Assessment : Enhancing Teaching and Learning in the

Report
Asessment for Learning (AfL)
Enhancing Teaching and Learning
in the Classroom
Workshop One - 2013/14
Key Messages
• Assessment is at the heart of effective teaching
and learning
• Assessment information is used to identify
learning needs and adjust teaching
• Three interrelated and complementary
approaches support student achievement:
Assessment of learning
Assessment for learning
Assessment as learning
Learning Outcome:
Enable participants to use assessment to enhance
teaching and learning in the classroom.
Success Criteria:
 Define assessment
 Distinguish assessment of, for and as learning
 Know the key elements of assessment for learning
 Write learning outcomes
 Suggest activities/tasks to achieve the learning
outcomes
 Devise success criteria
 Focus on effective feedback
Defining Assessment
“Assessment in education is about
gathering, interpreting and using
information about the processes and
outcomes of learning”.
“It takes different forms and can be used in
a variety of ways...”
Assessment in the Primary School Curriculum –
Guidelines for Schools. NCCA 2007 p.7
http://www.juniorcycle.ie/About.aspx
School Self Evaluation (SSE)
The SSE Guidelines recommend that schools:
• Use a range of assessment methods – not just
those linked to state exams
• Involve students in the assessment of their work
• Monitor and correct students work
• Provide constructive feedback to students.
• Use assessment information to inform planning
• Have a written policy on assessment
Continuum of assessment
NCCA, 2007
Learning Outcome:
Enable participants to use assessment to enhance
teaching and learning in the classroom.
Success Criteria:
 Define assessment
 Distinguish assessment of, for and as learning
 Know the key elements of assessment for learning
 Write learning outcomes
 Suggest activities/tasks to achieve the learning
outcomes
 Devise success criteria
 Focus on effective feedback
Assessment OF
Learning (Summative)
Happens after learning
takes place
Information is gathered
by teacher
Information is usually
transferred into marks
Comparison with
performance of others
Looks back on past
learning
Assessment FOR
Learning (Formative)
An integral part of
learning process
Information is shared
with learner
Information is available
on quality of learning
Is linked to learning
outcomes and success
criteria
Looks forward to the next
stage of learning
10
Reflect on Current Practice
Assessment of and for learning.....
Source: “Putting Assessment for Learning into Practice,” David Spendlove, 2009)
Assessment for Learning (formative) is not an attack
on assessment of learning (summative assessment).
These are complementary approaches - it’s about
getting the balance right.
It is the teacher who decides the balance and timing
of formative and summative assessments;
(“Putting Assessment for Learning into Practice,”
David Spendlove, 2009)
Assessment for Learning (AfL)
Enables teachers and students to focus on three
key questions 1. Where are students now in their learning?
2. Where are students going in their learning?
3. How will students get to the next point in
their learning?
NCCA Assessment Guidelines p9.
Assessment for Learning: Key Elements
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Learning Outcomes and Success Criteria
Effective Feedback
Effective Questioning
Self assessment - Students as owners of
their own learning
Peer Assessment - Students as Instructional
resources for each other
Assessment for learning strategies need to be
phased into practice over time.
AfL Assessment for Learning – A Practical Guide 2010 p38
Junior Cycle Framework
Key Skills
• Literacy
• Numeracy
Learning Outcomes
• Learning Outcomes are an explicit
description of what a learner should know,
understand and be able to do as a result of
learning.
(Learning and Teaching Institute, Sheffield Hallam University)
Learning Outcomes
We Are Learning To
– Write a letter/report
– Design an experiment
– Add fractions with
mixed numbers
Learning Outcomes
“Lessons are guided by syllabus-linked learning
outcomes that are shared with the students.”
SSE Guidelines
• Example: Students will be able to:
Plan a balanced breakfast menu for two
Demonstrate understanding of the concept of plate
tectonics
Explain how the respiratory system works.
Devising Learning Outcomes
• State learning outcomes simply and clearly.
• Learning Outcomes should be capable of being
validly assessed – a verb should be used in the
statement.
Plan a balanced breakfast menu for two
Demonstrate understanding of the concept of plate
tectonics
Describe the environmental effects of a natural
disaster
Separating the Learning Outcome from
the Context of Learning
The context of learning is simply the actions, activities
and/or tasks students will be doing to achieve the
Learning Outcome.
