chapter1

Report
The Sentence and Its Parts
Mr. Bush
Chapter 1
Complete Subjects and Predicates
• Here’s the Idea
– In order to share ideas and information
successfully, you need to use complete sentences.
– A sentence is a group of words that expresses a
complete thought.
– Every complete sentence has two basic parts: a
subject and a predicate.
Complete Subjects and Predicates
• Every sentence has two basic parts: a subject
and a predicate.
1. The complete subject includes all the words
that tell whom or what the sentence is
about.
Some architects bring nature indoors.
2. The complete predicate includes the verb and
all the words that complete the verb’s
meaning.
Some architects bring nature indoors.
Finding Complete Subjects and
Predicates
• Ex. Some architects bring nature indoors.
1. To find the complete subject, as who or what
does something (or is something).
Who bring nature indoors? Some architects
2. To find the complete predicate, ask what the
subject does (or is).
What do some architects do? bring nature
indoors.
Practice and Apply
1. Frank Lloyd Wright designed an unusual
home in Pennsylvania woods.
2. The owners called the house Fallingwater.
3. Sections of the house jut over a waterfall.
4. Its stone walls blend in with the natural
surroundings.
5. More than 130,000 people visit the site each
year.
Practice and Apply
6. Tourists can see a very different house near
Spring Green, Wisconsin.
7. The architect Alex Jordan built House on the
Rock on a column of sandstone.
8. Its many rooms contain unique furnishing.
9. An automated band plays music all day for the
tourists.
10. This odd house attracts half an million
visitors a year.
Check your answers
1. Frank Lloyd Wright designed and unusual
home in Pennsylvania woods.
2. The owners called the house Fallingwater.
3. Sections of the house jut over a waterfall.
4. Its stone walls blend in with the natural
surroundings.
5. More than 130,000 people visit the site each
year.
Check your answers
6. Tourists can see a very different house near
Spring Green, Wisconsin.
7. The architect Alex Jordan built House on the
Rock on a column of sandstone.
8. Its many rooms contain unique furnishing.
9. An automated band plays music all day for the
tourists.
10. This odd house attracts half an million
visitors a year.
Simple Subjects
• You have learned that one basic part of a
sentence is the complete subject. Now you
will learn about the key part of the complete
subject.
• The simple subject is the main word or words
in the complete subject. Descriptive words
are not part of the simple subject.
• Ex. An expectant seal builds a shelter in a
snowdrift.
Simple Subjects
• Underline the complete subject once,
complete predicate twice and the simple
subject three times.
• Ex. The cozy shelter hides her newborn pup.
Simple Subject
• The cozy shelter hides her newborn pup.
• When a proper name is used as a subject, all
parts of the name make up the simple subject.
• Ex. Robert Peary explored the North Pole.
Practice and Apply
Write the simple subject of each sentence. Remember, descriptive words are not part
of the simple subject.
1. Many animals need shelter from cold and
predators.
2. Lodges on islands often give beavers the best
protection.
3. These homes are built up from the bottom of
the pond.
4. Strong saplings are anchored into the mud.
5. The sturdy rodents then pile debris into a
mound.
Practice and Apply
6. Branches buried in the mud are food for the
winter.
7. The whole family lives together in the snug
burrow.
8. Their warm bodies keep the temperature
comfortable.
9. Predators can claw at the frozen lodge.
10.The crafty beavers stay safe and warm inside.
Check your answers
1. Many animals need shelter from cold and
predators.
2. Lodges on islands often give beavers the best
protection.
3. These homes are built up from the bottom of
the pond.
4. Strong saplings are anchored into the mud.
5. The sturdy rodents then pile debris into a
mound.
Check your answers
6. Branches buried in the mud are food for the
winter.
7. The whole family lives together in the snug
burrow.
8. Their warm bodies keep the temperature
comfortable.
9. Predators can claw at the frozen lodge.
10.The crafty beavers stay safe and warm inside.
Simple Predicates, or Verbs
• The simple predicate, or verb, is the main
word or words in the complete predicate.
