JUnit 4

Report
JUnit 4
14-Feb-15
Comparing JUnit 3 to JUnit 4


All the old assertXXX methods are the same
Most things are about equally easy




JUnit 4 makes it easier to test that exceptions are thrown when
they should be
JUnit 4 can still run JUnit 3 tests
JUnit 4 provides protection against infinite loops
JUnit 4 has some additional features
Migrating from JUnit 3



JUnit 4 requires Java 5 or newer
Don’t extend junit.framework.TestCase; just use an ordinary
class
Import org.junit.* and org.junit.Assert.*



Use a static import for org.junit.Assert.*
Static imports replace inheritance from junit.framework.TestCase
Use annotations instead of special method names:



Instead of a setUp method, put @Before before some method
Instead of a tearDown method, put @After before some method
Instead of beginning test method names with ‘test’, put @Test before each
test method
Writing a JUnit test class, I
Start by importing the JUnit 4 classes you need
import org.junit.*;
import static org.junit.Assert.*;


Declare your class in the usual way
public class MyProgramTest {


Declare any variables you are going to use frequently,
typically including an instance of the class being tested
MyProgram program;
int [] array;
int solution;


Writing a JUnit test class, II



@BeforeClass
public static void setUpClass() throws Exception {
// one-time initialization code
}


If you wish, you can declare one method to be executed just once, when
the class is first loaded
This is for expensive setup, such as connecting to a database
If you wish, you can declare one method to be executed just once, to do
cleanup after all the tests have been completed
@AfterClass
public static void tearDownClass() throws Exception {
// one-time cleanup code
}
Writing a JUnit test class, III


@Before
public void setUp() {
program = new MyProgram();
array = new int[] { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 };
}


You can define one or more methods to be executed before each test;
typically such methods initialize values, so that each test starts with a fresh
set
You can define one or more methods to be executed after each test;
typically such methods release resources, such as files
@After
public void tearDown() {
}
@Before and @After methods

You can have as many @Before and @After methods
as you want


Be warned: You don’t know in what order they will execute
You can inherit @Before and @After methods from a
superclass; execution is as follows:





Execute the @Before methods in the superclass
Execute the @Before methods in this class
Execute a @Test method in this class
Execute the @After methods in this class
Execute the @After methods in the superclass
Writing a JUnit test class, IV



A test method is annotated with @Test, takes no parameters,
and returns no result
All the usual assertXXX methods can be used
@Test
public void sum() {
assertEquals(15, program.sum(array));
assertTrue(program.min(array) > 0);
}
Special features of @Test





@Test (timeout=10)
public void greatBig() {
assertTrue(program.ackerman(5, 5) > 10e12);
}




You can limit how long a method is allowed to take
This is good protection against infinite loops
The time limit is specified in milliseconds
The test fails if the method takes too long
Some method calls should throw an exception
You can specify that a particular exception is expected
The test will pass if the expected exception is thrown, and fail otherwise
@Test (expected=IllegalArgumentException.class)
public void factorial() {
program.factorial(-5);
}
Parameterized tests
Using @RunWith(value=Parameterized.class) and a @Parameters method, you can run
the same tests with multiple datasets
@RunWith(value=Parameterized.class)
public class FactorialTest {
private long expected;
private int value;


@Parameters
public static Collection data() {
return Arrays.asList( new Object[ ][ ] { { 1, 0 }, { 1, 1 }, { 2, 2 }, { 120, 5 } });
}
public FactorialTest(long expected, int value) { // constructor
this.expected = expected;
this.value = value;
}
@Test
public void factorial() {
assertEquals(expected, new Calculator().factorial(value));
}

}
Source: http://today.java.net/pub/a/today/2006/12/07/junit-reloaded.html
Ignoring a test


The @Ignore annotation says to not run a test
@Ignore("I don’t want Dave to know this doesn’t work")
@Test
public void add() {
assertEquals(4, program.sum(2, 2));
}

You shouldn’t use @Ignore without a very good reason!
Test suites


As before, you can define a suite of tests
@RunWith(value=Suite.class)
@SuiteClasses(value={MyProgramTest.class,
AnotherTest.class})
public class AllTests { … }
Other stuff


Failed tests now throw an AssertionError, rather than JUnit 3’s
AssertionFailedError
There is now a version of assertEquals for arrays of objects:
assertEquals(Object[] expected, Object[] actual)


Unfortunately, there is still no assertEquals for arrays of primitives
JUnit 3 had an assertEquals(p, p) method for each kind of
primitive p, but JUnit 4 only has an assertEquals(object, object)
and depends on autoboxing
A gotcha

The following method:


with the following test:


@Test
public void sum() {
assertEquals(4, s.sum(2, 2));
}
gives:


long sum(long x, long y) { return x + y; }
expected: <4> but was: <4>
This is due to your friend, autoboxing




assertEquals no longer exists for primitives, only for objects
Hence, the 4 is autoboxed to an Integer, while sum returns a long
The error message means: expected int 4, but got long 4
To make this work, change the 4 to a 4L
JUnit 4 in Eclipse and NetBeans


As usual, the easiest way to create a test class is just to let your
IDE do it for you
Here is the recommended test-driven approach



Create a class containing all the “stub” methods you initially think you will
need
Have the IDE create the test class, with all the test methods
Repeat:





Write a test
Make sure the test fails
Write the method being tested
Make sure the test now succeeds
Note: When you create the test class, NetBeans in particular puts
a lot of garbage lines into each test method; you can just delete
these and put in your own code
The End

similar documents