Chapter 8 Transportation, Energy and the Environment

Report
THE GEOGRAPHY OF
TRANSPORT
SYSTEMS Chapter 8 – Transport,
THIRD EDITION
Energy and Environment
CONCEPTS
Copyright © 1998-2015, Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography,
Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY, 11549 USA.
[email protected]
You may use the figures within for educational purposes only. No modification or
redistribution permitted.
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Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
THE GEOGRAPHY OF
TRANSPORT
SYSTEMS
Environmental Impacts of
Transportation
THIRD EDITION
Concept 1
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
The Paradox of Mobility and its Costs
Mobility
Paradox
Costs
Growing Demand
Internal Costs (Users)
Motorization
External Costs (Society)
Energy (Petroleum)
Environmental Impacts
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Environmental Costs Hierarchy
Cost Type
Implications
Internal
Material, labor, other expenses, and revenues that are commonly allocated to a product
or process.
Can easily be quantified (internalized).
Compliance
Expenses incurred by and benefits to the firm that are not related to products or
processes.
Mostly concern compliance to regulations.
Contingent
Potential liability or benefit that depends on the occurrence of a future event.
Assessed as a risk.
Image / Relationship
Costs/benefits related to the subjective perceptions of a firm’s stakeholders.
External
Costs/benefits of a company’s impacts upon the environment and society that do not
directly accrue to the business.
Difficult to quantify (externalized).
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
The Environmental System
Ecosphere
Biosphere
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
The Environmental Impacts of Transportation
1. ATMOSPHERE
Large scale diffusion of pollutants.
High growth on a short term basis of the concentration of pollutants because
of local conditions (e.g. smog).
Photochemical reactions caused by ultraviolet rays, notably over ozone,
sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide.
Climatic changes (global warming).
Acid rain.
Synergetic effects when pollutants are combined (e.g. smog and greenhouse
gases).
2. HYDROSPHERE
Diffusion of pollutants in a dissolved or colloidal state.
Acidification and loss of neutralizing potential of ground and underground
water.
Drops of pH following snow melting (aquatic organism are particularly
vulnerable).
Growth in the solubility of several metals because of acidification.
Additions of organic compounds, aluminum, manganese, calcium,
magnesium and potassium by runoffs.
Contamination of ground and underground water by nitrates.
3. LITHOSPHERE
Acid depositions.
Liberation of toxic metallic ions (aluminum, cadmium, etc.) through
acidification.
Loss of nutrients, notably calcium and magnesium.
Inhibition of the miniralization of nitrogen.
Modifications in the compositions and the depth of decomposition gradient.
Inhibition of decomposition.
Loss of the soil flora and fauna.
Fixation by plants of heavy metals (e.g. lead) and contamination.
Removal and consumption of land.
Extraction of raw materials like mineral products and energy.
4. ECOSPHERE
4.1 AQUATIC ECOSPHERE
Alteration of ecosystems in unforeseeable ways.
Disappearance of vulnerable species and proliferation of tolerant
ones.
Reduction of bacterial treatment of organic matter by nitrification.
Reduction of available nutrients to aquatic species.
Reproductive impediments.
4.2 LAND ECOSPHERE
Damages over the vegetation modifying:
hydric cycles.
the level of underground water resources.
soil erosion.
air purification capacity of the ecosphere.
food sources (agriculture).
entertainment and tourism.
Reduction of the vital space.
Reduction of the genetic potential of species.
Reduction of the food supply and alteration of the food chain.
Consumption of resources.
4.3 HUMAN ECOSPHERE
Odors.
Noise.
Cardiovascular and respiratory problems.
Susceptibility to infection.
Drops in life expectancy.
Injuries, incapacity, hospitalization, death.
Damage to structures:
loss of useful life. (amortization)
loss of property values.
corrosion of metal structures (bronze, steel, etc.).
destruction of historical and cultural monuments.
