Qualified Mortgage

New Mexico Housing Summit 2014
A Place for Housing
August 20, 2014
Ken Markison
Vice President and Regulatory Counsel
Mortgage Bankers Association
Presented by
David H. Stevens
President, Mortgage Bankers Association
The Very Recent Rules
• ATR/QM Final Rule - Issued January 10, 2013, implementation date January
10, 2014.
• HOEPA Rule– Issued January 10, 2013, implementation date January 10,
• Loan Originator Rule – Issued January 20, 2013, implementation date
January 1, 2014.
• Servicing Rule – Issued January 17, 2013, implementation date January 10,
• Escrow Final Rule – Issued January 10, 2013, implementation date June, 1
• ECOA Appraisal Disclosure Rule – Issued January 18, 2013, implementation
date on January 18, 2014
• Appraisals for Higher Priced Mortgages – Issued January 15, 2013,
implementation date January 18, 2014
• And HUD Disparate Impact Rule – implemented March 2013
Looming Ahead
• RESPA TILA Final Rule - November 20, 2013, Effective Aug 1, 2015
• Final FHA QM Rule – December, 2013
• Proposed Clarifications of ATR rule - Cure
• HMDA Proposed Rule– July, 2014, Comments - Oct 22, 2014
• Revised Complaint Policy – July, 2014, Comments - Sept. 22,2014
• Final QRM Rule – Fall 2014?
• CFPB - Eighteen Laws to Regulate
• And Examination and Enforcement
Federal ATR Requirement Effective January 10, 2014
• ABILITY TO REPAY REQUIREMENT – Prohibits creditor from making covered
mortgage loan unless creditor makes reasonable and good faith determination,
based on verified and documented information, that consumer will have reasonable
ability to repay the loan according to its terms.
MEETING REQUIREMENT - Creditor can comply in any of five ways:
General Ability to Repay - Originating mortgage loan after considering and
verifying eight specific factors at minimum
Originating “Qualified Mortgage” (QM) (General/Garden Variety or
Originating Smaller Creditor Rural Balloon-Payment QM
Originating Smaller Creditor Portfolio QM
Refinancing a “Non-standard Mortgage” into a “Standard Mortgage”
Federal ATR Requirement Coverage
Applies to all consumer credit transactions secured by a dwelling
Does not apply to:
Business purpose loans that are exempt from TILA
Timeshare plans
Ability to repay requirement does not apply to (but prepayment penalty restrictions do
Reverse mortgages
Temporary or “bridge” loans of 12 months or less
Construction-to-permanent loan with a construction phase of 12 months or less
Loans made pursuant to Housing Finance Agency programs & Emergency Economic
Stabilization Act/TARP programs (e.g., HAMP or a State Hardest Hit Fund program)
Certain loans to low-to-moderate income consumers:
• Non-profits that extend credit no more than 200 times a year
• Creditors designated by Treasury as a Community Development Financial Institution &
HUD as a Community Housing Development Organization or Downpayment Assistance
Provider of Secondary Financing
Significant Liability for Failing to Meet Ability to Repay
• Dodd-Frank establishes severe remedies for violations
• Mortgage creditor who fails to comply with requirements for, as example,
$200,000 loan may be liable to consumer for:
• Actual damages, including for example, the borrower’s down payment
of 10 percent or more (i.e., $20,000 or more);
• Statutory damages of up to $4,000;
• All fees and up to three years of finance charges paid by the consumer
which on an average loan of $200,000 at 4.5% may be approximately
$25,000; and
• Court costs and reasonable attorney’s fees associated with action
• Plus attorneys fees for lender no matter whether claim is valid may be
$26,000-$155,000 dollars
General Ability to Repay - 8 Factors
Originating mortgage loan after considering and verifying eight factors at a minimum
(Lender can rely on more):
Current or
reasonably expected
income or assets,
other than value of
Current employment
status, if creditor
relies on employment
Monthly payment on
the covered
Monthly payment on
any simultaneous
loan creditor knows
or should have
known about
Monthly payment for
Current debt
obligations, alimony,
and child support
Monthly debt-toincome ratio or
residual income
Credit history
Categories of Qualified Mortgages
"General" QM
• Borrower has a total or “back-end” debt-toincome (DTI) ratio that is less than or equal to
• Points and fees do not exceed 3% of total loan
• No negative amortization, interest-only
payments, balloon payments, or term longer
than 30 years
• Underwritten:
• taking into account monthly payment for
mortgage related obligations using maximum
interest rate that may apply during first five
years and periodic payments of principal and
interest based on such rate
• Consideration and verification of: (a)
consumer’s current or reasonably expected
income or assets and (b) current debt
obligations, alimony, and child support.