• Ex. Prairie pioneers lived in sod houses.
• ‘lived in sod houses’ is our complete predicate
• ‘lived’ is our simple predicate
• Find the simple predicate:
• Few trees grow in the prairie grasslands.
Simple Predicates, or Verbs
• A verb is a word used to express an action, a
condition, or state or being. A linking verb tells
what the subject is. An action verb tells what the
subject does, even when the action cannot be
seen.
• Pioneers made sod bricks. (action you can see)
• They wanted a sturdy home. (action you can’t
see)
• Sod houses stayed cool in hot weather. (linking)
Practice and Apply
Write the simple predicate, or verb, in each sentence.
1. My great-grandparents lived in a sod house, or
“soddy,” on the Kansas prairie.
2. They traveled west from their home in
Tennessee.
3. Then men used nearly an acre of sod for the
house.
4. The home had only two windows and one door.
5. My family built their soddy in the side of a hill.
Practice and Apply
6. Sometimes the cows ate the grass on the
roof.
7. Once, a cow fell through the roof into the
house!
8. Heavy rains at times soaked through the sod.
9. The dirt floor tuned into a giant mud puddle.
10. Still, sod houses protected my family from
harsh winters.
Check your answers
1. My great-grandparents lived in a sod house, or
“soddy,” on the Kansas prairie.
2. They traveled west from their home in
Tennessee.
3. Then men used nearly an acre of sod for the
house.
4. The home had only two windows and one door.
5. My family built their soddy in the side of a hill.
Check your answers
6. Sometimes the cows ate the grass on the
roof.
7. Once, a cow fell through the roof into the
house!
8. Heavy rains at times soaked through the sod.
9. The dirt floor tuned into a giant mud puddle.
10. Still, sod houses protected my family from
harsh winters.
Verb Phrases
• The simple predicate, or verb, may consist of two
or more words. These words are called a verb
phrase.
• A verb phrase is made up of a main verb and one
or more helping verbs.
• Ex: A “smart house” may cook your food for you.
• ‘may cook’ is our verb phrase
• ‘may’ is our helping verb
• ‘cook’ is our main verb
Verb Phrase
• A main verb can stand by itself as the simple
predicate of a sentence.
• Ex: Computer networks run smart houses.
(action and main verb)
• The network is the brain of the house. (linking
and main verb)
Verb Phrase
• One or more helping verbs help main verbs
express action or show time.
• Ex. Computer networks will run smart houses.
• ‘will run’ is our verb phrase
• ‘will’ is our helping verb
• ‘run’ is our main verb
Verb Phrase
• Ex. The network has been turning the lights on
and off.
• Ex. It will have been programmed for all
seasons.
• Common Helping Verbs
Forms of be
is, am, are, was, were, be, been
Forms of do
do, does, did
Forms of have
has, have, did
Others
may, might, can, should, could, would, shall, will
Practice and Apply
Write the verb phrase in each sentence below. Include all helping verbs.
1. The first “smart house” was developed in the
early 1980’s.
2. Its appliances could communicate with each
other.
3. Suppose you were running the vacuum cleaner.
4. The noise might keep you from hearing the
phone.
5. In that situation the house would stop the
vacuum cleaner automatically.
Practice and Apply
6. Those with disabilities may benefit the most
from a smart house.
7. The house will perform some of the tasks
beyond their capability.
8. For example, meals could be brought to a
person’s bed.
9. The food will have been prepared by a smart
kitchen
10. Surely you can imagine other uses for a smart
house.
Check your answers
1. The first “smart house” was developed in the
early 1980’s.
2. Its appliances could communicate with each
other.
3. Suppose you were running the vacuum cleaner.
4. The noise might keep you from hearing the
phone.
5. In that situation the house would stop the
vacuum cleaner automatically.
Check your answers
6. Those with disabilities may benefit the most
from a smart house.
7. The house will perform some of the tasks
beyond their capability.
8. For example, meals could be brought to a
person’s bed.
