2nd Powerpoint

Report
The Korean Approach to
Validation for
Lifelong Learning
Kim Shinil
Baekseok University, Korea
Higher Education in Korea
 Population 48 million (North Korea, 25mil.)
 Institutions 432 (Univ. 189, more than 2/3 is
private).
 Students 3,728,802 (Univ. 2,108,958), mostly
young and full time.
 Students bear major part of the expenses.
 Enrolment rate 76%
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Higher Education
in learning society
- Tertiary Education
attainment (35-64 age
group) is 26%.
- High aspiration for BA
degree in learning society.
- HEI is already packed
with young students.
- Korea has to deal with
the situation with bold
measures.
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VPL in the situation
HEI
Schooling
Society
VPL
VPL
Lifelong
Learning
Learning
Society
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European vs. Korean
 Utilizing VPL within Higher Education Context
Korea: Providing direct
opportunity to obtain
college degree
European countries:
Assisting admission to HEI
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Early VPL Policy in Korea
 Bachelor’s Degree Examination for Self-
Education (BDES)
 Since 1990
 BA degree through examination only
 Academic Credit Bank System (ACBS)
 Since 1998
 Obtaining Associate’s or BA degree
through validation of non-formal learning
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Early VPL Policy in Korea
 BDES and ACBS
 awarding higher education degrees to
non-students who are recognized as
reaching the same level of learning with
university students.
 Degree awarding approach to VPL/RPL
 Reflecting cultural and historical
background of Korea
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Old Korean Education System
Schools
National
Examination
Old Korean
Education
System
 Lasted more than 10centuries
 Public school system from the 7th century
 basic schools
 middle schools
 higher education(the Royal College)
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National Examination
 Since the year of 958.
 Instrument of qualification for social status and
selecting government officials.
 3 courses of Examination
 Civil exam, Military exam, and Specialist exam.
 Civil exam
 The most prestigious one
 3 stages: lower, upper, and the highest.
 Specialist exam
 medicine, foreign languages, accounting, astronomy.
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National Examination
 Who applied : From the teens to the fifties.
 Stages of examination in part connected
with public school levels.
 However, more than half of all applicants during
the Choseon dynasty (1392-1910) took the
highest examination without attending the royal
college.
 Most of them from high class family
 Preparing the examination with personal tutor
or at the private tutoring classes.
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National Examination
 Two characteristics
 National examination in old Korea was open not
only to the graduates of school but also to
people without or unfinished schooling.
 Examination functioned as a validation of
learning experiences outside of school and
university system.
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Modernization
 Old Education System
 Discontinued at the end of 19th century
 Modern Education System
 schooling-oriented
 developed in Europe
 However, the alternative track through
examinations has not disappeared until
today.
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BDES
 Bachelor’s Degree Examination for
Self-Education
 Since 1990 as an alternative track
 Four stages of qualifying examination
 general education
 major basic
 major advanced
 comprehensive.
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BDES
 Exemption of examination
 For who learners who already achieved a
certain number of credits from university
or had certificates of concerned area.
 About 14,000 persons have been awarded
bachelor degree since 1990.
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ACBS
 Proposed as one of the President Commission
of Education Reform measures in 1996
 Recognition of learning at non-formal
education programs for the higher education
degree
 In 2013, about 50,000 learners are granted
Associate’s or BA degree for 109 study areas
 About 70% of the registered learners are 30
years or older.
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ACBS
 Validation of learning during the military service
 Mandatory military service of young men for about
two years
 An agreement between Ministers of the Education
and the Defense in 2007.
 Recognition of learning from trainings and
educations during the military service as credits
 Utilizing credits toward the higher education degree
through the academic credit bank system, or for
vocational qualifications and licenses.
 About 310,000 soldiers obtained credits during the
years of 2007~2012.
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ACBS
 Validation of learning from the National
Intangible Cultural Assets




Vanishing traditional arts and crafts in Korea
hardly respected by universities
Successors of the cultural assets
Validation toward the degree activated learning of
the vanishing skills
 Validation is an powerful instrument for reviving
learning of a neglected culture.
 ACBS explores new study areas that are not
properly recognized
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New Developments
 Validation of Workplace learning are
expanded through revision of laws
 Annually 80 marine engineers obtained
certificate by the recognition of field
experiences after revision of the act of marine
industry manpower in 2008.
 The revised Qualification Act expanded
coverage of validation of vocational skill learning
at work.
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New Developments
 Lifelong Learning-oriented University Project
 Provide more programs for adult learners
 Transform themselves into the lifelong learner-
friendly institutes
 admission criteria and process
 reorganization of department/faculty
 curriculum and instructional methods
 introducing new concept of teaching staff
 validation of prior learning
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New Developments
 Lifelong Learning Account System (LLAS)
 Overarching management system of lifelong
learning society
 Accumulation, assessment, validation and
recognition of each individual’s all kinds of
learning
 Recommended by the President Commission of
Education Reform in 1995
 Since 2010, about 5,000 learners are registered
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Challenges and Tasks
 Professionals for non-formal and informal
learning – ‘Lifelong Education Specialist’
 RVA as essential bridge connecting learning
and working
 Diversification of learning for higher education
 From education to learning
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
Thank you
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