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Estimated Automobile Costs, 2005
32%
External cost
44%
Internal fixed costs
Internal variable costs
24%
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Environmental Dimensions of Transportation
Other
Habitat changes
Land Use
Infrastructure
construction
and maintenance
Social or
ecological
effects
Emissions
Vehicle and parts
manufacture
Travel
Economics
Vehicle
maintenance and
support
Disposal of
vehicles and parts
Causes
Activities
Ambient levels
Exposure
Outputs
Health,
environmental
or welfare
effects
End Results
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Transportation Activities Affecting the Environment
Activity
Mode
Traffic
Infrastructure
Road
Vehicle manufacture
Rail
Passengers
Maritime
Freight
Vehicle travel
Vehicle maintenance
Air
Vehicle disposal
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Transportation Systems and the Environment
Diffused network
Localized emissions
Energy efficient
Diffused emissions
High energy use
Network
Centralized network
Traffic
Level of emissions
Level of energy consumption
Mode
Nature of emissions
Nature of energy consumption
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Spatial and Durational Environmental Effects
CO2
Duration
NOX
Lead
Noise
Particulates
Regional
Local
Global
Space
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
World CO2 Emission by Economic Sector, 2011
9%
6%
42%
22%
Electricity and heat production
Manufacturing and Construction
Transport
Residental
Other
21%
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Major Oil Spills Since 1967
Ship name
Atlantic Empress
ABT Summer
Castillo de Bellver
Amoco Cadiz
Haven
Odyssey
Torrey Canyon
Sea Star
Irenes Serenade
Urquiola
Hawaiian Patriot
Independenta
Jakob Maersk
Braer
Khark 5
Aegean Sea
Sea Empress
Katina P
Nova
Prestige
Exxon Valdez
Year
1979
1991
1983
1978
1991
1988
1967
1972
1980
1976
1977
1979
1975
1993
1989
1992
1996
1992
1985
2002
1989
Location
Off Tobago, West Indies
700 nautical miles off Angola
Off Saldanha Bay, South Africa
Off Brittany, France
Genoa, Italy
700 nautical miles off Nova Scotia, Canada
Scilly Isles, UK
Gulf of Oman
Navarino Bay, Greece
La Coruna, Spain
300 nautical miles off Honolulu
Bosporus, Turkey
Oporto, Portugal
Shetland Islands, UK
120 nautical miles off Atlantic coast of Morocco
La Coruna, Spain
Milford Haven, UK
Off Maputo, Mozambique
Off Kharg Island, Gulf of Iran
Off Galicia, Spain
Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA
Spill Size (tons)
287,000
260,000
252,000
223,000
144,000
132,000
119,000
115,000
100,000
100,000
95,000
95,000
88,000
85,000
80,000
74,000
72,000
72,000
70,000
63,000
37,000
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
The Carbon Cycle
Atmosphere
Respiration and assimilation
Respiration
Emission
Human activities
Respiration
Respiration and assimilation
Animal activities
Ecosphere
Vegetation
Transportation
Limestone
Lithosphere
Decomposition
Hydrosphere
Fossil fuels
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
The Concept of Externalities
Total costs
C(E)
Optimal cost
ΔE(L1)
C(O)
Intervention costs
E(L1)
Externalities
C(L1)
ΔC(L1)
0
L1
L(O)
Level of intervention
L
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Emissions from Freight Modes (gram / ton-km)
0
20
40
Carbon Dioxide (g/ton-km)
60
80
100
120
Ocean shipping
SO2
NOx
Short sea shipping
PM
HC
CO
CO2
Rail
Road
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
Other Emissions (g/ton-km)
0.8
1
1.2
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Estimated Air Pollutants Emitted by Highway Transportation in the United States, 19702008
200,000
180,000
160,000
Particulate (PM-10)
Thousand short tons
140,000
VOC
NOx
120,000
CO
100,000
80,000
60,000
40,000
20,000
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
1994
1993
1992
1991
1990
1985
1980
1975
1970
0
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
350
4
300
