Chapter 4 - Weygandt, Keiso, Kimmel 5th Edition

Report
Accounting Principles, 6e
Weygandt, Kieso, & Kimmel
Prepared by
Marianne Bradford, Ph. D.
Bryant College
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
CHAPTER 4
COMPLETION OF THE ACCOUNTING CYCLE
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
1 Prepare a work sheet.
2 Explain the process of closing the books.
3 Describe the content and purpose of a post-closing
trial balance.
4 State the required steps in the accounting cycle.
5 Explain the approaches to preparing correcting
entries.
6 Identify the sections of a classified balance sheet.
PREVIEW OF CHAPTER 4
Completion of the
Accounting Cycle
Using a Work Sheet
Closing the Books

Steps in preparation

Preparing closing entries

Preparing financial
statements

Posting closing entries

Post-closing trial balance

Preparing adjusting entries
PREVIEW OF CHAPTER 4
Completion of the
Accounting Cycle
Summary of
Accounting Cycle
 Reversing entries –an

optional step
Correcting entries-an
avoidable step
Classified Financial
Statements

Standard classification

Balance sheet illustration
STUDY OBJECTIVE 1
Prepare a work sheet.
WORK SHEET
 A work sheet is a multiple-column form that
may be used in the adjustment process and in
preparing financial statements.
 It is a working tool for the accountant and not
a permanent accounting record.
 Use of a work sheet should make
the preparation of adjusting entries
and financial statements easier.
ILLUSTRATION 4-1
FORM AND PROCEDURE FOR A WORK SHEET
Work Sheet
Account
Titles
Trial Balance
Cr.
Dr.
Adjustments
Cr.
Dr.
Adjusted
Trial Balance
Cr.
Dr.
1.
Prepare a
trial balance
on the
work sheet
2.
Enter
adjustment
dates
3.
Enter
adjusted
balances
Income
Statement
Cr.
Dr.
Balance
Sheet
Cr.
Dr.
(Ledger
account
titles)
(Additional
account titles
for
adjustments)
4.
Extend adjusted balances to
appropriate statement columns
5.
Total the statement columns,
compute net income (or net
loss), and complete work sheet
WORK SHEET
 The use of a work sheet is optional.
 When one is used, financial statements are
prepared from the worksheet.
 Adjustments are journalized and posted from
the work sheet after financial statements are
prepared.
STEPS IN PREPARING
A WORKSHEET
1 Prepare a trial balance on the worksheet
2 Enter the adjustments in the adjustments
columns
3 Enter adjusted balances in the adjusted
trial balance columns
4 Extend adjusted trial balance amounts
to appropriate financial statement
columns
5 Total the statement columns, compute net
income (loss), and complete the worksheet
PREPARING A WORKSHEET
1 PREPARING A TRIAL BALANCE
PIONEER ADVERTISING AGENCY
Work Sheet
For the Month Ended October 31, 2002
Account Titles
Cash
Advertising Supplies
Prepaid Insurance
Office Equipment
Notes Payable
Accounts Payable
Unearned Fees
C.R. Byrd, Capital
C.R. Byrd, Drawing
Fees Earned
Salaries Expense
Rent Expense
Totals
Advertising Supplies Expense
Insurance Expense
Accum. Depr. — Office Equip.
Depreciation Expense
Interest Expense
Accounts Receivable
Interest Payable
Salaries Payable
Totals
Trial Balance
Dr.
Cr.
15,200
2,500
600
5,000
5,000
2,500
1,200
10,000
500
10,000
4,000
900
28,700
28,700
Adjustments
Dr.
Cr.
Adjusted
Trial Balance
Dr.
Cr.
PREPARING A WORKSHEET
2 ENTER THE ADJUSTMENTS
PIONEER ADVERTISING AGENCY
Work Sheet
For the Month Ended October 31, 2002
Cash
Advertising Supplies
Prepaid Insurance
Office Equipment
Notes Payable
Accounts Payable
Unearned Fees
