The Qatar Sustainable Water & Energy Utilization Initiative (QWE)

Report
The Qatar Sustainable Water & Energy
Utilization Initiative (QWE) at TAMUQ
Ahmed Abdel-Wahab and Patrick Linke
Presentation at Jacobs University Bremen
June 12th, 2012
QWE
The Qatar Sustainable Water and Energy
Utilization Initiative
• Center of Excellence at TAMUQ since 2008
• Water, energy, environment
• Activities
Research and development, technical service, capacity building, outreach
• Supporting Qatar’s development in partnership
Advisory Board, engagement at national and international level
• Critical mass
3 faculty, approx. 40 staff, Grad and UG students, strong research funding,
world class experimental and computational facilities
Capabilities
• Faculty with complementary expertise
• Well-qualified staff
• World class laboratories and
computational facilities that are
continuously upgraded and expanded
Capabilities (cont.)
• Experimental capabilities
– State-of-the-art equipment for
water/wastewater, and soil analysis.
– Range of high-performance gas and liquid
chromatographs/mass spectroscopy and
spectrophotometers.
– Laboratory analytical capabilities include
physical, chemical, and biological
parameter testing of samples with a variety
of matrices, including water, wastewater,
soils and sludges.
– The laboratories maintain a comprehensive
Quality Assurance and Quality Control
Program.
Capabilities (cont.)
Computing and simulations capabilities
– Modeling, simulation and optimization of water,
energy and processing systems
– Development of systematic methods and tools
• Model-based process innovation platforms
• Computer-aided molecular design
• Integrated materials and process design
• Systems integration (energy, water) and Infrastructure
planning
– Focus on multi-level approaches (from concept
to detail) and integration across scales
(microscopic to macroscopic)
– Optimization algorithms, Grid Computing,
Knowledge Management / semantics
QWE Activities
• Research
– Excess of $10M research funding
since inception
– Address problems related to the
needs of Qatari stakeholders
– Provide knowledge and technology
transfer to stakeholders
• Technical Service
– Conduct water/wastewater, soil, and
sludge samples analysis
– Modeling simulation/optimization
studies
– Technology assessments
– Provide technical support to
stakeholders
QWE Activities (cont.)
• Human Capacity Building
– Organize practical training programs,
workshops and seminars for engineers
and practitioners from Qatari industrial
and governmental agencies on several
aspects of water, environmental, and
energy systems.
– The emphasis is on “learning by doing”
– We utilize the QWE existing world-class
laboratories for these training courses.
– We transfer the findings of our research
to the classroom and, hence, give
students a hands-on experience
Current Research Activities
– Environmental impact assessment and management
• Environmental impact of cooling water and wastewater discharge
• Regulatory revisions and recommendations of new standards
• Design of discharge/outfall systems
– Desalination Process Innovation
• Zero liquid discharge systems (ZLD)
• Hybrid desalination systems
– Advanced water and wastewater treatment processes
• Advanced reduction processes
• Advanced oxidation processes
• Electrochemical treatment processes
– Hazardous Waste Management
• Hazardous waste treatment
• Utilization of modified byproduct sulfur for hazardous waste treatment
Current Research Activities (cont.)
- Process Design, Integration and Systems Engineering
 Integrated water resources management
 Macroscopic water systems design and optimization
 Materials and design innovation for Organic Rankine Cycles
 Desalination process innovation, hybrid desalination
systems, solar desalination
 Industrial energy recovery and reuse
 Renewable energy / systems integration
 Process design and optimization for the efficient use of
energy and raw materials
Selected ongoing
R&D Projects
Water and Environmental Engineering
Inland Desalination for Brackish Water with
Zero Liquid Discharge
 Inland desalination using reverse osmosis is a
common practice
 Brine discharge from inland desalination is a
major environmental problem
 Achieving zero liquid discharge will avoid the
problems of brine disposal and maximize
recovery
 Available zero liquid discharge technologies
are used mainly in industrial applications and
they are prohibitly expensive for inland
desalination
 This project focuses in developing costeffective and environmentally benign process
for inland desalination with zero liquid
discharge
ZLD schematic diagram.