3.5
3
250
2.5
200
2
Trillion KM
Million metric tons
Distance Driven and Carbon Emissions, U.S. Automobile Fleet, 1970-2000
150
1.5
100
1
50
0.5
0
0
Carbon Emissions
Distance Driven
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Noise Levels (in decibels)
dB (A)
120
Aircraft at take off
110
100
90
Pneumatic drill at 1 meter
Lorry, motorcycle, underground train
80
Busy crossroads
70
Noise level near a motorway
60
Busy street through open windows
50
Busy street through closed windows
40
30
Quiet room
20
Broadcasting studio
Desert
10
0
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Hazmat Accidents in the United States, 1975-2005
60,000
50,000
40,000
30,000
20,000
10,000
0
1975
1980
Total Accidents
1985
1990
Property Damage (1,000s of $)
1995
2000
Poly. (Property Damage (1,000s of $))
2005
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
THE GEOGRAPHY OF
TRANSPORT
SYSTEMS
Transportation and Energy
THIRD EDITION
Concept 2
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Sources of Energy
Chemical
Non-Renewable
• Fossil fuels (Combustion)
Nuclear
• Uranium (Fission of atoms)
Energy
Chemical
• Muscular (Oxidization)
Nuclear
• Geothermal (Conversion)
• Fusion (Fusion of hydrogen)
Renewable
Gravity
• Tidal, hydraulic (Kinetic)
Indirect Solar
• Biomass (Photosynthesis)
• Wind (Air pressure differences)
Direct Solar
• Photovoltaic cell (Conversion)
• Solar thermal (Conversion)
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Chemical Energy Content of some Fuels (in MJ/kg)
Lithium Battery
0.5
Wood
17.1
Ethanol
19.9
Coal (Bituminous)
23.9
Methanol
31.1
Coal (Anthracite)
31.4
Bunker C
40.0
Crude Oil
41.9
Jet A-1
43.3
Diesel
45.3
Gasoline (Automobile)
45.8
Kerosene
46.3
Natural Gas
47.2
Propane
50.3
LNG
55.0
Methane
55.5
Hydrogen
142.0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Fuels Production Processes
Fuel
Sources
Process
Liquid petroleum fuels (gasoline, diesel,
kerosene, jet fuel, bunker fuel)
Conventional oil fields (ground and shorebased). Non-conventional sources (tar
sands)
Refining
Liquid synthetic fuels
Natural gas, coal
Gasification
Biodiesel
Oil seed crops
Esterification, hydrogenation
Ethanol
Grain crops
Saccharification and distillation
Sugar crops (cane)
Distillation
Advanced biodiesel
Biomass from crops or waste products
Gasification
Compressed natural gas (CNG)
Natural gas
Gasification
Electricity
Coal, gas, petroleum, nuclear, renewables
(hydro, wind)
Electric generator (source dependent)
Hydrogen
Natural gas
Reforming, compression
Electricity
Electrolysis
Direct production using other sources
High temperature process
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Energy Sources Used for Transportation
• Muscular
• Wind
• Gravity
• Fossil fuels
• Electricity
• Biofuels
• Engine
•
•
•
•
ICE
Steam engine / turbine
Electric motor
Fuel cells
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Alternative Sources of Energy for Transportation
Source
Advantages
Drawbacks
Biodiesel
Renewable; biodegradable;
domestically produced; improved
lubricity in engine; reduced air
pollutant emissions.
May congeal at low temperatures; may damage engine
components; lower fuel economy; non- renewable fuels are
used in production; limited availability; may increase nitrous
oxide emissions.
Ethanol
Renewable; domestically produced; may
reduce harmful air pollutants.
Non-renewable fossil fuels are used in its production; slightly
decreases fuel economy.
Natural gas /
propane
Reduced air pollutant emissions.
Non-renewable fossil fuel; reduced driving range; limited
availability; larger fuel tanks.
Electricity
Zero tailpipe emissions; widely available.
High vehicle and battery costs; limited range and performance;
electricity production mainly from non-renewable sources.
Hybrid electric
Increased fuel economy and reduced pollution;
good range and performance
Primarily fueled with non-renewable fossil fuels.
Synthetic fuels
Abundant supply exists.