Learning Outcome
Context of Learning
Write clear instructions
How to bake a cake
Present an argument for or
against a controversial
proposition
Identify metaphors
Four corner discussion on the
statement, “student benefit
should be reduced”
Lake Isle of Inisfree
Identify the parts of an organ
Dissection of heart
Separating the Learning Outcome from
the Context of Learning
The context of learning is simply the actions, activities
and/or tasks students will be doing to achieve the
Learning Outcome.
Learning Outcome
Context of Learning
Demonstrate a good general
Study of Greek and Roman
knowledge of, and an
civilisation
appreciation for, the uniqueness
of each age and civilisation (K,A)
If the learning outcome is free of context it can
illustrate to students that there are many reasons for
learning the concept
Learning Outcome
with Context
What students
thought they were
learning
Learning Outcome
without Context
What students
thought they were
learning now
To write
instructions to
make a sandwich
“I would learn how
to make a
sandwich”
To write
instructions
“We would be
learning how to
write instructions”
To know why
Samuel Pepys is
important in
understanding the
events of the Great
Fire of London
“We would be
learning about
what happened and
what he wrote. We
would also learn
how to put a fire
out.”
To know how
primary sources
help us to find out
about the past
“We would learn
how other people
lived in previous
centuries.”
From Clarke, S. (2005) Formative Assessment in Action: Weaving the elements together
http://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=qw-Efx6gj-U
Workshop Activity
Use the subject-based statements on the worksheet to:
1. Write a clear learning outcome
2. Identify a context of learning (task/activity/teaching
approach etc.)
Learning Outcome
Context of Learning
Identify metaphors
Lake Isle of Innisfree. Key skills
Success Criteria
Success Criteria suggest ways to achieve a
learning outcome.
“How will I know when I have learned?”
“How will I know when I have achieved the learning
outcome?”
The learning outcome and the success
criteria need to be visually displayed
–WILF - What I’m Looking For
Success criteria can be
•
•
•
•
a series of steps/sequence of instructions
a list of options/menu from which the
students can choose
a list of “remember to” prompts
a visual aide memoir
Success Criteria – menu/list of options
• Learning Outcome:
Create a written character portrait
• What will you need to do to achieve this? (Success
Criteria)
Include some or all of the following
• Appearance
• Hobbies and interests
• Personality traits
• Attitude to self/others
• Occupation
• How others respond to the character.....
Success Criteria – “remember to”
prompts
• We are learning to :
Make a Clear Poster
• Success Criteria – Remember to:
Make all your letters the same size
Use dark colours
Don’t use yellow
Put pictures around the edge not the middle
Check that you have copied all the words and dates correctly
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ihFLnNJeV90
Writing Success Criteria
THINK - What are the elements of the topic I’m
going to teach?
Example
Learning Outcome
Describe the environmental effects of earthquakes
Success Criteria
 State one effect on each of the following:
• Human Life
• Man Made Structures
• The Natural Environment
1st Year Business Studies: Syllabus Link:
Enterprise: Transportation and Delivery Systems;
Factors affecting choice of delivery systems
Learning
Outcomes
Students will be able to
evaluate the main types
of transportation which
are suitable for
transporting goods
Context of
Learning
In pairs, students will write a
report for a company
involved in selling goods
abroad, advising them of the
best method of transporting
their goods abroad.
Success
Criteria
Present a report that will:
Explain the four main types
of transport (road, rail, sea
and air)
Explain the factors that a
company should take into
account when choosing a
suitable form of transport
Recommend a method of
transporting goods abroad
3rd Year History. Syllabus link: Understanding the
modern world; International History in the 20th C; Nazi
Germany
Learning
Outcomes
Students will be able to
evaluate the role of
women in Nazi society
Context of
Learning
Describe in detail, in diary
form, the lifestyle of a
woman in Nazi Germany
Success
Criteria
Students will be able to:
identify the role of women
in Nazi society
Discuss the changes that
have taken place in the
lifestyle of women as a
result of Hitler’s rule
Workshop Activity
Write success criteria for the learning outcomes
previously identified!