Brackish water
Advanced
Evaporation
system
RO 1
Brin
e
Treatmen
t before
RO 2
RO2
Concentrated brine
Produced water
A Holistic Approach for Sustainable Use of
Industrial Seawater Cooling (Sponsor: QNRF)
Chloroform
• Develop quantitative techniques for
predicting the reaction mechanisms and
kinetics of biocides and their reaction
products in seawater
• Develop computational tools to predict
the fate and transport of biocides and their
reaction products
• Aid in developing sound regulatory
policies
Concentration (μMol)
• Develop a scientific framework for
environmental impact assessment of
cooling water discharge into seawater
BOCM
BBCM
Bromoform
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0
50
100
Reaction Time (hrs)
150
200
Study of Residual Chlorine and Chlorinated Byproducts at
MIC Industrial Area
(MoE, QAFCO, QAPCO, QP)
Field Sampling and
Analysis
Kinetic Modeling
Lab Experiments
Hydrodynamic
Modeling
Modeling
Experimental
Impact
Toxicity Analysis
Recommendations for
Residual Chlorine
Standards
Reactive Transport
Modeling
Assessment of Environmental Impact of
Brine Discharge from Halul Desalination
Plant
Advanced Reduction Processes for Hazardous waste
Treatment
7
 Chlorinated organics found in industrial wastes
pose a global threat to the environment
5
Absorbance
 Oxidation-reduction reactions are the primary
method for destroying these contaminants
a) Aerobic
6
4
S2-
3
2
S2O42-
 The requirement to achieve desired levels of
destruction within a reasonable time is often not
met
1
SO32-
0
200
250
300
350
400
Wavelength(nm)
7
b) Anaerobic
5
Absorbance
 Unfortunately, there are currently no approaches
available that are capable of cost-effectively
destroying many persistent chlorinated organics.
6
S2O42-
4
3
S2-
SO32-
2
 This research aims at developing cost-effective
treatment methods in order to enable sustainable
operation of industrial processes while protecting
the environment
1
0
200
250
300
Wavelength(nm)
350
400
Removal of Heavy Metals from water/wastewater
using Reactive Adsorbents
• Recycle/reuse is one of the key solutions for efficient water management and
minimizing environmental impact
• Heavy metals found in recycled wastewater are major challenge
• Adsorption is the primary process for heavy metals removal
• Residuals produced by the process are unstable when disposed in landfills
Nano-Particulate Iron Sulfides
• They can leach to the environment
after disposal
• Application of nano-particulate iron
sulfides (FeS, FeS2)
• Different removal mechanism; initial
removal on the surface followed by
surface reactions that would convert
the toxic compounds to stable solid
phase
Mackinawite (FeS)
Pyrite (FeS2)
As(III)
Selenite(SeO32-)
As(V)
Target compounds
(As (III, V), Hg(II), Se(IV, VI))
Selenate (SeO42-)
Stabilization
Disinfection Byproducts Removal from
Water using Advanced Reduction
Processes (ARPs)
• Disinfection byproducts are major
concern in desalination systems
• Bromate and chlorate are
emerging contaminants
• They are harmful to human
health and the environment
• They are persistent contaminants
and difficult to destroy
• This project investigate
destruction of these
contaminants using ARPs
Techno-Economic Study and Assesment
of Environmental Impact of Seawater
Dechlorination
• Evaluate effectiveness and cost
of three different dechlorinating
chemicals
• Evaluate optimum doses and
dosing schemes
• Evaluate environmental impact
120
100
Free Chlroine removal (%)
• Kinetic and equilibrium
experiments
Free chlorine removal vs. time during dechlorination of seawater
containing different chlorine doses using sodium thiosulfate
80
Time vs 0.25 Free Chlorine
Time vs 1.0 Free Chlorine
Time vs 2.5 Free Chlorine
Time vs 5.0 Free Chlorine
Time vs 10.0 Free Chlorine
60
40
20
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
Time (hours)
60
Utilization of Byproduct Sulfur for Hazardous
Waste Treatment
• Managing byproduct sulfur from natural gas
processing is a key aspect of economic
development and environmental protection in
Qatar
• New markets must be found for sulfur to avoid
disposal crises
• One attractive use of byproduct sulfur is to treat
hazardous wastes
• The goal of this project is to investigate use
modified sulfur products to degrade and
immobilize hazardous materials and to
demonstrate their use to treat contaminated
wastes
11
Final Cr(VI) Concentration (mg/L)
• Sulfur cement can be applied as a primary binder
in solidification/stabilization (S/S) treatment of
hazardous wastes
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
Time (hrs)
16
18
20
22
24
Process Systems Engineering – Energy
and Water
Policies &
Regulations
Integrated
System
Design of optimal desalination
processes and systems
Synthesis of optimal membrane
desalination processes (RO, RO-NF, …)
Technologies
Process
Better membrane element models
for process analysis
Process Design:
Optimal process configurations
Process systems optimization:
Value extraction & energy
integration (renewables)
Macro-system:
Integration with water/energy
infrastructures, infrastructure design
Infrastructure
Systems integration and design
Policies &
Regulations
Integrated
System
Systematic optimal design and
selection of membrane-based
desalination processes
Technologies
Develop performance target
Use models to screen through large
numbers of potential design
candidates to identify the best
Design insights on the way to the target
Understand flexibility in design and benefits
from increased complexity.