Significant environmental damages from extraction and
processing; high carbon emissions; high production costs.
Hydrogen
Zero tailpipe emissions.
Potential use of fossil fuels to produce; high cost of vehicle.
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Annual Energy Consumption in England and Wales, 1560s to 1850s (MJ)
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
Coal
50%
Wind
Water
Firewood
40%
Draught animals
Human
30%
20%
10%
0%
1561-70
1600-9
1650-9
1700-9
1750-9
1800-9
1850-9
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Power Generated by Steam Machines, Europe, 1840-1888
7000
Thousands of horse power
6000
5000
Rest of Europe
4000
Russia
Austria
Germany
3000
France
Great Britain
2000
1000
0
1840
1850
1860
1870
1880
1888
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Evolution of Energy Sources
Mid 21st Century
Late 20th Century
Animal
Biomass
Coal
Early 20th Century
Oil
Natural Gas
Nuclear
Mid 19th Century
Hydrogen
15th Century
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Primary Energy Production by Source, United States, 1750-2013
25,000,000
Coal
Biomass
20,000,000
Petroleum
Natural Gas
Hydroelectric
Nuclear
Billion BTU
15,000,000
10,000,000
5,000,000
0
1750
1800
1850
1900
1950
2000
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
World Energy Production (in Million tons oil equivalent), 2011
1.6%
6.4%
4.9%
33.1%
30.3%
Oil
Natural Gas
Coal
Hydroelectric
Nuclear
Renewables
23.7%
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
World Oil Expenditures as % of GPD, 1972-2008
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Global Energy Systems Transition, (% of market)
100
Wood
Coal
80
Gases
Solids
60
Hydrogen
40
Liquids
20
0
Oil
Natural Gas
1850
1900
1950
2000
2050
2100
2150
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and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
World Energy Consumption, 1965-2008 (Million tons oil equivalent)
12,000
10,000
8,000
Hydro
6,000
Nuclear
Coal
Gas
4,000
Oil
2,000
0
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
World Marketed Energy Consumption by Region, 1980-2030
800
700
Quadrillion Btu
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2004
OECD Non-OECD
2010
2015
2020
2025
2030
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Energy Efficiency by Transportation Mode
10
Helicopter
Car
Propeller Jet
plane plane
Bus
1
Train
Cargo plane
Bicycle
Truck
Container ship
Oil Pipeline
Energy costs
Gas
pipeline
.1
Supersonic
plane
Freight
Passengers
Train
.01
Tanker
.002
Speed (m/sec)
10
30
100
300
1000
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Fuel Consumption for an Average Cargo Ship
250
20,000
Fuel per 1,000 ton-miles (lbs)
Average DWT
18,000
200
16,000
150
12,000
10,000
100
8,000
Deadweight Tons
Pounds of Fuel
14,000
6,000
50
4,000
2,000
0
0
1850
1875
1900
1925
1950
1975
2000
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Energy Used by the Road Transportation System
17%
5%
7%
1%
4%
66%
Vehicle operation
Vehicle maintenance
Vehicle manufacture
Infrastructure provision
Raw material manufacture
Energy generation
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Factors of Fuel Use by Transportation
Technology
Vehicle efficiency
Type of fuel
Infrastructure
provision and
Levels of service
Economics
Prices and incomes
Spatial structure
Fuel Use
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Distance Travelled for One Ton of Cargo Using 1 kWh of Energy
Post- Sovereign Class Containership
Sovereing Class Containership (8,000 TEU)
Rail (Electric)
Rail (Diesel)
Heavy Truck
Boeing 747-400
0
10
20
30
40
KM
50
60
70
80
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Energy Efficiency of Main Passenger Transportation Modes
Rate of fuel use MJ /
passenger-km
Passenger Travel by
Fuel
Personal vehicle (ICE)
Gasoline
2.6
Local bus (ICE)
Diesel
2.8
Electric bus, light rail, subway
Electricity
0.6
Intercity bus (ICE)