Categories of Qualified Mortgages
• Mortgage must:
• Be eligible for purchase, insurance or
guarantee by the GSE or government
• Not have points and fees exceeding 3%
of total loan amount
• Not include negative amortization,
interest-only payments, balloon
payments, or a term longer than 30 years
• Temporary “patch” expires on effective
date of QM rule issued by agencies, end
of conservatorship or January 10, 2021
Qualified Mortgage (QM)
Safe Harbor or Rebuttable Presumption
Qualified Mortgages and Compliance
• A qualified mortgage is presumed to comply with the Ability to Repay Requirements
• The strength of the presumption depends on the spread of the Annual Percentage Rate (APR)
against the Average Prime Offer Rate (APOR)
• Basically, rule seeks to give safe harbor to the prime market and rebuttable presumption for the
subprime market, but unlike “higher priced mortgage loan” rule, no special threshold for
jumbo mortgages
Safe Harbor
• Has an Annual Percentage Rate (APR) that
does not exceed the Average Prime Offer
Rate (APOR) by 1.5 or more percentage
points for a first lien or 3.5 percentage
points for a subordinate lien transaction.
• Conclusive Presumption of Compliance
or Safe Harbor – Rule provides conclusive
presumption or “legal safe harbor” that
ability to repay requirements have been
met for QM that satisfies the other
• Higher 3.5 threshold for smaller creditor
Rebuttable Presumption
• Presumption of Compliance - Provides
“rebuttable presumption of compliance” for
loans that meet qualified mortgage
requirements listed above for loans that
exceed the APOR by 1.5 or more
percentage points for a first lien or 3.5
percentage points for a subordinate lien
transaction along with the bases for
rebutting the presumption.
• > 3.5 for smaller creditor QMs
Points and Fees: Definition is Complex
The Qualified Mortgage (QM) 3% Points and Fees Cap: What is Included
Most items in the
Finance Charge
All compensation
paid directly or
indirectly by a
consumer to a loan
The maximum
penalty that may
be charged or
collected under
the terms of the
The total prepayment
penalty incurred by a
consumer if they refinance
the loan with the current
holder or a servicer acting
on the current holder’s
behalf or affiliate of either
Premiums or other charges
payable at or before
consummation for any credit
life, disability, unemployment,
property insurance or most
other insurance where the
creditor is beneficiary;
payments for any debt
cancellation or suspension
agreement or contract
Real Estate related
charges that are
paid to affiliates,
creditor or that
are unreasonable
or not bona fide
Points & Fees
Points & fees cannot exceed 3% for loan amount of $100,000 or more
• $3,000 for loans $60,000 to less than $100,000 (adjusted for inflation)
• 5% for loans $20,000 to less than $60,000
• $1,000 for loans $12,500 to less than $20,000 (adjusted for inflation)
• 8% for loans less than $12,500
• Percentages calculated using “total loan amount” – amount of
credit extended less prepaid finance charges and less financed points
& fees
Points & fees include 6 categories of fees, known at or before
Smaller Creditors Have Advantages What is a Smaller Creditor under QM?
