Vehicle Operation Ba

Report
Chapter 5

Automatic Transmission
◦ Selector Lever Positions
 Shift Indicator shows the gear position

Park (P)

Reverse (R)

Neutral (N)

Drive (D)

Low (L1 and L2 or 1 and 2)
◦ Starting the Engine

Make sure parking brake is set

Make sure car is in Park

If car has Fuel Injection, keep foot off the accelerator

Turn ignition switch to ON, continue turning the key to start the engine, release the key as soon
as the engine starts

Check gauges, warning lights, and fuel supply

Manual Transmission
◦ Stickshift Gears
 Neutral (N) – Used for Standing still or starting the engine
 First (1) – Used to start the vehicle moving to a forward
speed of 10-15 mph
 Second (2) – Used to accelerate to a speed of 15-25 mph
 Third (3) – Used for speeds of 25-40 mph
 Fourth (4) – Used for highway driving. Speeds above 35 mph
 Fifth (5) – Used for highway driving at speeds above 45 mph
 Reverse (R) – This gear is used for backing

Manual Transmission
◦ Friction Point
 Point at which the engine engages the transmission
 Downshifting – Shifting from a higher gear to a lower
gear. Used to gain added control or gain extra power.
 Riding the Clutch – Habit of resting your foot on the
clutch pedal while driving. This cause clutch wear and
can lead to expensive repairs.

Steering
 To control a vehicle’s direction of travel
◦ Hand Position
 9 o’clock & 3 o’clock
 Two hands at all times gives you optimum control of
the vehicle
◦ Tracking
 A method of steering that allows you to keep your
vehicle on the intended path of travel.
 Look toward the center of the lane ahead and make
slight movements with the steering wheel

Oversteering
◦ Turning the steering wheel too much

Understeering
◦ Do not turn the
wheel enough to
keep the vehicle in
the planned path.

Hand-Over-Hand
◦ 1. Left Turn --- Opposite of right turn
◦ 2. Right Turn
◦ 3. Getting the wheel back to driving
position
•
•
•
Backing left - visual search pattern
is over left shoulder
Backing Right - visual search
pattern is over right shoulder
Steps to follow:
1. Before backing, check traffic
2. Back into your lane
3. Begin to unwind the steering
wheel back to a straight
position
Steering Straight Backwards
Hold brake and shift to Reverse
1. Turn body to the right and look backwards.
2. Put Left hand on the top of the wheel. 12:00 o’clock
position
3. Release pressure from the brake just enough to creep
back slowly.
4. Turn the wheel in the direction you want to go
5. Keep foot over the brake at all times checking traffic

Things to remember
◦ The front wheels have a greater turn radius than the
back wheels
 The front will swing out farther than the back
◦ Backing up to the left or right, turn steering wheel
in the direction you are backing
 Backing left, turn wheel left
 Backing right, turn wheel right

Driving Test
◦ You will have to:
 Back up within your lane
 Stay in lane
 Back up smoothly
 Look out rear windshield
 Back around a corner (Turnabout)
http://tosh.comedycentral.com/videoclips/parallel-parking?xrs=share_copy

Four Basic types of Parking
◦
◦
◦
◦

Curb
Parallel
Perpendicular
Angle
Entering and Exiting Parking Spots
◦ Always check traffic ahead of you and behind you
 Check mirrors and blind spots
◦ Signal!
 Other drivers need to know your intentions

Curb Parking
◦ Easiest to perform
◦ Parking alongside a curb with no surrounding
vehicles
◦ More room to maneuver
◦ Don’t have to back up to exit your parking space
◦ Park close to the curb so other vehicles don’t hit
you

Parallel Parking
◦ Parking alongside a curb between two alreadyparked vehicles
◦ Extremely difficult
◦ Good steering and speed controls are essential

How to parallel park
◦ Pull up alongside the vehicle
 Rear bumper to rear bumper
◦ Turn wheel sharply to the right and begin to back up
 Aim car to the rear right corner of the parking space
◦ When your steering wheel is even with the front vehicle’s rear bumper,
straighten out.
 Keep looking behind you but make repeated glances to make sure you front
bumper is clear
◦ Turn wheel sharply to the left when your front bumper meets the rear
bumper of the car in front
◦ Slowly back up until you are parallel to the curb
 Make sure you are in the center of the parking space
Parking
Parallel
Parking Pullout

Perpendicular & Angle Parking
◦ Most often found in parking lots and garages, and
on some wide streets
◦ Choose a space with as much room as possible
between other vehicles
Parking on hills
Parking on a Hill
Facing Up Hill
When parking up hill turn
your wheels toward the
centerline of the road.
Why?
If the vehicle would slip
out of gear the car would
roll backward and stop
against the curb.
If there is no curb turn the
wheels toward the side of
the road.
Parking on hills
If there is no curb turn the wheels toward the
side of the road.
Why?
If the vehicle would
slip out of gear the
car would roll
backward swinging
outward and roll out
of the street.

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