DGP Review PPT - Greeley Schools

Report
DGP MIDTERM
REVIEW
Sentences 1-10
TRANSITIVE VERBS
The Two Rules:
a.
It must be an action verb
b.
It must be followed by a noun or pronoun which
receives the action (called a direct object)
TRANSITIVE VERB EXAMPLE: KICKED
Action verb
Silvia kicked Juan under the table.
Direct Object
( he receives the kick)
TRANSITIVE VERB EXAMPLE: WROTE
Action verb
Alicia wrote a love letter on a restaurant napkin.
Direct Object
( what she wrote)
INTRANSITIVE VERBS:
Two Types of Intransitive Verbs:
Linking Verbs
- All linking verbs are intransitive verbs
a.
Action Verbs
- If an action verb is intransitive, it will not have a
noun (direct object) to receive the action.
b.
INTRANSITIVE EXAMPLES:
Action Verb
Huffing and puffing, we arrived
Prepositional Phrase
at the classroom door
Prepositional Phrase
with only seven seconds to spare.
INTRANSITIVE VERB EXAMPLE:
Action Verb
Sheryl sneezed with violence.
Prepositional Phrase
FINAL TIPS FOR
TRANSITIVE VS. INTRANSITIVE:

-

-
-
For Action Verbs:
It’s not really about the verb itself, it is about
what comes AFTER the verb.
If you can take the verb, ask the question “what”
and find a reasonable answer in the sentence, it
is Transitive.
For Linking Verbs:
Make sure you are strictly looking at a linking
verb, not a helping verb. Remember, helping
verbs are followed by action verbs!
All solo linking verbs are intransitive!
NOW YOU DECIDETRANSITIVE OR INTRANSITIVE?
Action Verb
Rosa usually eats whole-grain cereal for breakfast.
Direct Object
This action verb is
TRANSITIVE!
NOW YOU DECIDETRANSITIVE OR INTRANSITIVE?
Action Verb
During cross-country practice, Damien runs
Prepositional Phrases
over hills, through fields, across the river, and
along the highway.
This action verb is
INTRANSITIVE!
NOW YOU DECIDETRANSITIVE OR INTRANSITIVE?
Helping
Verb
In the spring, Damien will run his first marathon.
Action
Verb
Direct Object
This action verb combo is
TRANSITIVE!
ALL THE “PREDICATE” STUFF
The part of a sentence which contains the verb
 Usually happens AFTER the subject.
 Predicates always state something about the
subject:
a. Describe the subject (an adjective or adjective
phrase)
b. Renaming the subject (with a noun)

PREDICATE ADJECTIVE

Predicate Adjectives follow a formula:
Called
the P.A.
Subject+ Linking Verb+ Adjective
All of this is part of the predicate
PREDICATE ADJECTIVE EXAMPLES
Linking
Verb
Pie is delicious.
Subject
Adjective
describing the
subject
PREDICATE NOMINATIVE

Predicate Nominatives follow this formula:
Called
the P.N.
Subject+ Linking Verb+ Noun
All of this is part of the predicate

The noun in a PN always renames the subject!
Remember: Nombre and Nominative have the
same root word!
PREDICATE NOMINATIVE EXAMPLE:
Linking
Verb
Pie is a dessert.
Subject
Noun renames
the subject
PA, PN, OR DO?
Linking
Verb
Predicate
Adjective!
Maria is hungry for pie.
Subject
Adjective
describing the
subject
PA, PN, OR DO?
Linking
Verb
The girl behind Jose is smarter than me.
Subject
Adjective
describing the
subject
Predicate
Adjective!
PA, PN, OR DO?
Predicate
Nominative!
Linking
Verb
The girl behind Jose is a genius.
Subject
Noun renaming
the subject
PA, PN, OR DO?
Action
Verb
The girl behind Jose failed the test.
Subject
Noun does not
rename the
subject
Direct
Object!
DIFFERENT TYPES OF CONJUNCTIONS


a.
b.
c.
All conjunctions join/hook together words,
phrases or clauses.
Types of Conjunctions we’ve discussed:
Coordinating
Subordinating
Correlative
COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS:
The most common conjunctions
 Show that items have equal emphasis in the
sentence.
 Joins two or more main clauses or main together