To Qualify for the Smaller
Creditor QM Rules, the Lender
Have less than
2 billion in
Make less than
500 First Lien
Loan a Year
Types of Small Creditor QMs
• Smaller Creditor Balloon QM
• In rural and underserved areas (definition
being revised)
• Anywhere for next two years
• If held in portfolio for three years
• If sold in three years, sold to another eligible
smaller creditor
• Safe Harbor for loans an annual percentage
rate (APR) less than 350 basis points (3.5%)
over APOR for first lien mortgage
• Smaller Creditor Portfolio Loan
• No debt to income threshold but must satisfy
other QM underwriting requirements.
• Same portfolio requirements above
• Also have a larger APR-APOR threshold for
safe harbor, APR > 3.5% over APOR .
FHA QM Requirements
• HUD QM went into effect January 10, 2013
• HUD’s own FHA QM definition replaces the CFPB’s Temporary QM
for FHA loans
• Certain FHA loans are assumed to be safe harbor QMs– Title I
loans and certain special loan programs.
• For most mortgage loans, there is a safe harbor-rebuttable
presumption distinction.
• FHA QM Safe Harbor = 1.15% (115 basis points) + the mortgage
insurance premium (MIP) is the threshold..
• For a typical 30 year FHA loan, that would be 2.5% over the APOR.
• Also differences in the rebuttable presumption from the CFPB
•Appreciate Interim Final Proposed Rule
•Would make almost all VA loans QM safe harbor
•Only some IRRLS would be QM rebuttable presumption loans
•MBA’s comment supports the rule but suggests that rather than have some
loans outside the safe harbor requirements should be refined
Rules Are New And Data is Coming In
•Concerns about how well the new rules are serving borrowers
particularly moderate-income families
• All creditworthy borrowers simply cannot obtain QM S/H loans
• Concerns about market distortions and competition persist
• FHA remains primary source for low-mod and minority borrowers
Needed Dodd-Frank Rule
• Overarching Concerns
• Right to cure
• Process for written guidance
• ATR/QM - Points and fees and APOR/APR threshold needs
• MBA urges CFPB or Congress• Increase small loan threshold to $200k to adjust points/fees cap
• Expand safe harbor – increase APR/APOR spread to 200 bps
• Remove affiliate charges or at least title from 3 percent
• Support H.R. 3211 and S. 1577 addressing points and fees/affiliate
• Work on the patch!!!
Overarching Issues Need to Be Addressed
1. Cure Procedures – Rules, particularly QM, should allow lenders to cure
calculation errors and other processing mistakes
•Without such procedures, lenders forced to avoid transactions at
boundaries of QM’s APR, points and fees and DTI limits, depriving too many
qualified borrowers of affordable, sustainable credit
•HOEPA rules include cure procedure which ensures prompt corrective
action and more favorable loans for borrowers
•Permitting both cures will make it easier for qualified borrowers to obtain
QM loans
Cure Proposal
Recently CFPB proposed QM Cure Procedures – MBA has advocated
•Would allow cure of good faith errors in points and fees calculation within
120 days of consummation .
•Without such procedures, lenders forced to avoid transactions at
boundaries of QM’s APR depriving too many qualified borrowers of
affordable, sustainable QM credit
•We commented on proposal and asked for modification and a longer time
period for cure
•MBA also commented on other possible cures for DTI and other matters like
omitted NMLS number
•These procedures need to be finalized
Overarching Issues Need to Be Addressed
2. Process for Provision of Written Guidance
•CFPB process should provide timely, reliable written guidance on regulatory
requirements rather than forcing stakeholders to await publication of formal
revisions and commentary or rely on oral guidance that can be inconsistent
•Absence of timely, authoritative written guidance from CFPB has resulted in
inconsistent and conservative guidance from some investors. This has
harmed consumers , for example, by depriving them of beneficial loan
Key QM Issues Need to Be Addressed
1. Increased points and fees threshold for “smaller loans” under
ATR/QM rule so loans under $200,000 are subject to more realistic
limits that increase on sliding scale loan amount decreases
•First-time and moderate-income borrowers seek smaller balance loans.