Diesel
0.7
Intercity rail (diesel - electric)
Diesel
0.9
Intercity rail (electric)
Electricity
0.2
High-speed rail (electric)
Electricity
0.3
Aircraft (domestic)
Kerosene
2.0
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Transportation Fuel Markets
Marine
Aviation
Road
Type of fuel
Low quality (bunker oil)
High quality (jet fuel)
Medium quality (diesel,
gasoline)
Market size (year)
150 M metric tons
190 M metric tons
650 M metric tons
Percentage of operating
costs
40%
25%
18-20%
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Typical Energy Use for a Car
8%
12%
5%
Momentum
13%
Exhaust
Cylinder cooling
Engine friction
33%
Transmission and axles
Braking
29%
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
World Oil Energy Consumption by Sector, 1973-2010
2010
9.0
2004
61.5
9.9
17.1
57.7
12.4
16.8
Industry
15.6
Transport
Non-energy
Other sectors
1973
19.9
0%
10%
45.4
20%
30%
40%
11.5
50%
60%
70%
23.2
80%
90%
100%
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Demand for Refined Petroleum Products by Sector in the United States, 1960-2008 (in
Quadrillion BTUs)
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
1960
1965
1970
Transportation
1975
1980
Industrial
1985
1990
Residential and commercial
1995
2000
2005
2008
Electric utilities
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Energy Consumption by Transportation Mode in the United States, 1960-2010 (in Trillion
BTUs)
30,000
25,000
20,000
Pipeline
Water
Rail
Road
Air
15,000
10,000
5,000
0
1960
1965
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Energy Consumption by Road Transportation in the United States, 1970-2007 (in Trillion
BTUs)
24,000
22,000
20,000
18,000
16,000
14,000
12,000
10,000
8,000
6,000
4,000
2,000
0
1970
1975
Passenger Car & Motorcycle
1980
1985
Other 2-Axle 4-Tire Vehicle
1990
1995
2000
Single-Unit 2-Axle 6-Tire or More Truck
2005
Combination Truck
2007
Bus
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Energy Intensities of Passenger Modes, 1980-2000
6,000
Btu per passenger-mile
5,000
4,000
Automobiles
Transit buses
3,000
Intercity buses
Certified air carriers
2,000
Intercity Amtrak
Rail transit
1,000
0
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Energy Intensities of Freight Modes, 1970-2007
30,000
25,000
20,000
15,000
10,000
5,000
Trucks (Btu per vehicle-mile)
Rail (Btu per freight car-mile)
0
1965
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Fuel Consumption and Travel by Certificated Air Carriers in the United States, 1960-2000
1200
16,000
Miles flown
12,000
800
10,000
8,000
Miles per gallon
14,000
6,000
400
4,000
2,000
0
0
1960
1965
1970
1975
1980
Average Miles Flown Per Aircraft (thousands)
1985
1990
1995
Miles per gallon for domestic operations
2000
Miles per gallon for international operations
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Average Miles per Gallon Traveled by Road Vehicle in the United States, 1980-2000
Average
Heavy trucks
Light trucks
Buses
Passenger cars
0
5
10
2000
1990
15
1980
20
25
30
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Average Gasoline Consumption for New Vehicles, United States, 1972-2009 (in miles per
gallon)
35
30
25
20
15
10
Cars
Light Trucks
Average
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Change in Average Vehicle Characteristics, 1981-2003 (in %)
Acceleration
Horsepower
Weight
Fuel Economy
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
24
800
22
750
700
20
650
18
600
16
550
14
Average Fuel Consumed per Vehicle (Gallons)
Average MilesTraveled per Gallon
Total Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption and Travel in the United States, 1960-2007
500
12
450
10
400
1960
1965
1970
1975
1980
Average Miles Traveled per Gallon
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
Average Fuel Consumed per Vehicle (Gallons)
2010
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Components of Retail Costs of Gasoline, United States, 1999-2005