C.R. Byrd, Capital
C.R. Byrd, Drawing
Fees Earned
Trial Balance
Adjustments
Dr.
Cr.
Dr.
Cr.
15,200
a 1,500
2,500
b
50
600
5,000
5,000
2,500
d 400
1,200
10,000
500
d 400
10,000
e 200
Salaries Expense
Rent Expense
Totals
4,000
900
28,700
Account Titles
Advertising Supplies Expense
Insurance Expense
Accum. Depr. — Office Equip.
Depreciation Expense
Interest Expense
Accounts Receivable
Interest Payable
Salaries Payable
Totals
g 1,200
28,700
a 1,500
b
50
c
c
f
e
40
40
50
200
f
50
g 1,200
3,440
3,440
Adjusted
Trial Balance
Dr.
Cr.
PREPARING A WORKSHEET
3 ENTER ADJUSTED BALANCES
PIONEER ADVERTISING AGENCY
Work Sheet
For the Month Ended October 31, 2002
Cash
Advertising Supplies
Prepaid Insurance
Office Equipment
Notes Payable
Accounts Payable
Unearned Fees
C.R. Byrd, Capital
C.R. Byrd, Drawing
Fees Earned
Trial Balance
Dr.
Cr.
15,200
2,500
600
5,000
5,000
2,500
1,200
10,000
500
10,000
Salaries Expense
Rent Expense
Totals
4,000
900
28,700
Account Titles
Advertising Supplies Expense
Insurance Expense
Accum. Depr. — Office Equip.
Depreciation Expense
Interest Expense
Accounts Receivable
Interest Payable
Salaries Payable
Totals
Adjusted
Trial Balance
Dr.
Cr.
Adjustments
Dr.
Cr.
15,200
a 1,500
1,000
b 50 550
5,000
5,000
2,500
800
10,000
d 400
g 1,200
500
d 400
e 200 5,200
900
a 1,500
b 50
1,500
50
10,600
28,700
c
40
c 40
f 50
e 200
3,440
f 50
g 1,200
3,440
40
40
50
200
50
1,200
30,190
30,190
PREPARING A WORKSHEET
4 EXTEND ADJUSTED BALANCES
PIONEER ADVERTISING AGENCY
Work Sheet
For the Month Ended October 31, 2002
Account Titles
Cash
Advertising Supplies
Prepaid Insurance
Office Equipment
Notes Payable
Accounts Payable
Unearned Fees
C.R. Byrd, Capital
C.R. Byrd, Drawing
Fees Earned
Salaries Expense
Rent Expense
Advertising Supplies Expense
Insurance Expense
Accum. Depr. — Office Equip.
Depreciation Expense
Interest Expense
Accounts Receivable
Interest Payable
Salaries Payable
Totals
Net Income
Totals
Adjusted
Trial Balance
Dr.
Cr.
15,200
1,000
550
5,000
5,000
2,500
800
10,000
500
10,600
5,200
900
1,500
50
40
40
50
200
50
1,200
30,190
30,190
Income
Statement
Dr.
Cr.
Balance Sheet
Dr.
Cr.
10,600
5,200
900
1,500
50
40
50
7,740
2,860
10,600
10,600
10,600
22,450
19,590
22,450
2,860
22,450
PREPARING A WORKSHEET
4 EXTEND ADJUSTED BALANCES
PIONEER ADVERTISING AGENCY
Work Sheet
For the Month Ended October 31, 2002
Account Titles
Cash
Advertising Supplies
Prepaid Insurance
Office Equipment
Notes Payable
Accounts Payable
Unearned Fees
C.R. Byrd, Capital
C.R. Byrd, Drawing
Fees Earned
Salaries Expense
Rent Expense
Advertising Supplies Expense
Insurance Expense
Accum. Depr. — Office Equip.
Depreciation Expense
Interest Expense
Accounts Receivable
Interest Payable
Salaries Payable
Totals
Net Income
Totals
Adjusted
Trial Balance
Dr.
Cr.
15,200
1,000
550
5,000
5,000
2,500
800
10,000
500
10,600
5,200
900
1,500
50
40
40
50
200
50
1,200
30,190
30,190
Income
Statement
Dr.
Cr.
Balance Sheet
Dr.
Cr.
15,200
1,000
550
5,000
5,000
2,500
800
10,000
500
10,600
5,200
900
1,500
50
40
40
50
200
50
1,200
7,740
2,860
10,600
10,600
10,600
22,450
19,590
22,450
2,860
22,450
ADJUSTING ENTRIES
JOURNALIZED
GENERAL JOURNAL
Date
2002
Oct. 31
31
31
31
31
31
31
Account Titles and Explanation
a
Advertising Supplies Expense
Advertising Supplies
b
Insurance Expense
Prepaid Insurance
c
Depreciation Expense
Accumulated Expense
d
Unearned Fees
Fees Earned
e
Accounts Receivable
Fees Earned
f
Interest Expense
Interest Payable
g
Salaries Expense
Salaries Payable
Ref.
