### Aerodrome Inspectors Training * Module 2

```AERODROME OPERATIONS
TRAINING – MODULE 2
Aircraft Operations and Systems
LEARNING OUTCOME
Participants will gain an overview of aircrafts
operations, and systems including:
 Principles of flight
 Propulsion systems
 Navigation systems and
 Performance
With access to performance graphs they will be
able to calculate take off and landing weights and
PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT
NEWTONS 3 LAWS
1. A body continues to maintain its state of rest or
of uniform motion unless acted upon by an
external unbalanced force.
2.
F = ma: the net force on an object is equal to the
mass of the object multiplied by its acceleration.
3.
To every action there is an equal and opposite
reaction.
PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT
LIFT
 Bernoulli’s Theorem When the speed of a fluid
increases the pressure decreases
 Reaction to wing deflecting air downwards
PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT
LIFT and DRAG
Lift = Coefficient Lift x ½ (air density x v2 x S)
Drag = Coefficient Drag x ½ (air density x v2 x S)
PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT
LIFT – STALL ANGLE OF ATTACK
PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT
FOUR FORCES AIRCRAFT IN FLIGHT
Lift = Weight
Thrust = Drag
FLIGHT CONTROLS – 3 AXIS
Lateral axis – pitch controlled by elevators
 Longitudinal axis – roll controlled by ailerons
 Vertical axis – yaw controlled by rudder

FLIGHT CONTROLS
Flight controls vary the effective angle of attack of the given
lifting surface thus varying the amount of force (lift) produced.
FLIGHT CONTROLS - FLAPS
Increase angle of attack and surface area thus enabling wing
to produce more lift and drag at lower speeds (take-off/landing)
AIRCRAFT TURNING
Roll
Turn
PROPULSION SYSTEMS - PROPELLERS
Powered by either piston engine or gas turbine (turbo-prop)
Cross section an aerofoil like a wing
but varying pitch angle due to tip
travelling faster than hub.
Fixed pitch compromise between takeoff and cruise speed.
Variable pitch enable optimum pitch
setting thru out speed range
PROPULSION SYSTEM – TURBO-JET
Oldest form of jet engine, still in use for high speed aircraft such
as supersonic military aircraft.
•Not efficient – high fuel consumption
•High noise levels
PROPULSION SYSTEM – TURBO-FAN
High thrust levels, fuel efficient, quiet, limited mainly to sub-sonic





Basic: Compass, clock, maps, Dead-reckoning,
visual fixes
DME, ILS
Aircraft: Inertial Navigation System (INS)
Space: Global Navigation Satellite System
(GNSS) or GPS
Integrated: Flight Management System (FMS)
NDB- Non-Directional Beacon Ground based
subsystem Transmitting a simple radio signal on
the M/F broadcast band. Signal follows curvature
of earth so can be used at greater distances than
line of sight navaids
 ADF- Aircraft subsystem consisting of radio
receiver and directional indicator showing
relative bearing to NDB. When read in
conjunction with compass a magnetic bearing can
be established
 Limitations: Outdate system subject to number
of errors – Night, Terrain, Electrical, Coastline,
Bank. High pilot work load (not able to be
coupled to auto-pilot)

NAVIGATION SYSTEM - VOR
VHF Omni-directional Range (VOR)
Ground subsystem consists of a transmitter
108-117.95 MHz. 2 methods of transmitting
Doppler and Conventional. Navigation signal
aligned to magnetic north. Limited to line of
sight.
and omni bearing selector (OBS) with CDI and
To/From indicator. Desired course to/from the
VOR is selected on OBS and CDI centres when
on course.
NAVIGATION SYSTEM - ILS
Instrument Landing System (ILS) – Ground sub-system
Consists of two major components
Localizer providing azimuth guidance
with respect to the runway centreline.
Localizer array installed on up wind end of
Runway and transmits signal in VHF band
108 – 111.95 MHz
Glide-slope providing vertical flight path
guidance normally 3° with 50ft threshold
Crossing height. Glide-slope antenna
Installed abeam touchdown zone transmits
Signal in UHF band 329-335MHz.
Ranging information is also provided
By DME or Marker beacons
NAVIGATION SYSTEM - ILS
ILS Aircraft Sub-system
ILS is selected on same nav receiver as VOR with
GS automatically selected to paired Localizer
Frequency. ILS nav information displayed on same
CDI as VOR but OBS is inhibited.
