Conserving Marine Areas National Marine Conservation Areas (NMCA’s) NMCAS: Who’s in Charge? Depends on location of area. – Parks Canada – Within Nat. Parks and Historic Sites Establishment of MPA’s Other Public Lands You are! – Conservation tasks – Education – Voting – Private Lands Landowners NMCA: Why and What? They are areas managed for sustainable use and containing a smaller zone of high protection-Why? They may contain the sea floor, water column, estuaries, islands, etc. Protected from a variety of potentially harmful practices (Drilling, dumping, mining, overfishing etc.) NMCA: How? Identify Marine Areas – – – – Geological features (cliffs, beaches, etc) Marine features (tides, ice, salinity, etc) Biota (Plants, birds, fish, mammals) Archaeologically and historically significant. Then, based upon the standards above make and area a candidate for listing as a NMCA. NMCA: How? Selecting a site depends upon many factors including… – – – – – – Importance for maintaining biodiversity Critical habitat for endangered species Exceptional natural/cultural features Minimizing conflict with resource users Threats to sustainability (i.e. protecting spawning grounds) Aboriginal claims and uses NMCA: How? Is creating a NMCA feasible? – – Based on a feasibility study… – Requires the cooperation of other federal departments/provincial/territorial governments Local communities, regional stakeholders, Aboriginal peoples. Negotiate and agreement (amongst parties above) Establishment!!!! – Canada National Marine Conservation Areas Act Marine Protected Areas (MPA’s) Who’s in Charge Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans Users of the Resource (commercial and non commercial) Managed within a specific plan for that MPA MPA’s: Why and What? Areas established by the DFO to protect: – Commercial and non-commercial fishery resources and habitats – Endangered marine species and their habitats – Basin Head Irish moss Unique habitats – Gilbert Bay Cod Endeavor Hydrothermal Vents (Pacific) Highly diverse and productive areas Musquash Estuary Why is protection of these things important??? NMCA vs. MPA: What’re the main differences? NMCA Run by Parks Canada Focuses on cultural and historical sites Focus include other species Often sites are established for education and enjoyment Think: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (National Wildlife Refuges) MPA Run by Canada’s DFO Focus: Commercial and Non commercial fishery resources and habitats Endangered marine species Unique habitats and those of high diversity and prod. Think: U.S.’s NOAA NMFS Marine Wildlife Areas (MWA’s): Who’s in Charge? Environment Canada Established as an amendment to the Canada Wildlife Act, these areas are part of the greater National Wildlife Areas in Canada. – – Extended Canadian protection to 200 naut. Miles From shore. Offshore and coastal habitats include areas where migratory birds may feed, molt, overnight, Ice flows, etc.