China Debate Education Network: Introduction to British Parliamentary Debate Whip Speeches Most Important Message Whip Speakers’ Job Description Whip Speech Strategies How to make a good summary Whip Speakers should do Government Whip Speech Opposition Whip Speech Direct refutation Summary towards MO extension (Direct comparison; Summary (Direct comparison） includes indirect refutation towards whole government bench) Why OW should not refute GW directly? • 1. A Whip speech should be a reframing job , to regroup all the advantageous arguments to self. • 2. An experienced whip will try to reframe the whole debate by leading the argumentation process into a familiar and favorable territory to self. • 3. If OW just makes direct refutation point by point towards GW, it’s very likely for him to fall into a trap because he is just fighting in an unfamiliar territory. Criteria of a good whip speech 1. Summarize in an honest and accurate fashion 2. Summarize in a manner that supports your side of the motion 3. Summarize in a manner that supports your team Strategy of Whip Speech • 1) Select the most important issues • 2) Select the issues at your advantage • 3) Avoid repeating opponents’ remarks • 4) Analyze from a higher level/perspective Summary • Basic level (Summary of Disagreement Analysis) • Medium Level (Regrouping ) • Advanced Level (Fundamental Qs) Basic: Summary Method 1. Pick the arguments your side is already winning. 2. Convince the judges that your chosen points are the most important ones. Comments on Basic: Summary Method (Need to be improved) 1. It’s an easy approach to pick up because by looking at your flow sheet, those points are easily spotted. 2. But it’s the weakest approach because the fact or arguments you pick up to support your claim are not necessarily the important or relevant issues in this motion. Eg. Ban of Smoking can reduce risk of fire Medium: Regrouping method (Much better) 1. Regroup basic arguments in order to offer a more complete and conclusive picture. 2. Crystallize previously mentioned arguments by regrouping in terms of disciplines Eg. Economics, Culture, Education, etc. or groups of people. Eg. Smoker, Non-smoker; Adult, Children; Civilian, Medium: Regrouping method (Much better) 3. Which grouping method you choose depends on which side you’re on. Eg. In the motion of banning smoking, Government prefers children-adult regrouping. Opposition prefer tobacco famers and tobacco industry employees. Medium: Regrouping method (Much better) 4. Regrouping method MUST be SEEMINGLY FAIR. eg. In the motion of banning smoking, If Opposition just regroups all people involved in smoking into 3 groups , tobacco famers , tobacco industry employees and doctors who cures patients subject to smoking-induced disease, it will be unfair because this regrouping method fails to include all people. Advanced: Fundamental questions (The Best ) • Raise fundamental questions and answer them to show the good grip of cornerstone and deep-seated issues in particular motion. Advanced: Fundamental Questions (The best ) • Eg. The Fundamental Questions of example 1 This House would ban smoking in China. Q: What’s the role of a Government? (a rhetorical question) A: The fundamental role of the Gov. is to protect its citizens’ health. Citizens’ appeal to health is the most basic, which far outweighs other request. As a responsible government, here we have shown you our plan on how to protect citizens from being harmed by smoking. Advanced: Fundamental Questions (The best ) • Which Mac do I want ? --- size , color, warranty, stability, compatibility, after-sale service, portability, multifunction, multimedia, web-surfing, etc. • What is the fundamental function of a computer? ---- To work. List of Fundamental Questions If you have the answers to fundamental questions, you will be much more likely to be winner in debate than others. Eg: 1. What is the nature of ……. ? Example 1: This House would ban smoking in Government Opposition Whip China.whip Rebuttal arguments 1.Practical Benefits a. Benefits to Smokers b. Benefits to Non-smokers 2. Moral Benefits a. Respects non-smokers’ right b. Reduces egoistic actions Role of Government? 1.Maintain Social Stability -protests by addicts, farmers, etc. 2. Protect individual freedom & allow choice 3. Balance benefits over harms - stop unintended consequences - admit health harm, but outweighed! Exercise1: Motion: This House supports corporal punishment in schools. Government whip Opposition whip Exercise1: This House supports corporal punishment in schools. Government whip Rebuttal arguments What is the role of government and does this plan fit this role? 1. Ensure a safe & orderly society - Stop bullying and abuse 2. Provide for the future (i.e., education). - No distractions / kids understand 3. Act morally (most important) a. Sense of citizen responsibility b. People get what they deserve Opposition whip Excercise1: • This House supports corporal punishment in schools. Government whip Opposition whip Rebuttal arguments HOW DOES THIS AFFECT… 1. Children What is the role of government - Physical pain & Long term scars and does this plan fit this role? - Hate school / Fear, not morality 1. Ensure a safe & orderly society 2. Teachers - Stop bullying and abuse - May want power / don’t want 2. Provide talents for the future these (i.e., education). - Hurt from doing harm to others - No distractions / kids 3. Society understand - Cycles of violence in society 3. Act morally (most important) - People see violence as the a. Sense of citizen responsibility answer b. People get what they deserve - Causes much more violent unrest in society Exercise2: Motion: This House believes that Gov. should run welfare lotteries. (Regrouping Method) Government whip 1. Benefit people who buy lottery. (new hope for life, feel happy for helping others) 2. Benefit people in need. (food aid, medical care aid, financial aid, etc.) 3. Benefit people who don’t buy lottery, since Gov. has more resource to give social welfare, less tax will be needed. (the 3 should be the most important and persuasive issue) Opposition whip Exercise2: Motion: This House believes that Gov. should run welfare lotteries. (Fundamental Question Method) Government whip Opposition whip The fundamental Questions: The role of the Gov. 1. Give social welfare to more people 2. To maximize the efficiency of utilizing Gov. dispensable income 3. Can we stop people from Gambling? 4. Is it illegal gambling better than legal gambling? 5. Is it better to regulate gambling by the Gov. instead of private firms?