• 3% points and fees cap makes smaller loans uneconomical to make or, if
costs built into rate, more difficult for borrowers to afford
•Average purchase loan based on MBA data is approximately $260,000
•MBA data indicates industry costs of originating have more than doubled
in recent years, in part as result of increased compliance costs
•Dodd-Frank provides CFPB broad discretion to increase points and fees
cap to make QM protections available for smaller loans
MBA Suggested Changes to
Smaller Loan Standards
Key QM Issues Need to Be Addressed
2. Raise the APR Threshold to 200 basis points over APOR in order to
allow more qualified borrowers to access safer, more affordable QM
•Current dividing line between QM safe harbor loans and QM rebuttable
presumption loans is 1.5% above APOR for comparable loan.
•Potential liability and litigation costs for ability to repay claims outside QM
safe harbor have led many lenders to confine lending to QM safe harbor
•Expansion of threshold between QM safe harbor and QM rebuttable
presumption loans will mitigate APOR problem and ensure borrowers who
qualify for loans at higher rates are served by safe, sustainable, and more
affordable QM loans
Patch Built to Last is Essential
3. A replacement for the patch should be implemented thoughtfully
• Existence of patch allowing GSE eligible loans to qualify has made QM
• But the patch expires in 7 years or when GSEs leave conservatorship
• It is essential to replace it with a versatile and transparent set of
requirements that include factors.
Still Awaiting QRM
• Risk Retention/Qualified Residential Mortgage (QRM) rule reproposed
• Proposes “Preferred Alternative” QRM –
Incorporates current QM definition and QM as modified in future
Treats both safe harbor and rebuttable presumption loans as QRMs
Drops high down payment and low DTI requirements
• Alternative QM plus also offered for comment that:
Would require 30% down payment/70% LTV
Prohibits 30 or 60 day late payments
Excludes GSE/Agency patch
• Comments closed October 30, 2013
• Comment letter supports Preferred Approach; strongly opposes Alternative
RESPA-TILA Integration
RESPA TILA Integration
• November 20, 2013, CFPB) issued final RESPA-TILA integration rule.
•Final rule has 20 month implementation period - requires new forms and associated
rules implemented by August 1, 2015.
•Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform Act (“Dodd-Frank”) requires CFPB to propose rules
and model disclosures to combine and integrate required disclosures under Truth in
Lending Act (TILA) and Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA).
•CFPB offered multiple iterations of combined forms for comment prior to proposed
rule in July 2012. Proposal included model disclosures and rules governing how and
when lender must provide forms and tightens restrictions on cost variations from
Loan Estimate to Closing Disclosure.
•Rule presents major implementation challenges including systems, business process
and and training to operationalize forms and requirements
The New Forms: The Loan Estimate
•Loan Estimate combines RESPA’s Good Faith Estimate (GFE) and TILA’s Early
Truth in Lending (TIL) form. –troublesome form issues
•The Loan Estimate generally contains (can vary somewhat for different loan types):
•First page includes: (1) identifying information describing borrower and loan,
(2) loan terms, amount, payments and rate; (3) particular loan features such as
prepayment penalties and balloon payments; (4) projected monthly payments
showing any increases; and (5) estimated cash to close and closing costs.
•Second page breaks down closing costs and includes details on prepaid and
escrowed amounts and cash to close.
•Third page contains series of additional disclosures regarding: total payments
over five years; APR; a new disclosure, Total Interest Payment (TIP); appraisal
availability to borrower, whether loan is assumable, requirement for
homeowner’s insurance; late payment policies; refinancing not guaranteed, and
possibility of servicing transfer.
Loan Estimate
Loan Estimate
Loan Estimate
The New Forms: The Closing Disclosure
•The new “Closing Disclosure” merges and replaces the final Truth in Lending “TIL” statement
and the RESPA-required HUD-1 settlement statement.
