
The perceiver’s perceptions of
others influence the perceiver’s
perception of a target.
A manager’s perception of an average
subordinate is likely to be lower if that
subordinate is in a group with very high
performers rather than in a group with very
low performers.
Halo
Effect
The perceiver’s general impression
of a target influences his or her
perception of the target on specific
dimensions.
A subordinate who has made a good overall
impression on a supervisor is rated as
performing high-quality work and always
meeting deadlines regardless of work that is
full of mistakes and late.
4-22
©2005 Prentice Hall
Table 4.4 Biases and Problems in
Perception
Similar-tome Effect
People perceive others who are
similar to themselves more
positively than they perceive those
who are dissimilar.
Supervisors rate subordinates who are similar
to them more positively than they deserve.
Harshness,
Leniency,
Average
Tendency
Some perceivers tend to be overly
harsh in their perceptions, some
overly lenient. Others view most
targets as being about average.
When rating subordinates’ performances, some
supervisors give almost everyone a poor rating,
some give almost everyone a good rating, and
others rate almost everyone as being about
average.
Knowledge
of Predictor
Knowing how a target stands on a
predictor of performance influences
perceptions of the target.
A professor perceives a student more positively
than she deserves because the professor knows
the student had a high score on the SAT.
4-23
©2005 Prentice Hall
Attribution Theory
 Describes how people explain the causes
of behavior
 Focuses on why people behave the way
they do
 Attributions can be made about the self or
another person
 Biases reduce the accuracy of attributions
4-24
©2005 Prentice Hall
Figure 4.3 Types of Attributions
Insert Figure 4.3 here
4-25
©2005 Prentice Hall
Attributional Biases
 Fundamental attribution error - tendency
to overattribute behavior to internal rather
than external causes
 Actor-observer effect - tendency to
attribute other’s behavior to internal causes
but one’s own behavior to external causes
 Self-serving attribution - tendency to take
credit for successes but avoid blame for
failures
4-26
©2005 Prentice Hall
Objectives of Diversity Programs
 Making explicit and breaking down organizational
member’ stereotypes that result in inaccurate
perceptions and attributions
 Making members aware of different kinds of
backgrounds, experiences, and values
 Showing members how to deal effectively with
diversity-related conflicts and tensions
 Generally improving members’ understanding of
each other
4-27
©2005 Prentice Hall
Diversity Training





4-28
Role-playing
Self-awareness activities
Awareness activities
Education
Mentoring
– Formal
– Informal
©2005 Prentice Hall
Sexual Harassment
 Quid pro quo
– Occurs when the harasser requests or
forces an employee to perform sexual
favors in order to receive some
opportunity
 Hostile work environment
– Occurs when organizational members are
faced with a work environment that is
offensive, intimidating, or hostile
4-29
©2005 Prentice Hall
Examples of Hostile Work
Environment Sexual harassment





4-30
Pornographic pictures
Sexual jokes
Lewd comments
Sexually-oriented comments
Displays of sexually-oriented objects
©2005 Prentice Hall
Steps to Combat Sexual
Harassment
 Develop a sexual harassment policy supported by
top management
 Clearly communicate the organization’s sexual
harassment policy throughout the organization
 Investigate charges of sexual harassment with a fair
complain procedure
 Take corrective action as soon as possible once it
has been determined that sexual harassment has
taken place
 Provide sexual harassment training and education
to all members of the organization
4-31
©2005 Prentice Hall

similar documents