Chapter 1

Report
Chapter 1
Organizational
Behavior and Opportunity
1.
Define organizational behavior.
2.
Identify four action steps for responding positively in times of
change.
3.
Identify the important system components of an organization.
4.
Describe the formal and informal elements of an organization.
5.
Understand the diversity of organizations in the economy.
6.
Describe the opportunities that change creates for organizational
behavior.
7.
Demonstrate the value of objective knowledge and skill
development in the study of organizational behavior.
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1
Learning Outcome
Define organizational behavior.
Clockworks or
Snake pit?
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Organizational Behavior
the study of individual behavior and
group dynamics in organizations
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Organizational Behavior:
Dynamics in Organizations
Psychosocial
Organizational
Behavior
Interpersonal
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Behavioral
Organizational Variables that
Affect Human Behavior
Communication
Organizational
Structure
Human
Behavior
Performance
Appraisal
Work
Design
Jobs
Organizational
Design
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External Perspective
Understand behavior in terms of external
events, environmental forces, and behavioral
consequences.
Internal
Perspective
Understand behavior
in terms of thoughts,
feelings, past experiences,
and needs.
Explain behavior by
examining individuals’
history and personal value
System.
Explain behavior by examining surrounding
external events and environmental forces.
Both perspectives have produced
motivational & leadership theories.
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Sociology
the science
of society
Psychology
Engineering
the science
of human
behavior
the applied science
of energy & matter
Anthropology
the science of the
learned behavior of
human beings
Interdisciplinary
Influences on
Organizational
Behavior
Medicine
the applied science
of healing or treating
diseases to enhance
health and
well-being
Management
the study of overseeing
activities and supervising
people in organizations
© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
2
Learning Outcome
Identify four action steps for
responding positively in times of
change.
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Reactions to Change
Rigid and
Reactive
Open and
Responsive
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3
Learning Outcome
Identify the important system components
of an organization.
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Components of an
Organization
Task – an organization’s mission, purpose, or goal
for existing
People – the human resources of the organization
Structure – the manner in which an organization’s
work is designed at the micro level; how
departments, divisions, and the overall
organization are designed at the macro level
Technology – the tools, knowledge, and/or
techniques used to transform inputs into outputs
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Open Systems View of Organization
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4
Learning Outcome
Describe the formal and informal
elements of an organization.
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Formal vs. Informal
Organization
Formal Organization – the official,
legitimate, and most visible part of
the system
Informal Organization – the
unofficial and less visible part of
the system
Hawthorne Studies: studies
conducted during the 1920’s and
1930’s that suggested the importance
of informal organizations
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Formal & Informal Elements of Organizations
Social Surface
Formal organization
(overt)
Goals and objectives
Policies and procedures
Job descriptions
Financial resources
Authority structure
Communication channels
Products and services
Informal organization
(covert)
Beliefs and assumptions
Perceptions and attitudes
Values
Feelings, such as fear, joy
anger, trust, and hope
Group norms
Informal leaders
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5
Learning Outcome
Understand the diversity of
organizations in the economy.
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Sectors of the U.S. Economy
Manufacturing
Nonprofit
organizations
Service
Government
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6
Learning Outcome
Evaluate the opportunities that change
creates for organizational behavior.
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Global Competition in
Business
Four challenges to managers relating
to change in organizations
•
•
•
•
Globalization
Technological Innovation
Workplace Diversity
Ethics and Character
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[QUALITY]
• Can give organizations in viable
industries a competitive edge in
international competition
• A rubric for products and services of
high status
• A customer-oriented philosophy of
management with implications for
all aspects of organizational
behavior
• A cultural value embedded in
successful organizations
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Three key questions in evaluating qualityimprovement ideas
1. Does the idea improve customer
response?
2. Does the idea accelerate
results?
3. Does the idea raise the
effectiveness of resources?
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Six Sigma
a high-performance system for
executing business strategy that is
customer-driven, emphasizes
quantitative decision making, and
places a priority on saving money.
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Six Sigma vs. Total Quality Management
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Seven Categories in the Malcolm
Baldrige National Quality Award
Examination
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Leadership
Information and analysis
Strategic quality planning
Human resource utilization
Quality assurance of products and services
Quality results
Customer satisfaction
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Challenges to Managing
Organizational Behavior
1. Increasing globalization of organizations’
operating territory
2. Increasing diversity of organizational
workforces
3. Continuing technological innovation with its
companion need for skill enhancement
4. Continuing demand for higher levels of
moral and ethical behavior at work
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7
Learning Outcome
Demonstrate the value of objective
knowledge and skill development in the
study of organizational behavior.
© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
Learning about Organizational Behavior
Learning Activity
Mastery of
basic objective
knowledge
Science
Theories, Research, Articles
Development of
specific skills
and abilities
The Real World
Organizational and Work Context
Application
of knowledge
and skills
You
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Cengage Learning.
All rights reserved
Assessments & Exercises
Learning from Structured Activity
New or modified
knowledge or skills
(e.g., consensus
group decisions are
better)
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by Cengage Learning.
All rights reserved
Individual or group
structured activity
(e.g., group decision
activity)
Conclusions based
on systematic
review (e.g., the
group did better)
Systematic review
of the structured
activity (e.g.,
compare individual
& group results)
Three Assumptions Required
for Learning from Structured
Activity
• Each student must accept responsibility for
his/her own behavior, actions, and learning
• Each student must actively participate in the
individual/group structured learning activity
• Each student must be open to new
information, new skills, new ideas, and
experimentation
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TRENDS
AFFECTING MANAGERS
• Industrial restructuring
• Increased amount and availability
of information
• Need to attract and retain the best
employees
• Need to understand human and
cultural differences
• Rapid shortening of response
times in all aspects of business
Copyright ©2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved
1. The film sequence shows three
people interacting in a work
environment. Which aspects of
organizational behavior and
management discussed earlier in
this chapter appear in this
sequence?
In Good Company
2. The three people in this sequence
represent different management
levels in the company. Which levels
do you attribute to Carter Duryea,
Dan Foreman, and Mark Steckle?
3. Critique the behavior shown in this
sequence. What are the positive
and negative aspects of the
behavior shown.
© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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