9. The food will have been prepared by a smart
kitchen
10. Surely you can imagine other uses for a smart
house.
Compound Sentence Parts
• Sentences have compound subjects and
compound verbs.
• A compound subject is made up of two or
more subjects that share the same verb. The
subject are joined by a conjunction, or
connecting word, such as and, or, or but.
• Ex. Salyut 1 and Skylab were the first space
stations.
Compound Sentence Parts
• Ex. Salyut 1 and Skylab were the first space
stations.
• ‘Salyut 1 and Skylab’ is our compound subject
• ‘were’ is our linking verb
• Ex. American astronauts or Russian
cosmonauts lived aboard the stations.
• What is our compound subject and verb?
Compound Sentence Parts
• A compound verb is made up of two or more
verbs that have the same subject. The verbs are
joined be a conjunction such as and, or, or but.
• The Skylab crew worked and slept in close
quarters.
• ‘crew’ is our subject
• ‘worked and slept’ is our compound verb
• Ex. They worked hard but slept little.
• What is our subject and compound verb?
Practice and Apply
Write the compound subject or the compound verb in each sentence.
1. Space stations and orbiting platforms are our
first step away from Earth.
2. In the future, we may design and build outerspace cities.
3. Several nations or international groups could
pool their resources.
4. They could create and manage a colony on the
moon.
5. Minerals and other raw materials would be
shipped to colonies in space.
Practice and Apply
6. We already design and plan model cities.
7. In one design, two huge cylinders and their solar
panels form the main body of space city.
8. The cylinders rotate and create an artificial
gravity.
9. Special greenhouses shelter and sustain the
city’s food.
10.These cities or other space colonies could bring
us closer to the stars!
Check your answers
1. Space stations and orbiting platforms are our
first step away from Earth.
2. In the future, we may design and build outerspace cities.
3. Several nations or international groups could
pool their resources.
4. They could create and manage a colony on the
moon.
5. Minerals and other raw materials would be
shipped to colonies in space.
Check your answers
6. We already design and plan model cities.
7. In one design, two huge cylinders and their solar
panels form the main body of space city.
8. The cylinders rotate and create an artificial
gravity.
9. Special greenhouses shelter and sustain the
city’s food.
10.These cities or other space colonies could bring
us closer to the stars!
Kinds of Sentences
• A sentence can be used to make a statement,
to ask a question, to make a request or give a
command, or to show strong feelings.
Kinds of sentences
Declarative
Interrogative
Imperative
Exclamatory
What it Does
Examples
Makes a statement;
always ends with a
period.
I see something weird in
that tree. It looks like a
gray basketball.
Asks a question; always
ends with a question
mark.
What do you think it is?
Is it a hornet’s nest?
Tells or asks someone to
do something; usually
ends with a period but
may end with an
exclamation point.
Please don’t get too
close to it.
Be careful!
Shows strong feeling;
always ends with an
I see hornets flying out!
I’m getting out of here!
Practice and Apply
Identify each of the following sentences as declarative (D), interrogative (INT),
exclamatory (E), or imperative (IMP).
1. Did you know that some wasps build round,
gray nests that can be as big as beach balls?
2. The nests are made from cellulose and are
very strong.
3. Stay away from wasps.
4. Their string is very painful!
5. Yellow jackets are really yellow and black.
Practice and Apply
6. Do they eat many insect pests?
7. They live in colonies and build papery nests
in spaces underground or in walls and attics.
8. Did you know that their nests may have from
300 to more than 100,000 cells?
9. Yellow jackets are dangerous only if you get
too close to their nest.
10. Don’t ever try to move a nest yourself.
Check your answers
1. Did you know that some wasps build round,
gray nests that can be as big as beach balls?
INT
2. The nests are made from cellulose and are
very strong. D
3. Stay away from wasps. IMP
4. Their string is very painful! E
5. Yellow jackets are really yellow and black. D
Check your answers
6. Do they eat many insect pests? INT
7. They live in colonies and build papery nests
in spaces underground or in walls and attics.