2005
53
19
19
9
Crude oil
Federal & State taxes
Refining costs
Distribution, retail & marketing costs
1999
37
0%
20%
36
40%
13
60%
80%
14
100%
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Automobile Emission Factors
1000
20
HC
CO
15
100
10
% of Vehicle-km
Emissions (grams)
NOx
10
5
1
0
5
10
20
30
35
45
55
60
70
80
85
95
100
Speed (in km/hr)
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Retail Motor Gasoline Prices, Selected Countries, 1990-2009
8
Nominal dollars per gallon
7
6
Canada
5
China
Germany
4
Japan
United States
France
3
Italy
United Kingdom
2
1
0
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Retail Motor Gasoline Prices (cents per liter), Selected Countries, 2004-2010
France
United Kingdom
Germany
Italy
Iceland
Japan
Brazil
Poland
Spain
South Korea
Peru
Australia
Canada
India
China
Argentina
Pakistan
Mexico
Indonesia
United States
Nigeria
Saudi Arabia
Iran
Venezuela
0
20
40
60
80
2004
100
120
140
160
180
200
2011
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Annual Vehicle-Miles Traveled in the United States, Year-over-Year Changes, 1971-2013
$140
8.0%
West Texas Intermediate, Monthly Nominal Spot Oil Price
YOY Change in Vehicle-Miles Traveled
$120
6.0%
$100
4.0%
$80
2.0%
$60
0.0%
$40
-2.0%
$20
-4.0%
Jan-71
Jan-72
Jan-73
Jan-74
Jan-75
Jan-76
Jan-77
Jan-78
Jan-79
Jan-80
Jan-81
Jan-82
Jan-83
Jan-84
Jan-85
Jan-86
Jan-87
Jan-88
Jan-89
Jan-90
Jan-91
Jan-92
Jan-93
Jan-94
Jan-95
Jan-96
Jan-97
Jan-98
Jan-99
Jan-00
Jan-01
Jan-02
Jan-03
Jan-04
Jan-05
Jan-06
Jan-07
Jan-08
Jan-09
Jan-10
Jan-11
Jan-12
Jan-13
$0
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Automobile Fuel Consumption and Fuel Efficiency
12
Gallons Consumed per 100 Miles Driven
10
8
6
4
2
0
0
10
20
30
Miles per Gallon
40
50
60
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Gasoline Price and Use, Western Industrial Countries, 1994
1.4
Portugal
1.2
Dollars per liter
1
0.8
Japan
0.6
Australia
0.4
Canada
United States
0.2
0
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
Liters per person
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Gas Consumption Tax in the United States, 1999 (in $ per mile per gallon per vehicle)
Less than 12.5
Between 13.5 and 12.5
Between 15.5 and 13.5
Between 15.5 and 14.5
Between 16.5 and 15.5
Between 17.5 and 16.5
Between 18.5 and 17.5
Between 19.5 and 18.5
Between 20.5 and 19.5
Between 21.5 and 20.5
Between 22.5 and 21.5
More than 22.5
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Bunker Fuel Spot Prices, Singapore FOB
1400
1200
USD per Ton
1000
800
600
400
200
2005Q3
2005Q4
2006Q1
2006Q2
2006Q3
2006Q4
2007Q1
2007Q2
2007Q3
2007Q4
2008Q1
2008Q2
2008Q3
2008Q4
2009Q1
2009Q2
2009Q3
2009Q4
2010Q1
2010Q2
2010Q3
2010Q4
2011Q1
2011Q2
2011Q3
2011Q4
2012Q1
2012Q2
2012Q3
2012Q4
2013Q1
2013Q2
2013Q3
2013Q4
2014Q1
0
Bunker fuel IFO380
Bunker fuel IFO180
Marine Diesel Oil MDO
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Fuel Consumption by Ship Category, 2007
31300
33560
13722
41925
72229
54889
Crude Oil Tankers
Tankers
Bulk Carriers
General Cargo
Container
Vehicle/RoRo
Passenger
36712
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Fuel Consumption by Containership Size and Speed
400
350
Extra Slow
Steaming
Normal
Speed
Slow
Steaming
Fuel Consumption (Tons per day)
300
Ship Size (TEU)
250
4,000-5,000
5,000-6,000
200
7,000-8,000
8,000-9,000
150
9,000-10,000
10,000+
100
50
0
17
18
19
20
21
Speed (Knots)
22
23
24
25
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Fuel Consumption at 20 knots in Tons per TEU per Day by Containership Size
0.030
0.025
0.020
0.015
0.010
0.005
0.000
2,000 - 3,000
3,000 - 4,000
4,000 - 5,000
5,000 - 6,000
6,000 - 7,000
7,000 - 8,000
8,000 - 9,000
9,000 - 10,000
10,000+
Ship Size, in TEU
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Effects of Speed on Fuel Consumption, Panamax Bulk Carrier
50
45
40
35
Tons per Day
