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Chapter 4 Gates and Circuits Chapter Goals • Identify the basic gates and describe the behavior of each • Describe how gates are implemented using transistors • Combine basic gates into circuits • Describe the behavior of a gate or circuit using Boolean expressions, truth tables, and logic diagrams 2 Chapter Goals • Compare and contrast a half adder and a full adder • Describe how a multiplexer works • Explain how an S-R latch operates • Describe the characteristics of the four generations of integrated circuits 3 Computers and Electricity Gate A device that performs a basic operation on electrical signals Circuits Gates combined to perform more complicated tasks 4 Computers and Electricity How do we describe the behavior of gates and circuits? Boolean expressions Uses Boolean algebra, a mathematical notation for expressing two-valued logic Logic diagrams A graphical representation of a circuit; each gate has its own symbol Truth tables A table showing all possible input value and the associated output values 5 Gates Six types of gates – – – – – – NOT AND OR XOR NAND NOR Typically, logic diagrams are black and white with gates distinguished only by their shape We use color for emphasis (and fun) 6 NOT Gate A NOT gate accepts one input signal (0 or 1) and returns the opposite signal as output Figure 4.1 Various representations of a NOT gate 7 AND Gate An AND gate accepts two input signals If both are 1, the output is 1; otherwise, the output is 0 Figure 4.2 Various representations of an AND gate 8 OR Gate An OR gate accepts two input signals If both are 0, the output is 0; otherwise, the output is 1 Figure 4.3 Various representations of a OR gate 9 XOR Gate An XOR gate accepts two input signals If both are the same, the output is 0; otherwise, the output is 1 Figure 4.4 Various representations of an XOR gate 10 XOR Gate Note the difference between the XOR gate and the OR gate; they differ only in one input situation When both input signals are 1, the OR gate produces a 1 and the XOR produces a 0 XOR is called the exclusive OR 11 NAND Gate The NAND gate accepts two input signals If both are 1, the output is 0; otherwise, the output is 1 Figure 4.5 Various representations of a NAND gate NOR Gate The NOR gate accepts two input signals If both are 0, the output is 1; otherwise, the output is 0 Figure 4.6 Various representations of a NOR gate 13 Review of Gate Processing A NOT gate inverts its single input An AND gate produces 1 if both input values are 1 An OR gate produces 0 if both input values are 0 An XOR gate produces 0 if input values are the same A NAND gate produces 0 if both inputs are 1 A NOR gate produces a 1 if both inputs are 0 14 Gates with More Inputs Gates can be designed to accept three or more input values A three-input AND gate, for example, produces an output of 1 only if all input values are 1 15 Figure 4.7 Various representations of a three-input AND gate Constructing Gates Transistor A device that acts either as a wire that conducts electricity or as a resistor that blocks the flow of electricity, depending on the voltage level of an input signal A transistor has no moving parts, yet acts like a switch It is made of a semiconductor material, which is neither a particularly good conductor of electricity nor a particularly good insulator 16 Constructing Gates A transistor has three terminals – A source – A base – An emitter, typically connected to a ground wire If the electrical signal is grounded, it is allowed to flow through an alternative route to the ground (literally) where it can do no harm Figure 4.8 The connections of a transistor 17 Constructing Gates The easiest gates to create are the NOT, NAND, and NOR gates 18 Figure 4.9 Constructing gates using transistors Circuits Combinational circuit The input values explicitly determine the output Sequential circuit The output is a function of the input values and the existing state of the circuit We describe the circuit operations using Boolean expressions Logic diagrams Truth tables 19 Are you surprised? Combinational Circuits Gates are combined into circuits by using the output of one gate as the input for another 20 Combinational Circuits Three inputs require eight rows to describe all possible input combinations This same circuit using a Boolean expression is (AB + AC) 21 Combinational Circuits Consider the following Boolean expression A(B + C) Does this truth table look familiar? Compare it with previous table 22 Combinational Circuits Circuit equivalence Two circuits that produce the same output for identical input Boolean algebra allows us to apply provable mathematical principles to help design circuits A(B + C) = AB + BC (distributive law) so circuits must be equivalent 23 Properties of Boolean Algebra 24 Adders At the digital logic level, addition is performed in binary Addition operations are carried out by special circuits called, appropriately, adders 25 Adders The result of adding two binary digits could produce a carry value Recall that 1 + 1 = 10 in base two Half adder A circuit that computes the sum of two bits and produces the correct carry bit 26 Truth table Adders Circuit diagram representing a half adder Boolean expressions sum = A B carry = AB 27 Adders Full adder A circuit that takes the carry-in value into account Figure 4.10 A full adder 28 Multiplexers Multiplexer A circuit that uses a few input control signals to determine which of several output data lines is routed to its output 29 Multiplexers Figure 4.11 A block diagram of a multiplexer with three select control lines The control lines S0, S1, and S2 determine which of eight other input lines (D0 … D7) are routed to the output (F) 30 Circuits as Memory Digital circuits can be used to store information These circuits form a sequential circuit, because the output of the circuit is also used as input to the circuit 31 Circuits as Memory An S-R latch stores a single binary digit (1 or 0) There are several ways an S-R latch circuit can be designed using various kinds of gates Figure 4.12 An S-R latch 32 Circuits as Memory The design of this circuit guarantees that the two outputs X and Y are always complements of each other The value of X at any point in time is considered to be the current state of the circuit Therefore, if X is 1, the circuit is storing a 1; if X is 0, the circuit is storing a 0 Figure 4.12 An S-R latch 33 Integrated Circuits Integrated circuit (also called a chip) A piece of silicon on which multiple gates have been embedded Silicon pieces are mounted on a plastic or ceramic package with pins along the edges that can be soldered onto circuit boards or inserted into appropriate sockets 34 Integrated Circuits Integrated circuits (IC) are classified by the number of gates contained in them 35 Integrated Circuits Figure 4.13 An SSI chip contains independent NAND gates 36 CPU Chips The most important integrated circuit in any computer is the Central Processing Unit, or CPU Each CPU chip has a large number of pins through which essentially all communication in a computer system occurs 37 Ethical Issues Email Privacy Explain why privacy is an illusion. Who can read your email? Do you send personal email from work? Does everyone in your family use email? 38 Who am I? All the world knows my name. What is it and why do people know it? 39 Do you know? What is the name of the study of materials smaller than 100 nanometers? Did DeMorgan discover DeMorgan's laws? How do archeologists use GPS systems? What's wrong with uploading your photos to a social networking site? 40