DERİNKUYU YER ALTI ŞEHRİ Kayalara oyulmuş şehir Kapadokya bölgesinin jeolojik oluşumu sayesinde inşa edilmiş sekiz katlı Derinkuyu Yeraltı Şehri, büyük bir topluluğu içinde.

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DERİNKUYU YER ALTI ŞEHRİ
Kayalara oyulmuş şehir
Kapadokya bölgesinin jeolojik oluşumu sayesinde inşa edilmiş sekiz katlı Derinkuyu
Yeraltı Şehri, büyük bir topluluğu içinde barındıracak ve ihtiyaçlarını karşılayacak
mekânlardan oluşuyor. Bölgede bulunan bir diğer örnek olan Kaymaklı Yeraltı
Şehri’nden farklı olarak Derinkuyu’da bir misyonerler okulu, günah çıkartma yeri, vaftiz
havuzu ve ilgi çekici bir kuyu da bulunuyor.
Derinkuyu’nun ilk yerlileri Asur kolonilerine kadar uzanıyor. II. yüzyılda Roma
İmparatorluğu’nun zulmünden kaçan ilk Hıristiyanlar Antakya ve Kayseri üzerinden
Kapadokya’ya gelerek buraya yerleşmişler. Bölgedeki yeraltı şehirlerini kuran ilk
Hıristiyanlar, girişleri kolayca fark edilemeyecek şekilde yapılmış bu şehirlerde
saklanarak Romalı askerlerin zulmünden kurtulabilmişler. Yeraltı şehirlerinde uzun süre
dışarı çıkmadan yaşamak zorunda kalabilecekleri için erzak depoları, havalandırma
bacaları, şarap imalathaneleri, kiliseler, manastırlar, su kuyuları, tuvaletler ve toplantı
odaları yaparak alanlarını genişletmişler. Birbirine bağlı odalardan oluşan bu şehirlerde
bazı odalar ancak bir insanın geçebileceği kadar dar tünellerle birbirine bağlanıyor.
Tünellerin giriş çıkışlarında güvenlik nedeniyle tüneli kapatmak için kullanılan büyük taş
silindirler var.
‫העיר התת‪-‬קרקעית בדרינקויו (תורכיה)‬
In 1963, an inhabitant of Derinkuyu (in the region of
Capadocia, central Anatolia, Turkey), was
demolishing a wall of his house-cave, and
discovered astonished that behind the wall was a
mysterious room that never had been seen; this
room took to another one, and this one to another
one and another one…
By chance the underground city of Derinkuyu was
discovered, whose first level could be excavated by
the Hitites around year 1400 a.C.
‫קרקעית התגלתה במקרה ע"י תושב הכפר הקפדוקי‬-‫העיר התת‬
‫המערה שלו וגילה מערכת ענקית של‬-‫שרצה להרחיב את בית‬
‫קרקעית שלמה שנבנתה‬-‫ התברר שמדובר בעיר תת‬.‫חדרים‬
‫ ע"י החיתים שישבו‬,‫ לפני הספירה‬1400‫(נחצבה) כנראה ב‬
.‫באיזור‬
•
The archaeologists began to study this fascinating
underground city. They were able to arrive at forty meters of
depth, although guesses are that the bottom is as far down as
85 meters!
•
• At present 20 underground levels have been discovered. Only
eight levels can be visited however; the others are partially
obstructed or reserved for the archaeologists and
anthropologists, who study Derinkuyu.
‫ מטר מתחת‬85 ‫החקירה הארכיאולוגית גילתה שהעיר משתרעת עד עומק של‬
.‫לפני הקרקע‬
‫ השאר חסומות או שהן עדיין נשמרות‬,‫ קומות‬20‫כיום ניתן לבקר רק ב‬
.‫להמשך מחקר‬
•
•
•
•
The city was used for shelter by thousands of people who
lived in the caves to protect themselves for the frequent
invasions that Capadocia underwent, at the diverse times of
their occupation, and also by the first Christians.
The enemies, conscious of the dangers that lie hidden inside
the city, generally tried to flush the people to the surface by
poisoning their wells.
‫העיר שמשה מגורים והגנה בזמן מלחמה לכעשרת אלפים תושבים וכמו כן‬
.‫כמסתור לנוצרים הראשונים מפני השלטון הרומי האלילי‬
.‫אויבים ניסו בד"כ להציף את המערות או להרעיל את מקורות המים שלהם‬
•
•
•
The interior is amazing: the underground passages of
Derinkuyu (in which there is space for at least 10,000 people)
could be blocked in three strategically important points by
moving circular stone doors.
• These heavy rocks that closed the corridor prevented the
entrance of the enemies. They were 1 to 1.5 meters in height,
about 50 centimeters in width and a weight of up to 500 Kilos.
•
‫בכמה נקודות אסטרטגיות ניתן היה לסגור את המעבר ע"י דיסקוס אבן כבד‬
‫ משקל דלת כזו הגיע לחצי‬.‫ ס"מ‬50 ‫ מטר ובעובי של‬1-1.5 ‫("גולל") בקוטר‬
.‫טון‬
•
In the image it is shown how the circular stone door
closed the corridor, having isolated the inhabitants
solidly.
•
In addition, Derinkuyu
has a tunnel of almost 8
kilometers in length
that leads to another
underground city of
Capadocia, Kaymakli.
‫בנוסף התגלתה מנהרה באורך‬
‫ קילומטר שמובילה‬8 ‫של‬
– ‫לעיר תת קרקעית נוספת‬
.‫קיימאקלי‬
•
Of the underground cities
of this zone, the Greek
historian Jenofonte spoke.
In his work Anabasis. He
explained that the people
who lived in Anatolia had
excavated their houses
under the earth and lived
sufficiently in great lodgings
for the entire family, his
domestic animals and the
food provisions that were
stored.
•
In the reclaimed levels stables have been
located, dining rooms, a church (of 20 by 9
meters, with a ceiling of more than three
meters of height), kitchens (still blackened
by the soot of bonfires that ignited to cook),
presses for the wine and the oil, warehouses,
places of feeding, a school, numerous rooms
and even a bar.
‫ חדרי‬,‫ נמצאו אורוות לבע"ח‬,‫בין המערות שנחקרו‬
‫ מטרים וגובה‬9 ‫ אולם כנסיה בשטח של על‬,‫אוכל‬
,‫ יקבים ליין‬, ‫ מטבחים שעדיין מפוייחים‬,'‫ מ‬3 ‫תקרה של‬
‫ מספר גדול של חדרי‬, ‫ספר‬-‫ בית‬,‫ חנויות‬,‫בד‬-‫בתי‬
.‫מרזח‬-‫מגורים ואפילו בית‬
•
The city benefitted from
the existence of an
underground river; it had
water wells and a
magnificent exhaust fan
(52 wells of ventilation
were discovered) that
astonishes engineers of
the present time.
‫מקור המים של העיר היה נחל‬
.‫קרקעי וכן בארות רבות‬-‫תת‬
‫התגלתה מערכת מתוחכמת עם‬
‫ פירים לאיוורור שמדהימה‬52
.‫מהנדסים בני ימינו‬
Translation:
Prema
‫ דבון‬:‫עברית‬
The End

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