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Speed (Knots)
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Trend in Aircraft Fuel Efficiency (Fuel burned per Seat)
100
% of Base (Comet 4)
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
1950
1960
1970
1980
Year of Introduction
1990
2000
2010
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Trends in Fuel Efficiency, Selected Passenger Jet Planes
6
B720-000
B720B
5
B707-300
DC9-10
Energy Intensity (MJ/pkm)
B707-100B
4
DC9-30
DC9-40
B707-300B
3
B737-100/200
B747-200/300
DC10-10
2
L1011-500
B727-200
A310-300
B737-500/600
MD80
DC10-30
B767-200
B767-300
MD11
A380
B747-400
B787-8
DC10-40
B747-100
B737-300
1
A300-600
B757-200
B777-200
A320-100/200
A350-800
0
1955
1965
1975
1985
1995
2005
2015
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Potential to Reduce Energy Consumption in Air and Maritime Transportation
Sector
Category
Measure
Aviation
Operations
Advanced communications, navigation and surveillance (CNS)
and air traffic management (ATM)
5%
Airframe Design and More efficient turbofan engines, Unducted fan engines,
Propulsion
Advanced lightweight materials, Improved aerodynamics, New
airframe designs
30%
Alternative Fuels
Medium term: Biofuels; Long term: Biofuels, Hydrogen
25%
Operations
Speed reduction, Optimized routing, Reduced port time
45%
Ship Design and
Propulsion
Novel hull coatings and propellers, Fuel efficiency optimization,
Combined cycle operation, Multiple engines
35%
Alternative Fuels
and Power
Marine diesel oil (MDO), Liquefied natural gas (LNG), Wind
power sails
40%
Marine
Potential
Improvements
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Potential Impacts of High Oil Prices on Transportation
Usage level
Modal shift
P
Q
A/B
P
Q(A/B)
Price
Gateway / Hub selection
Service area changes
B
R(B)
Cost
A
2
Price
1
A
B
Range
Supply chain propagation
Network configuration
Rail
Road
Raw
Materials
Manufacturing
Distribution
Centers
Retailers
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Costs of Shipping a 40 foot Container to New York
$8,000
$7,000
$6,000
$5,000
$4,000
From Hong Kong
From Mexico
$3,000
$2,000
$1,000
$0
Barrel at $30
Barrel at $60
Barrel at $100
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Costs of Shipping a 40 foot Container From China to the American East Coast
$16,000
$14,000
$12,000
$10,000
$8,000
$6,000
$4,000
$2,000
$0
2000 ($30 barrel)
2005 ($56 barrel)
2008 ($135 barrel)
From China
($150 barrel)
($200 barrel)
From Mexico
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
THE GEOGRAPHY OF
TRANSPORT
SYSTEMS
Transportation, Land Use and
Environment
THIRD EDITION
Concept 3
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Land Area Consumed by the Car in Selected Countries, 1999
Sweden
0.6%
United Kingdom
1.8%
Germany
2.2%
France
1.9%
Japan
3.5%
Mexico
0.5%
Canada
0.3%
United States
1.7%
0
0.01
0.02
0.03
Total land used by the car per capita (Ha)
0.04
0.05
0.06
% of total land area used by the car
0.07
0.08
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Current and Potential Car Fleet in India and China
640
China
13
Vehicle Fleet Size for Industrialized Vehicle Ownership Level
Size of Vehicle Fleet (1999)
513
India
8
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
Millions
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Interactions
Pattern
Form
Spatial Form, Pattern and Interaction and the Environmental Impacts of Transportation
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Sustainable Urban Passenger Travel, Selected Cities
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Energy consumption per capita (1,000 millions of joules)
Transport Energy Consumption and Density in Major Metropolitan Areas, 1990
80
60
Houston
Phoenix
Detroit
Denver
Los Angeles
Chicago
New York
Melbourne
Adelaide
40
Sydney
20
Toronto
Paris
Berlin
London
20
40
Vienna
60
Singapore
Tokyo
Hong Kong
80
100
300
Population density (people per hectare)