D
8. Did you know that their nests may have from
300 to more than 100,000 cells? INT
9. Yellow jackets are dangerous only if you get
too close to their nest. D
10. Don’t ever try to move a nest yourself. IMP
Subjects in Unusual Order
• In most declarative sentences, subjects come
before verbs. In some kinds of sentences,
however, subjects can come between verb
parts, follow verbs, or not appear at all.
Subjects in Unusual Order
• Questions
• In a question, the subject usually come after
verb or between parts of the verb phrase.
• Does the weather look good for the game?
• ‘does’ and ‘look’ is our verb phrase
• ‘weather’ is our subject of the sentence
Subjects in Unusual Order
• To find the subject, turn the question into a
statement. Then ask who or what is or does
something.
• Ex. Are you staying home?
• Change the sentence into, ‘You are staying
home.’
• Then ask yourself, “Who is staying?” you
• ‘You’ is the subject of the sentence.
Subjects in Unusual Order
• Commands
• The subject of a command, or imperative
sentence, is usually you. Often, you doesn’t
appear in the sentence because it is implied.
• Meet us at the concession stand. You, is implied
in this command sentence.
• (You) Meet us at the concession stand.
• ‘You’ is our subject.
• ‘Meet’ is our verb.
Subjects in Unusual Order
• Sentences Beginning with Here or There
• In some sentences beginning with here or
there, subjects follow verbs. To find the
subject in such a sentence, look for the verb
and ask the question who or what. Find the
subject by looking at the words that follow the
verb.
Subjects in Unusual Order
• Ex. Here comes your all-state championship
team.
• 1. Ask yourself who or what ‘comes’? team
• ‘comes’ is our verb
• ‘team’ is our subject
• Try it:
• There goes our best rebounder.
Practice and Apply
Underline the subject once and the verb or verb phrase twice in these sentences.
1. There are some benefits to games at the
home stadium.
2. In the bleachers sit all your fans.
3. There are fewer hostile fans from the other
team.
4. Is travel time shorter to and from the game?
5. On the field can be seen special landscaping.
Practice and Apply
6. Will the umpires give the home team a
break?
7. Does the team usually play better on its own
field?
8. Look at the team’s record for the season.
9. There are more wins at home.
10. Plan more home games for next year.
Check your answers
1. There are some benefits to games at the
home stadium.
2. In the bleachers sit all your fans.
3. There are fewer hostile fans from the other
team.
4. Is travel time shorter to and from the game?
5. On the field can be seen special landscaping.
Check your answers
6. Will the umpires give the home team a
break?
7. Does the team usually play better on its own
field?
8. Look at the team’s record for the season. You
9. There are more wins at home.
10. Plan more home games for next year. You
Subject Complements
• A complement is a word or a group of words
that completes the meaning of a verb. Two
kinds of complements are subject
complements and objects of verbs.
• A subject complement is a word or group of
words that follows a linking verb and renames
or describes the subject.
• A linking verb links the subject with a noun or
an adjective that tells more about it.
Subject Complements
•
•
•
•
Ex. Butterflies are fragile.
‘Butterflies’ is our subject
‘are’ is our linking verb
‘fragile’ is our complement- ‘fragile’ is
describing ‘Butterflies’
• Common Linking Verbs:
• am, is, are, was, were, be, been
• appear, become, feel, look, sound, seem, taste
Predicate Nouns and Predicate
Adjectives
• A predicate noun follows a linking verb and
defines or renames the subject.
• Monarch butterflies are insects.
• ‘butterflies’ is our subject
• ‘are’ is our linking verb
• ‘insects’ is our predicate noun that defines
‘butterflies’
Predicate Nouns and Predicate
Adjectives
•
•
•
•
•
Ex.
Cocoons become butterfly nurseries.
‘Cocoons’ is our subject
‘become’ is our linking verb
‘nurseries’ is our predicate noun that renames
‘cocoons’
Predicate Nouns and Predicate
Adjectives
• A predicate adjective follows a linking verb
and describes a quality of the subject.