Development of an easy-to-use
tool.
National water infrastructure optimization
Water
loss jth
Sink D1
Storage 1
Sink D2
Sink Djth
Water
loss ith
Storage 2
Storage sth
INTERCEPTOR lth
Brine
discharge
Main for
Domestic
Desal.
Plant 1
Water
loss lth
Desal.
Plant 2
Ground
Water
Main for
Agriculture
Seawater
Aquifer
Seawater
Sink A1
Sink A2
Sink Akth
Policies &
Regulations
Water
loss kth
Integrated
System
Technologies
Macroscopic water integration in
Eco-industrial parks
Innovating Organic Rankine Cycles
Solar
Biomass
Low to medium to
high grade heat to
power
ORC
Tailored systems
Waste heat
Geothermal
Policies &
Regulations
Innovating Organic Rankine Cycles
Integrated
System
Technologies
Pioneering computer-aided molecular
design applications
Design and select benign and
efficient Working Fluid
In-house computer-aided
molecular design tools
Design and optimise ORC for
maximum economic
performance
In-house and commercial
simulation and optimization
tools
Industrial Zone Waste Heat
Recovery & Reuse
Tremendous opportunities for energy
integration – but no approaches exist …
• GCC – Highest per capita
GHG emissions
• Most of the energy used in
industrial sector
• Activity concentrated in
zones
• Planning of zones:
Collection of island solutions
Developing systematic approaches and tools to indentify solutions
and guide policy making for more efficient energy utilization.
Industrial Zone Waste Heat
Recovery & Reuse
Delivering a systematic approach and tool to identify optimal
heat recovery and co-generation strategies
HP
HP
MP
Utility system
Plant C
New Utility
Process A
MP
Process B
Industrial zone
LP
m
0m
00
40
15
Source
Utility system
Plant A
500 m
Process A
Process B
3000 m
Utility system
Plant D
Process A
Process B
Process B
20
m
00
m
800
Utility system
Plant B
Process A
Process B
Process B
Output
Tool for policy makers and regulators to guide
quick identification of synergies to maximize
energy recoveries energy within industrial zones
(heat, co-generation, tri-generation).
Sink
Policies &
Regulations
Integrated
System
Process Design and Optimization –
Catalytic Hydrocarbon Conversions
NETWORK RECYCLE
Technologies
VENT GASES
ETHYLBENZENE
STEAM
TOLUENE
Optimal Process Design
Optimization framework and tools for the
systematic innovation of processes
(multi-level design, interface with catalyst
development)
BENZENE
ETHYLBENZENE
STYRENE
Optimal Process Operations
Systematic approach to optimize
operations.
Catalytic reformer application:
- Very fuel intensive refining process
- Optimization approach incl. kinetic
modeling
- Fuel savings of 2.5 to 4% identified
- Savings: $1 to 1.5m pa (on 180,000 t/a)
Sponsors & Collaborators
THANK YOU

similar documents