Homework What research says about the value of homework Does homework affect student learning? Consider the following ideas: 0 Homework increases academic achievement 0 Without excessive homework, students’ test scores will not be internationally competitive 0 Those who question homework want to weaken curriculum and pander to students’ laziness A Brief History of the HW Debate 0 Late 1800s to 1940s: Progressive and health reforms led to criticism of HW 0 Cold War period: Competition with the Soviet Union led to more support of HW 0 Vietnam Era: Decline in Support 0 1980s and 1990s: Educational excellence movement brought back support 0 Recent decades: Support and research varies What Does the Research Say? Does homework affect student learning? 0 Older students benefit more 0 Students from low-income may not benefit as much 0 Students with learning disabilities benefit under certain conditions 0 Asian Americans benefit more than other ethnic groups 0 HW may have non-academic benefits – responsibility, study habits, time management FIGURE 1. Synthesis Studies on Homework Number of Effect Average Sizes Graue, Weinstein, General effects of 29 .49 &Walberg, 19831 homework Synthesis Study Bloom, 1984 Paschal, Weinstein, & Walberg, 19842 Cooper, 1989a Hattie, 1992; Fraser, Walberg, Welch, & Hattie, 1987 Focus General effects of homework Homework versus no homework Homework versus no homework General effects of homework Walberg, 1999 With teacher comments Graded Cooper, Robinson, Homework & Patall, 2006 versus no homework Percentile Gains 19 — .30 12 47 .28 11 20 .21 8 110 .43 17 2 .88 31 5 6 .78 .60 28 23 Note: This figure describes the eight major research syntheses on the effects of homework published from 1983 to 2006 that provide the basis for the analysis in this article. The Cooper (1989a) study included more than 100 empirical research reports, and the Cooper, Robinson, and Patall (2006) study included about 50 empirical research reports. Figure 1 reports only those results from experimental/control comparisons for these two studies. 1 2 Reported in Fraser, Walberg, Welch, & Hattie, 1987. Reported in Kavale, 1988. How much time should students spend on homework? 0 Too much HW may diminish its effectiveness 0 The amount of HW completed by students is more important than the amount assigned 0 After-school and tutoring programs can improve behavior and motivation, but not necessarily academic achievement What types of homework are effective? 0 Practice HW 0 Preparation HW 0 Extension HW 0 Integration HW 0 Other – personal development, student- parent communication, peer interaction 0 Very little research exists on connections between specific kinds of HW and student achievement What does it mean for us as teachers? Some research-based HW Guidelines: 0 Assign Purposeful HW: 0 0 0 0 New content Practicing skills Deepen knowledge Explore interests 0 Maximize chances for completion 0 Assign an appropriate amount 0 Research varies on whether teachers should comment on or grade every HW assignment 0 “Educators should combine research-based generalizations, research from related areas, and their own professional judgment based on firsthand experience to develop specific practices and make adjustments as necessary…Educators can develop the most effective practices by observing changes in the achievement of the students with whom they work every day.” --Robert J. Marzano and Debra J. Pickering For small-group discussion 1)Why do you assign HW? 2)How does it assist you in assessing students? 3)How do you think it assists students’ learning?