Contents: Five-page Closing Disclosure is structured as follows:
•First page is essentially same as first page of Loan Estimate and contains: (1) identifying
information describing borrower and loan; (2) loan terms, amount, payments and rate; (3)
particular loan features such as prepayment penalties and balloon payments; (4) projected
payments showing any increases; and (5) estimated cash to close and closing costs.
•Second and third pages include closing cost details and a calculation of cash to close and
a summary of the real estate transaction.
•Fourth and fifth pages provide several disclosures regarding: whether loan is assumable;
whether loan has demand feature: requirement for homeowner’s insurance; late payment
policies; refinancing cannot be guaranteed; potential for servicing transfer; appraisal
availability to borrower; APR; finance charge; amount financed; and new disclosure of Total
Interest Percentage (TIP) that includes total amount of interest paid over loan term as a
percentage of loan amount.
Page 1
» Issued
» Closing
» Disbursement
CD Page 2
No HUD-1 line #s
Real Estate
Alphabetical Order
Same fee names
Page 3
Page 4
New Dodd Frank
CD Page 5
New Total of Payments calculation
TIP calculation
• License numbers
Rules Present Significant Challenges –
Effective Dates including Construction to Perm
Old Forms and New Forms
Definitions - Business Day, etc.
Pre-Application Worksheet –
Managing to 6 Items for Application
Limits on Upfront Fees
Liability - Lender and Assignee
Sign or not to sign Loan Estimate and Closing Disclosure
Other State Law Issues
Record Retention
Significant Challenges - Loan Estimate
Loan Estimate - Itemization of Fees and Charges
Shopping Lists
Loan Estimate – Timing of Provisions
Managing the New Variations/Tolerances
Vendor Management
Extent of Due Diligence
Inspection of Appraisers/Broker /Settlement Agent
Affiliate Charges
Responsibility for Delivery of Loan Estimate
Revised Loan Estimate – Operationally
Intent to Proceed
Key Issue -New Tolerances Limiting
Variation from LE to CD
•Final rule tightens tolerances restricting increases from Loan Estimate to
Closing Disclosure) for certain charges. Rule applies a “zero tolerance” or
prohibits increases in:
• Lender or broker charges
• Fees charged by affiliate of the creditor (NEW)
• Fees charged by service providers selected by the creditor for services
for which consumer is not permitted to shop (i.e., where consumer must
select from list of providers furnished by lender) (NEW)
• Transfer Taxes
•Generally, other third-party charges are subject to ten percent limit overall
on increases from Loan Estimate. r.
•Some charges like escrows, hazard insurance are not subject to tolerances
Significant Challenges - Closing
Disclosure and More
Timing - Managing to the 3 – Day and Other Disclosure Timing
Requirements Technology, Due Diligence, Etc.
Responsibility for Development and Provision of Closing
Refi v Purchase relevant
Vetting of Agents
State Law issues
ALTA Best Practices
Itemization of Fees and Charges on Closing Disclosure
Changes to Closing Disclosure – Pre Closing
Corrections to Closing Disclosure – After Closing including QM
Key Issue - “3 Day Waiting Period”
After Providing Closing Disclosure
•Provision of Forms: The rule makes lenders responsible for delivering Closing
Disclosure to the consumer, but lender may use settlement agent to provide form, with
lender retaining responsibility.
•Rule requires creditor to provide the Closing Disclosure to the borrower at least three
business days before the consumer closes on the loan.
•If creditor makes certain specific changes between time Closing Disclosure form is
provided and closing, a new form must be generated and an additional three-businessdays after receipt of the new form before closing. The following changes require
•(1) the creditor makes changes to the APR above 1/8 of a percent for most loans
(and 1/4 of a percent for loans with irregular payments or periods);
•(2) changes of the loan product; or
•(3) addition of prepayment penalty to the loan
•Less significant changes can be disclosed without an additional 3 day period. Note
that the final rule is an improvement over the proposal that would have required redisclosure for nearly all changes.
Special Challenges of Technology
•Technology is key to compliance
•Several important concerns
Forms and populating forms
MISMO and mapping
Compatibility among providers
•Business process changes, training etc still key

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