Remember the Acronym: FANBOYS
F= For
A= And
N= Nor
B= But
O= Or
Y= Yet
S= So
COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS:
When I go to the store I want to buy peaches,
pears, and oranges.
All items on my list are important!
Diana stared dreamily at the handsome Mr.
McKenzie, but Olivia, who hated economics,
furiously jiggled her foot in attempt to ignore him.
Both girls are equally important to the sentence’s
purpose (to compare)!
SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
The THREE Jobs of a Subordinating Conjunction:
a.
b.
c.
To transition between an independent clause
and a dependent clause.
To indicate a time, a place, or a cause/effect
relationship.
To show that one clause is more important than
the other.
Don’t confuse a SC with a Preposition!
SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTION EXAMPLE:
More important
clause (Ind. Cl)
SC
Ron begins to sneeze violently whenever the girl
next to him sprays her flowery perfume.
Less important
clause (Dep. Cl.)
SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTION EXAMPLE:
SC
Less important
clause (Dep. Cl.)
Even though Dana persevered at the calculus
exam, she was only adding another F beside her
name in her teacher’s grade book.
More important
clause (Ind. Cl)
OTHER SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
after
although
as
because
before
even if
even though
if
in order that
once
provided that
rather than
since
so that
than
that
though
unless
until
when
whenever
where
whereas
wherever
whether
while
why
PREPOSITIONS:
Prepositions
show where
things are in the world
-
Where things are in space or location
Where things are in time
LOCATION PREPOSITIONS:
The puppy is on the
floor.
The puppy is in the
trash can.
The puppy is beside
the phone.
OTHER LOCATION PREPOSITIONS:
by
 near
 nearby
 above
 below
 Over
 Under
 Up
 down
 around

through
 inside
 outside (of)
 between
 beside
 beyond
 in front of
 in back of
 behind
 next to

on top of
 within
 beneath
 underneath
 among
 along
 against
 In
 On

TIME PREPOSITIONS

These are the same as subordinating
conjunctions (word wise) but function simply to
tell WHEN something occurred, not to link two
phrases together.
•
•
•
•
Before
After
During
At
• Since
• While
• Meanwhile
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES:


1.
2.

Remember, a phrase means “a related group of
words”
Two simple parts of a Prepositional Phrase (PP)
Always begins with a preposition
Always ends with a noun (sometimes pronoun
or gerund).
In between part 1 and 2, there may be some
added adjectives or other modifiers.
FIND THE PHRASE:
The coyote runs after the rabbit.
The car stalled despite the tune-up.
The team won without the starting quarterback.
FIND THE PHRASES:
The old farmhouse stood for years, after the revolution,
by the fork in the road, beyond the orange grove, over
the wooden bridge, at the farthest edge of the family's
land, toward the great basin, down in the valley, under
the old mining town, outside the city's limits, and past
the end of the county maintained road.
OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION

The object of the preposition answers the
following question:
Preposition + WHAT? = Object of the preposition
Example: I am at school.
at WHAT?
School!
LABEL THE OBJECTS:
The old farmhouse stood (for years), (after the
revolution), (by the fork) (in the road), (beyond
the orange grove), (over the wooden bridge), (at
the farthest edge) (of the family's land), (toward
the great basin), (down in the valley), (under the
old mining town), (outside the city's limits), and
(past the end) (of the county maintained road.)
VERBALS

Verbals are words that are created using a verb,
but which function as a noun, adjective or
adverb.
TYPES OF VERBALS: GERUNDS
A verb which acts as a NOUN.
 Key to remember: Gerund sounds like Gerald, a
name for a man. A man is a NOUN.

Rules:
1. Verb+ ing
2. Can either be a SUBJECT , DIRECT OBJECT
or OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION in a sentence.
GERUNDS IN CONTEXT
Reading is fun.
Gerund as a subject.
I enjoy shopping.
Gerund as a direct object.
I use pencils for drawing.
Gerund as an OP.
TYPES OF VERBALS: PARTICIPLES

A verb acting as an ADJECTIVE.

Rules:
Verb+ ing followed by a noun.
OR
Verb+ed followed by a noun.
PARTICIPLES IN CONTEXT
I have running shoes.
Frightened, I ran down the street.
It’s an unspoken rule.
TYPES OF VERBALS: INFINITIVES
A verb acting like a noun, adjective, or an adverb
 Easiest type of verbal to identify:

Rule:
To+ verb

INFINITIVES IN CONTEXT

I like to eat.

It is the best place to eat.
Infinitive as noun
(D.O.)
Infinitive as
adjective

I need a pen to write a letter.
Infinitive as adverb
PRONOUNS


a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
In general, a pronoun replaces or renames a noun
with a more simple, general name.
There are many types of Pronouns:
Nominative
Possessive
Demonstrative
Indefinite
Relative
Reflexive
And more! (we aren’t going over more than this
though!)
NOMINATIVE PRONOUNS:
Directly rename something in the sentence.
 The most common pronouns:

1st Pers. Nom
I
Me
We
Us
2nd Pers. Nom
You
3rd Pers. Nom
He/She/It
They/Them
POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS:

Show that somebody owns something, or that
something belongs to them.
His
 Her’s
 My
 Mine
 Their
 Their’s
 Your
 Your’s

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS

Represents a thing (or things)
This
 That
 These
 Those

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS

Refer to something undefined by the sentence.
The indefinite pronoun could almost be anything.
All
 Another
 Anybody
 Anyone
 Nobody
 None
 Few
 Any

RELATIVE PRONOUN


Introduces somebody in the sentence such as:
The person who called me last night was my
mom.
Who
 Whom
 Whose
 Which
 That

REFLEXIVE PRONOUN

Refers to a normal nominative pronoun, but ends
in the word “self”
Himself/Herself
 Themselves
 Ourselves
 Yourselves
 Itself


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