•Top display aircraft is on localizer course and on GS
•Centre left of localizer course and above GS
•Bottom right of localizer course and below GS
Category 1 minima down to 200ft – 800m vis
Category 2 minima down to 100ft – 350m vis
Category 3 A 50ft – 200m, B 0ft – 50m, C 0ft – 0m
NAVIGATION SYSTEM – DME & TRANSPONDER
Aircraft DME system interrogates ground station
And times delay in reply which it displays as a
slant
Distance in NM to the station. Ground station
normally co-sited with VOR or ILS
ATC transponder works in reverse to DME
whereby ground secondary surveillance radar
(SSR) interrogates aircraft transponder and
times delay in response along with azimuth of
bearing to display aircraft position to controller.
Also able to send unique aircraft identifier
(Mode A) and other info such as altitude (Mode
C) and data (Mode S)
NAVIGATION SYSTEM - RNAV
Using ground based navaids requires aircraft to route via
overhead the various navaids whereas RNAV capability permits direct
Routing.
Initially RNAV capability was
limited to large jet aircraft
equipped with INS and system
Accuracy only supported enroute
Nav. GPS (GNSS) has now given
This capability to all aircraft and
enhanced accuracy to enable
instrument approaches similar
to VOR/DME capability
RNAV - DEVELOPMENTS
RNP: Required Navigation Performance – figure
of aircrafts nav Capability within 95% of time.
• RNP 10 – Oceanic enroute,
• RNP 4 – Domestic enroute
• RNP 0.3 Non-precision approach
 BARO/VNAV modern aircraft capability of
vertical navigation profile Similar to ILS
although not to same accuracy
 GNSS: Augmentation systems GBAS, SBAS
 PBN: Performance Based Navigation – ICAO
strategy for managing the implementation of all
of the above RNAV technologies

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ATMOSPHERE

ISA is an atmospheric model of how the pressure,
temperature, density, and viscosity of the Earths
atmosphere change over a wide range of
altitudes. Provides a standard to certify aircraft
performance.
Height ft
Temp °C
Pressure
hPa
Lapse rate
°C/1000ft
0
15.0
1013.2
1.98
36,000
-56.5
226
0
AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION
Two main certification standards for air transport aircraft• United States FAR 25
• European JAR 25
Both standards very similar and either acceptable for NZ CAA.
Certification includes strict take-off and landing performance
requirements.

Air Operator Certification requires additional margins over the
base certified performance as per CAR Part 121 Subpart D.
(b) Each holder of an air operator certificate shall ensure that, for
each aeroplane it operates, the landing weight for the estimated
time of landing at the destination aerodrome and at any alternate
aerodrome allows a full stop landing on a dry runway from a
point 50 feet above the threshold within— 60% of the landing
distance available at the destination and at any alternate
aerodrome for a turbojet or turbofan powered aeroplane;

TAKE-OFF PERFORMANCE
Take-off Run (TORA)
SOT – Vlof
Take-off Distance (TODA)
SOT – 35ft
Accelerate/Stop (ASDA)
SOT-V1- Stop
Landing Distance (LDA)
50ft over THR
Balanced field length: TORA=TODA=ASDA
TAKE-OFF GRAPH
Calculate Max Take-off Weight
Runway length 2000m
Sea Level
Temperature ISA
Runway Dry
Flaps 15
LANDING GRAPH
Calculate maximum landing weight
Runway length 1814m
Sea level
Runway wet
Take-off weight from slide 25
Distance 2000nm
OEW
PRACTICAL EXERCISE
1.Does the aircraft stall speed remain constant or vary with weight?
2.To roll the aircraft to the right requires the left aileron to go …..?
3.What ground navaid does the aircraft ADF utilise?
4.What is the aircraft relative position to the ILS course and glideslope
from the CDI below?
PRACTICAL EXERCISE - PERFORMANCE
1.
Calculate the maximum take-off weight for a
Boeing 777-200 for Runway 2000m. SL given
Temperature ISA +15, runway dry
2.
Calculate the maximum payload for the above for
a 3800nm flight using an OEW of 136,000kg
3.
Calculate runway distance required to land an
Airbus A320 at MLW given altitude 2000ft,
runway wet.
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