Debit
Credit
1,500
1,500
50
50
40
40
400
400
200
200
50
50
1,200
1,200
PREPARATION OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
INCOME STATEMENT
PIONEER ADVERTISING AGENCY
Income Statement
For the Month Ended October 31, 2002
Revenues
Service revenue
Expenses
Salaries expense
Advertising supplies expense
Rent expense
Insurance expense
Interest expense
Depreciation expense
Total expenses
Net income
$10,600
The income statement is
prepared from the income
statement columns of the
work sheet.
$5,200
1,500
900
50
50
40
7,740
$ 2,860
PREPARATION OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
OWNER’S EQUITY STATEMENT
PIONEER ADVERTISING AGENCY
Owner’s Equity Statement
For the Month Ended October 31, 2002
C.R. Byrd, Capital, October 1
Add: Investments
Net income
Less: Drawings
C.R. Byrd, Capital, October 31
$
The owner’s equity
statement is prepared from
the balance sheet columns
of the work sheet.
$10,000
2,860
-0-
12,860
12,806
500
$12,360
PREPARATION OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
BALANCE SHEET
PIONEER ADVERTISING AGENCY
Balance Sheet
October 31, 2002
Liabilities and Owner’s Equity
Assets
Cash
Accounts receivable
Advertising supplies
Prepaid insurance
Office equipment
Less: Accumulated
depreciation
Total assets
$ 15,200
200
1,000
550
$5,000
40
4,960
$21,910
Liabilities
Notes payable
Accounts payable
Interest payable
Unearned revenue
Salaries payable
Total liabilities
Owner’s equity
C.R. Byrd, Capital
Total liabilities and owner’s
equity
The balance sheet is prepared from the
balance sheet columns of the work sheet.
$ 5,000
2,500
50
800
1,200
9,550
12,360
$21,910
STUDY OBJECTIVE 2
Explain the process of closing the books.
ILLUSTRATION 4-5
TEMPORARY VERSUS PERMANENT ACCOUNTS
TEMPORARY (NOMINAL)
These accounts are closed
PERMANENT (REAL)
These accounts are not closed
All revenue accounts
All asset accounts
All expense accounts
All liability accounts
Owner’s drawing
Owner’s capital account
CLOSING ENTRIES
 Closing entries formally recognize in the
ledger the transfer of net income (loss) and
owner’s drawings to owner’s capital.
 Journalizing and posting closing entries is a
required step in the accounting cycle.
 A temporary account, Income Summary, is
used in closing revenue and expense
accounts to minimize the amount of detail
in the permanent owner’s capital account.
ILLUSTRATION 4-6
DIAGRAM OF CLOSING PROCESS
PROPRIETORSHIP
(INDIVIDUAL)
EXPENSES
(INDIVIDUAL)
REVENUES
2
1
INCOME
SUMMARY
1 Debit each revenue account for its balance, and credit
Income Summary for total revenues.
2 Debit Income Summary for total expenses, and credit each
expense account for its balance.
ILLUSTRATION 4-6
DIAGRAM OF CLOSING PROCESS
INCOME
SUMMARY
3
OWNER’S
CAPITAL
3 Debit (credit) Income Summary and credit (debit)
owner’s capital for the amount of net income (loss).
ILLUSTRATION 4-6
DIAGRAM OF CLOSING PROCESS
OWNER’S
CAPITAL
4
OWNER’S
DRAWING
4 Debit owner’s capital for the balance in the owner’s drawing
account and credit owner’s drawing for the same amount.
ILLUSTRATION 4-7
CLOSING ENTRIES JOURNALIZED
GENERAL JOURNAL
Date
2002
Oct. 1
Date
2002
Oct. 31
Account Titles and Explanation
Service Revenue
Income Summary
(To close revenue acccount)
INCOME SUMMARY
Explanation Debit
Credit
10,600
No. 400
Balance
10,600
Date
2002
Oct. 31
Ref.
400
350
Debit
Credit
10,600
10,600
SERVICE REVENUE
Explanation
Debit
10,600
Credit
No. 350
Balance
10,600
–0–
ILLUSTRATION 4-7
CLOSING ENTRIES JOURNALIZED
