Chapter 5 Automatic Transmission ◦ Selector Lever Positions Shift Indicator shows the gear position Park (P) Reverse (R) Neutral (N) Drive (D) Low (L1 and L2 or 1 and 2) ◦ Starting the Engine Make sure parking brake is set Make sure car is in Park If car has Fuel Injection, keep foot off the accelerator Turn ignition switch to ON, continue turning the key to start the engine, release the key as soon as the engine starts Check gauges, warning lights, and fuel supply Manual Transmission ◦ Stickshift Gears Neutral (N) – Used for Standing still or starting the engine First (1) – Used to start the vehicle moving to a forward speed of 10-15 mph Second (2) – Used to accelerate to a speed of 15-25 mph Third (3) – Used for speeds of 25-40 mph Fourth (4) – Used for highway driving. Speeds above 35 mph Fifth (5) – Used for highway driving at speeds above 45 mph Reverse (R) – This gear is used for backing Manual Transmission ◦ Friction Point Point at which the engine engages the transmission Downshifting – Shifting from a higher gear to a lower gear. Used to gain added control or gain extra power. Riding the Clutch – Habit of resting your foot on the clutch pedal while driving. This cause clutch wear and can lead to expensive repairs. Steering To control a vehicle’s direction of travel ◦ Hand Position 9 o’clock & 3 o’clock Two hands at all times gives you optimum control of the vehicle ◦ Tracking A method of steering that allows you to keep your vehicle on the intended path of travel. Look toward the center of the lane ahead and make slight movements with the steering wheel Oversteering ◦ Turning the steering wheel too much Understeering ◦ Do not turn the wheel enough to keep the vehicle in the planned path. Hand-Over-Hand ◦ 1. Left Turn --- Opposite of right turn ◦ 2. Right Turn ◦ 3. Getting the wheel back to driving position • • • Backing left - visual search pattern is over left shoulder Backing Right - visual search pattern is over right shoulder Steps to follow: 1. Before backing, check traffic 2. Back into your lane 3. Begin to unwind the steering wheel back to a straight position Steering Straight Backwards Hold brake and shift to Reverse 1. Turn body to the right and look backwards. 2. Put Left hand on the top of the wheel. 12:00 o’clock position 3. Release pressure from the brake just enough to creep back slowly. 4. Turn the wheel in the direction you want to go 5. Keep foot over the brake at all times checking traffic Things to remember ◦ The front wheels have a greater turn radius than the back wheels The front will swing out farther than the back ◦ Backing up to the left or right, turn steering wheel in the direction you are backing Backing left, turn wheel left Backing right, turn wheel right Driving Test ◦ You will have to: Back up within your lane Stay in lane Back up smoothly Look out rear windshield Back around a corner (Turnabout) http://tosh.comedycentral.com/videoclips/parallel-parking?xrs=share_copy Four Basic types of Parking ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Curb Parallel Perpendicular Angle Entering and Exiting Parking Spots ◦ Always check traffic ahead of you and behind you Check mirrors and blind spots ◦ Signal! Other drivers need to know your intentions Curb Parking ◦ Easiest to perform ◦ Parking alongside a curb with no surrounding vehicles ◦ More room to maneuver ◦ Don’t have to back up to exit your parking space ◦ Park close to the curb so other vehicles don’t hit you Parallel Parking ◦ Parking alongside a curb between two alreadyparked vehicles ◦ Extremely difficult ◦ Good steering and speed controls are essential How to parallel park ◦ Pull up alongside the vehicle Rear bumper to rear bumper ◦ Turn wheel sharply to the right and begin to back up Aim car to the rear right corner of the parking space ◦ When your steering wheel is even with the front vehicle’s rear bumper, straighten out. Keep looking behind you but make repeated glances to make sure you front bumper is clear ◦ Turn wheel sharply to the left when your front bumper meets the rear bumper of the car in front ◦ Slowly back up until you are parallel to the curb Make sure you are in the center of the parking space Parking Parallel Parking Pullout Perpendicular & Angle Parking ◦ Most often found in parking lots and garages, and on some wide streets ◦ Choose a space with as much room as possible between other vehicles Parking on hills Parking on a Hill Facing Up Hill When parking up hill turn your wheels toward the centerline of the road. Why? If the vehicle would slip out of gear the car would roll backward and stop against the curb. If there is no curb turn the wheels toward the side of the road. Parking on hills If there is no curb turn the wheels toward the side of the road. Why? If the vehicle would slip out of gear the car would roll backward swinging outward and roll out of the street.