Learning Outcome
Context of Learning
Success Criteria
Effective Feedback
“Feedback is among the most powerful
moderators of learning”
Hattie, 2012
Effective feedback
• Oral – most powerful impact
• Marks/grading only- does little to improve
learning
• Written comment - quality more important
than frequency
Principles of Effective Feedback
•
•
•
•
Involves more work for receiver than the giver
Timely
Clear and focused
Attached to the learning outcomes and
success criteria
• Concrete, specific and useful; therefore it is
actionable.
Can a student take action to the following
examples of feedback?
“Good job!”, “B+”, “I’m so pleased with your
essay!”
• User friendly: understandable language;
concentrate on one or two key elements of
performance
• Too much feedback can be counter-productive
• Ongoing!!
Feedback only works formatively if the student
has opportunity to improve to better achieve
the learning outcome. In summative
assessment the feedback is too late.
Effective Feedback Techniques
• Three Questions:
asking the students to reflect
on their work and move it forward
• Spot your own mistake
Marking Work
Success and Improvement
• Underline/put a star beside/highlight/ remark
on the two best aspects of the work.
• Indicate where an improvement
could be made (the ‘wish’)
• Should be done against the learning outcome
and/or success criteria.
‘Closing the gap’ prompts
• A reminder Prompt (e.g. use more adverbs and
adjectives here. )
• A scaffolded prompt (e.g. Use some adverbs to
describe how he fought.
Jason tried_________ to distract him but the dragon ______ly used his
strength to get past. Jason stabbed his sword _______ly into the dragon’s
nearest side.
• An example prompt –Give two examples and ask
student to “improve the fight by using one of these or
your own”
‘Closing the gap’ prompts
• A reminder Prompt (e.g. use a quote to back up your
opinion )
• A scaffolded prompt (e.g. Use some adverbs to
describe how he fought.
Hector tried_________ to distract him but Achilles ______ly used his
strength to get past. Achilles stabbed his sword _______ly into Hector’s
body.
• An example prompt –Give two examples and ask
student to improve their opinion by using one of
these or your own
Feedback vs Advice
• Feedback must be linked to the learning
outcome and success criteria as well as
moving the learning forward, otherwise it
tends to become either a judgement or
advice.
• Can you spot the difference?
You need more examples in your report
I’d like you to find two other quotes to support
your argument.
I really enjoyed reading your short story
Good job: B+
Feedback using Learning Outcomes
and Success Criteria
• Learning Outcome – Design a tourist brochure
• Context – choose your own/assigned
• Success Criteria – Include
– A map(s) showing the location of at least five famous tourist
attractions
– Interesting and relevant information
– Pictures/drawings
– Brochure clear and well laid out
• Feedback – oral/written using the LO &SC
Assessing Progress During Lessons
Asking key questions:
•
•
•
•
to measure student progress in learning orally
to generate class discussion
use open questions
higher order questions
Strategies for Effective Questioning
• Use ‘open’ rather than ‘closed’ questions
– E.g. Is Iago or Othello responsible for
Othello’s downfall?
Strategies for Effective Questioning
• Change the question into a statement:
Instead of asking: “Who was most responsible
for the Irish Civil War?”
Make a statement: “DeValera was responsible for
the Irish Civil War.”
Strategies for Effective Questioning
• Invert the question
e.g.: “Is Ireland a republic?”
Change to: “What does it mean for a country to
become a republic?”
• Insert the word “might” into the question
“What is the meaning of socialism?”
“What might be the meaning of socialism?”
Strategies for Effective Questioning
Start your questions with “why” or “how”
Instead of asking: “What is a prime number?”
Ask: “Why is 7 a prime number and 9 a composite
number?
Instead of asking: “What was life like under the
Taliban?”
Ask: “How were the lives of men and women
different under the Taliban?”
Assessment
It is essential that teachers
ensure that AfL does not
become a set of teaching
tips that ultimately fall into
unthinking routines of
traffic lights, two stars,
WALT boards, success
criteria and so on.
AfL – A Practical Guide (N. I Curriculum) pii
For Next Time
Plan and teach lesson to include:
•
•
•
•
Sharing learning outcomes with students
Agreeing success criteria with students, and the
Provision of effective written/oral feedback
If possible, note one or two questions that
generated dynamic class discussion

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