• Ex.
• Monarchs look beautiful.
• ‘Monarchs’ is our subject
• ‘look’ is our linking verb
• ‘beautiful’ is our predicate adjective
Practice and Apply
Write the underlined word in each sentence, and identify it as a predicate noun (PN)
or a predicate adjective (PA).
1. Migration routes are highways in the sky for
birds.
2. The migration of songbirds is difficult to
track.
3. The birds are too little to carry radio
transmitters.
4. Identification bands can be useful in tracking
migration.
5. The bands often become loose, however.
Practice and Apply
6. Fortunately, the isotope deuterium has been
helpful.
7. Deuterium is a form of hydrogen found in
rainwater.
8. Deuterium becomes part of plants, insects, and
birds.
9. Deuterium levels become higher as you go
farther south.
10. Now scientists feel hopeful about tracking
migrations.
Check Your Answers
1. Migration routes are highways in the sky for
birds. PN
2. The migration of songbirds is difficult to
track. PA
3. The birds are too little to carry radio
transmitters. PA
4. Identification bands can be useful in tracking
migration. PA
5. The bands often become loose, however. PA
Check Your Answers
6. Fortunately, the isotope deuterium has been
helpful. PA
7. Deuterium is a form of hydrogen found in
rainwater. PN
8. Deuterium becomes part of plants, insects, and
birds. PN
9. Deuterium levels become higher as you go
farther south. PA
10. Now scientists feel hopeful about tracking
migrations. PA
Objects of Verbs
• In addition to subject complements, There are
objects of verbs. Action verbs often need
complements called direct objects and
indirect object to complete their meaning.
Objects of Verbs
• Direct Objects
• A direct object is a word or group of words
that names the receiver of the action of an
action verb. A direct object answers the
question what or whom.
• Movie producers often borrow real homes.
• ‘borrow’ is our verb
• ‘homes’ is our direct object.
Objects of Verbs
•
•
•
•
Example:
The right house can charm viewers.
1. Find your verb:
2. Ask ‘who or what’ + verb= direct object
Objects of Verbs
• Indirect Objects
• An indirect object is a word or group of words
that tells to whom or what (or for whom or
what) an action is performed. An indirect
object comes between a verb and a direct
object.
Object of Verbs
•
•
•
•
•
Example
We lent the producer our house.
‘lent’ is our verb
‘house’ is our direct object
‘producer’ is our indirect object
Object of Verbs
• We lent the producer our house.
• 1. What is the verb?
• 2. To find the direct object, ask, (verb) what?
• 3. To find the indirect object, ask, (verb) to or
for whom?
Objects of Verbs
• Example
• The producer paid us rent money.
Practice and Apply
Write the objects in these sentences, identifying each as a direct object (DO) or an
indirect object (IO).
1. Bill Gates owns a very technologically
advanced house.
2. The house gives its inhabitants a high level of
comfort and convenience.
3. Each visitor to the house carries an electronic
identifier.
4. The device gives the house information.
5. The house can then grant the visitor’s wishes.
Practice and Apply
6. Such a house can teach researchers many things
about homes for people with disabilities.
7. For example, the house can bring you music in
every room.
8. A similar house could provide aids for the visually
challenged.
9. Voice instructions could give a visually challenged
person information about running appliances.
10. Gates’s house also has a 32-screen video wall.
Check Your Answers
1. Bill Gates owns a very technologically advanced
house. DO
2. The house gives its inhabitants a high level of
comfort and convenience. IO/DO
3. Each visitor to the house carries an electronic
identifier. DO
4. The device gives the house information. IO/DO
5. The house can then grant the visitor’s wishes.
DO
Check Your Answers
6. Such a house can teach researchers many things about
homes for people with disabilities. IO/DO
7. For example, the house can bring you music in every
room. IO/DO
8. A similar house could provide aids for the visually
challenged. DO
9. Voice instructions could give a visually challenged
person information about running appliances. IO/DO
10. Gates’s house also has a 32-screen video wall. DO

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