GENERAL JOURNAL
Date
2002
Oct. 31
Account Titles and Explanation
Income Summary
Salaries Expense
Advertising Supplies Expense
Rent Expense
Insurance Expense
Interest Expense
Depreciation Expense
(To close expense
accounts)
Date
2002
Oct. 31
31
INCOME SUMMARY
Explanation Debit
7,740
Credit
10,600
Ref.
Debit
350 7,740
726
631
729
722
905
911
No. 350
Balance
10,600
2,860
Credit
5,200
1,500
900
50
50
40
ILLUSTRATION 4-7
CLOSING ENTRIES JOURNALIZED
GENERAL JOURNAL
Date
2002
Oct. 31
Date
2002
Oct. 31
31
Account Titles and Explanation
(3)
Income Summary
C. R. Byrd, Capital
(To close net income to
capital)
INCOME SUMMARY
Explanation Debit
Credit
10,600
7,740
2,860
No. 350
Balance
10,600
2,860
–0–
Date
2002
Oct. 31
31
Ref.
Debit
350
301
2,860
C. R. BYRD, CAPITAL
Explanation Debit
Credit
2,860
Credit
10,000
2,860
No. 301
Balance
10,000
12,860
ILLUSTRATION 4-7
CLOSING ENTRIES JOURNALIZED
GENERAL JOURNAL
Date
2002
Oct. 31
Date
2002
Oct. 31
31
Account Titles and Explanation
(4)
C. R. Byrd, Capital
C. R. Byrd, Drawing
(To close net income to
capital)
C. R. BYRD, DRAWING
Explanation Debit
Credit
500
500
No. 350
Balance
500
–0–
Date
2002
Oct. 31
31
31
Ref.
Debit
350 500
301
C. R. BYRD, CAPITAL
Explanation
Debit
Credit
500
Credit
10,000
500
No. 301
Balance
10,000
12,860
12,360
CAUTIONS RELATING TO
CLOSING ENTRIES
A couple of cautions relating to closing entries:
1 Avoid unintentionally doubling the revenue
and expense balances rather than zeroing
them.
2 Do not close owner’s drawing through the
Income Summary account. Owner’s drawing
is not an expense, and it is not a factor in
determining net income.
POSTING CLOSING ENTRIES
 All temporary accounts have zero balances after
posting the closing entries.
 The balance in owner’s capital represents the total
equity of the owner at the end of the accounting period.
 No entries are journalized and posted to owner’s
capital during the year.
 As part of the closing process, the temporary accounts
(revenues and expenses) are totaled, balanced, and
double ruled.
 The permanent accounts (assets, liabilities, and owner’s
capital) are not closed.
ILLUSTRATION 4-8
POSTING OF CLOSING ENTRIES
Salaries Expense
4,000
(2)
5,200
1,200
5,200
726
(1)
5,200
1
2
Advertising Supplies
Expense
1,500
(2)
1,500
Rent Expense
900
(2)
Service Revenue
10,600
10,000
400
200
10,600
10,600
631
(2)
(3)
729
900
Income Summary
7,740
(1)
10,600
2,860
10,600
350
10,600
3
Insurance Expense
50
(2)
722
50
(4)
2
Interest Expense
50
(2)
C. R. Byrd, Capital
500
10,000
(3)
2,860
905
301
12,360
50
4
Depreciation Expense
40
(2)
40
711
C. R. Byrd, Drawing
500
(4)
500
306
400
STUDY OBJECTIVE 3
Describe the content and purpose
of a post-closing trial balance.
POST-CLOSING
TRIAL BALANCE
After all closing entries have been
journalized and posted, a post-closing
trial balance is prepared.
The purpose of this trial balance is to
prove the equality of the permanent
account balances that are carried
forward into the next accounting
period.
ILLUSTRATION 4-9
POST-CLOSING TRIAL BALANCE
PIONEER ADVERTISING AGENCY
Post-Closing Trial Balance
October 31, 2002
Debit
Cash
The post-closing trial
Accounts Receivable balance is prepared from the
Advertising Supplies
permanent accounts in the
Prepaid Insurance
ledger.
Office Equipment
Accumulated Depreciation — Office Equipment
Notes Payable
The post-closing trial balance
Accounts Payable
provides evidence that the
Unearned Revenue
journalizing and posting of
Salaries Payable
closing entries has been