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Population Density, Selected Cities, 1960-1990
Frankfurt
Amsterdam
Hamburg
Melbourne
Washington
San Francisco
London
Paris
1990
1960
New York
Tokyo
0
1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
People per square km
7,000
8,000
9,000
10,000
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
THE GEOGRAPHY OF
TRANSPORT
SYSTEMS
Transport and Sustainability
THIRD EDITION
Concept 4
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Sustainable Development
Sustainable Development
Social Equity
•Living conditions
•Equal opportunity
•Social cohesion
•International solidarity
•Maintenance of human
capital
Economic
Efficiency
Environmental
Responsibility
•Economic growth
•Efficiency and
competitiveness
•Flexibility and stability
•Production / consumption
•Employment
•International trade
•Consumption of resources
•Materials and wastes
•Risks
•Rate of change
•Natural and cultural
landscape
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Inflation-Adjusted Price of some Commodities, 1950-2009 (1998=100)
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
1950 1952 1954 1956 1958 1960 1962 1964 1966 1968 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008
Chromium
Copper
Nickel
Tin
Tungsten
Average
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Global Sustainability
Economic
Development
Ecologism
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Sustainable Transportation
Sustainable Development
Sustainable Transportation
Modes
Infrastructures
Logistics
Environment
Economy
Society
Climate Change
Growth
Safety
Air quality
Jobs and Prosperity
Health
Noise
Fair Pricing
Disturbance
Land Use
Competitiveness
Access
Waste
Choice
Equity
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Sustainability Dimensions in the Maritime Industry
Water quality
Air quality
Waste management
Resource conservation
Energy consumption
Oil spills
Anti-fouling paints
Dust
Ship recycling
Hazardous materials
Noise
Dredging
Brownfield sites
Odors
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Environmental Management System for Port and Maritime Transport
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
Clean Air Action Plan, Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach
Mode
Control Measures
CAAP cost ($M)
Heavy duty diesel trucks
(HDV)
All trucks meet 2007 EPA standards by 2011
Alternative fuel station
$1,808
Ocean going vessels (OGV)
202
Cargo handling equipment
(CHE)
Vessel speed reduction
Electric shore power
Auxiliary engine fuel standards
Main engine fuel standards
Engine emissions control devices
Cleanest available technologies
All CHE meet 2007 EPA standards by 2010
Harbor craft
Comments
Clean Truck Program: licensed trucking companies, employee
drivers, costs to be paid by state bonds, ports, fees on cargo
owners
Incentives for VSR, cleaner fuels; ports pay for shore power
0
Accelerated equipment replacement by terminal operators
Gradual shift to highest EPA standards
0
Retrofits, engine replacements
Railroad
Switch engine replacement for local rail line
Increased emissions control on Class 1 railroads
Cleanest available technology for new rail yards
21
Switch engine replacement part of existing agreement; Class 1
RR compliance by 2011; no new rail yards developed
Other
Technology Advancement Program
Infrastructure and operational efficiency
Administrative costs
36
TAP for development of clean vehicle technology
Total
$2,067
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.
General Indicators of Urban Sustainability
Water, materials and waste
Energy and air quality
Urban Sustainability
Transportation and
telecommunications
Land, green spaces
and biodiversity
Livability
Copyright © 1998-2015, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic)
and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.

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