Interest Payable
properly completed.
C. R. Byrd, Capital
Credit
$ 15,200
200
1,000
550
5,000
$ 40
5,000
2,500
800
1,200
50
12,360
$ 21,950 $ 21,950
STUDY OBJECTIVE 4
State the required steps in the accounting cycle.
STEPS IN THE
ACCOUNTING CYCLE
1 Analyze business transactions
2 Journalize the transactions
3 Post to ledger accounts
4 Prepare a trial balance
5 Journalize and post adjusting
entries
STEPS IN THE
ACCOUNTING CYCLE
6 Prepare an adjusted trial balance
7 Prepare financial statements:
Income statement, Owner’s Equity
Statement, Balance Sheet
8 Journalize and post closing entries
9 Prepare a post-closing trial balance
REVERSING ENTRIES
A reversing entry is made at the
beginning of the next accounting period.
The purpose of reversing entries is to
simplify the recording of a subsequent
transaction related to an adjusting entry.
Reversing entries are most often used to
reverse two types of adjusting entries:
accrued revenues and accrued expenses.
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE
OF REVERSING ENTRY
2002
Oct. 26
Initial Salary Entry
Salaries Expense
Cash
4,000
4,000
(To record Oct. 26 payroll)
Adjusting Entry
31
Salaries Expense
Salaries Payable
1,200
Income Summary
Salaries Expense
5,200
1,200
(To record accrued salaries)
Closing Entry
31
(To close salaries expense)
Reversing Entry
Nov. 1
9
Salaries Payable
Salaries Expense
(To reverse Oct. 31
adjusting entry)
Subsequent Salary Entry
Salaries Expense
Cash
5,200
1,200
1,200
4,000
4,000
(To record Nov. 9 payroll)
STUDY OBJECTIVE 5
Explain the approaches to
preparing correcting entries.
CORRECTING ENTRIES
 Errors that occur in recording transactions
should be corrected as soon as they are
discovered by preparing correcting entries.
 Correcting entries are unnecessary if the
records are free of errors; they can be
journalized and posted whenever an error
is discovered.
 They involve any combination of balance
sheet and income statement accounts
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE
OF CORRECTING ENTRY 1
May 10
10
20
Incorrect Entry
Cash
Service Revenue
(To record collection from
customer an account)
Correct Entry
Cash
Accounts Receivable
(To record collection from
customer an account)
Correcting Entry
Service Revenue
Accounts Receivable
(To correct entry of May 10)
50
50
50
50
50
50
ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE
OF CORRECTING ENTRY 2
Incorrect Entry
May 18
Delivery Equipment
Accounts Payable
45
45
(To record purchase of
equipment on account)
Correct Entry
18
Office Equipment
Accounts Payable
450
450
(To record purchase of
equipment on account)
Correcting Entry
June 3
Office Equipment
Delivery Equipment
Accounts Payable
(To correct entry of May 18)
450
45
405
STUDY OBJECTIVE 6
Identify the sections of a classified balance
sheet.
ILLUSTRATION 4-17
STANDARD BALANCE SHEET CLASSIFICATIONS
 Financial statements become more useful when
the elements are classified into significant
subgroups.
 A classified balance sheet generally has the
following standard classifications:
Assets
Liabilities and Owner’s Equity
Current Assets
Current Liabilities
Long-Term Investments
Long-Term Liabilities
Property, Plant and
Owner’s (Stockholders’) Equity
Equipment
Intangible Assets
CURRENT ASSETS
 Current assets are cash and other resources that are
reasonably expected to be realized in cash or sold
or consumed in the business within one year of the
balance sheet date or the company’s operating cycle,
whichever is longer.
 Current assets are listed in the order of their
liquidity.
 The operating cycle of a company is the average
time that is required to go from cash to cash in producing
revenues.
 Examples of current assets are inventory, accounts
receivable and cash.
LONG-TERM
INVESTMENTS
 Long-term investments are resources that can
be realized in cash, but the conversion into
cash is not expected within one year or the
operating cycle, whichever is longer.
 Examples include investments in bonds of
another company or investment in land held
for resale.
10 shares
XYZ stock
PROPERTY, PLANT,
AND EQUIPMENT
 Tangible resources of a relatively permanent
nature that are used in the business and not
intended for sale are classified as property,
plant, and equipment.
 Examples include land, buildings and
machinery.
INTANGIBLE ASSETS
 Intangible assets are noncurrent resources
that do not have physical substance.
 Examples include patents, copyrights,
trademarks, or trade names that give the
holder exclusive right of use for
a specified period of time.
CURRENT LIABILITIES
Current liabilities are obligations that
are reasonably expected to be paid from
existing current assets or through the
creation of other current liabilities
within one year or the operating cycle,
whichever is longer.
Examples include accounts payable,
wages payable, interest payable, and
current maturities of long-term debt.
LONG-TERM
LIABILITIES
Obligations expected to be paid
after one year are classified as
long-term liabilities.
Examples include long-term
notes payable, bonds payable,
mortgages payable, and lease
liabilities.
OWNER’S EQUITY
 The content of the owner’s equity section varies
with the form of business organization.
 In a proprietorship, there is a single owner’s
equity account called (Owner’s Name), Capital.
 In a partnership, there are separate capital
accounts for each partner.
 For a corporation, owners’ equity is called
stockholders’ equity, and it consists of two
accounts: Capital Stock and Retained Earnings.
ILLUSTRATION 4-25
CLASSIFIED BALANCE SHEET IN ACCOUNT FORM
PIONEER ADVERTISING AGENCY
Balance Sheet
October 31, 2002
Assets
Current assets
Cash
Accounts receivable
Advertising supplies
Prepaid insurance
Total current assets
Property, plant, and equipment
Office equipment
Less: Accumulated depreciation
Total assets
$ 15,200
200
1,000
550
16,950
$5,000
40
4,960
$21,910
A classified balance sheet helps the financial statement user determine 1 the
availability of assets to meet debts as they come due and 2 the claims of
short- and long-term creditors on total assets.
ILLUSTRATION 4-25
CLASSIFIED BALANCE SHEET IN REPORT FORM
Liabilities and Owner’s Equity
Current liabilities
Notes payable
Accounts payable
Interest payable
Unearned revenue
Salaries payable
Total current liabilities
Long-term liabilities
Notes payable
Total liabilities
Owner’s equity
C. R. Byrd, Capital
Total liabilities and owner’s equity
The balance sheet is most often presented in the report form,
with the assets above liabilities and owner’s equity.
$ 1,000
2,500
50
800
1,200
5,550
4,000
9,550
12,360
$21,910
COPYRIGHT
Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or
translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United
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programs or from the use of the information contained herein.
CHAPTER 4
COMPLETION OF THE ACCOUNTING CYCLE

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