Ch. 1

Report
CHAPTER 1
The Investment
Environment
Investments, 8th edition
Bodie, Kane and Marcus
Slides by Susan Hine
McGraw-Hill/Irwin
Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Real Assets Versus Financial Assets
• Essential nature of investment
– Reduced current consumption
– Planned later consumption
• Real Assets
– Assets used to produce goods and
services
• Financial Assets
– Claims on real assets
1-2
Table 1.1 Balance Sheet of U.S.
Households, 2007
1-3
Table 1.2 Domestic Net Worth
1-4
A Taxonomy of Financial Assets
• Fixed income or debt
– Money market instruments
• Bank certificates of deposit
– Capital market instruments
• Bonds
• Common stock or equity
• Derivative securities
1-5
Financial Markets and the Economy
• Information Role
– The Google effect
• Consumption Timing
• Allocation of Risk
• Separation of Ownership and
Management
– Agency Issues
1-6
Financial Markets and the
Economy Continued
• Corporate Governance and Corporate Ethics
– Accounting Scandals
• Examples – Enron, Rite Aid, HealthSouth
– Auditors—watchdogs of the firms
– Analyst Scandals
• Arthur Andersen
– Sarbanes-Oxley Act
• Tighten the rules of corporate governance
1-7
The Investment Process
• Asset allocation
– Choice among broad asset classes like
stocks, bonds, real estate, commodities
• Security selection
– Choice of which securities to hold within
asset class
• Security analysis
1-8
Markets are Competitive
• Risk-Return Trade-Off (no free lunch)
• Efficient Markets: price reflects all info.
– Active Management
• Finding mispriced securities
• Timing the market
– Passive Management
• No attempt to find undervalued
securities
• No attempt to time the market
• Holding a highly diversified portfolio
1-9
The Players
• Business Firms– net borrowers
• Households – net savers
• Governments – can be both borrowers and
savers
• Financial Intermediaries
– Investment Companies; invests mainly in
securities
– Banks
– Insurance companies
– Credit unions
1-10
The Players Continued
• Investment Bankers:Goldman Sachs,
Citigroup, J.P.Morgan
– Perform specialized services for
businesses such as issuing securities for
firms
– Markets in the primary market
1-11
Table 1.3 Balance Sheet of
Commercial Banks, 2007
1-12
Table 1.4 Balance Sheet of Nonfinancial
U.S. Business, 2007
1-13
Recent Trends—Globalization
• American Depository Receipts (ADRs)
claim in shares of a foreign company
• Foreign securities offered in dollars
• Mutual funds that invest internationally
• Variant of ADR: Exchange Traded Funds
(ETFs) ,diversified investment in foreign
shares, e.g. iSHAREs, WEBS
1-14
Figure 1.1 Globalization: A Debt Issue
Denominated in Euros
1-15
Recent Trends—Securitization
• Mortgage pass-through securities
• Other pass-through arrangements
– Car, student, home equity, credit card
loans
• Offers opportunities for investors and
originators
1-16
Figure 1.2 Asset-backed Securities
Outstanding
1-17
Recent Trends—Financial Engineering
• Use of mathematical models and computerbased trading technology to synthesize new
financial products
• Bundling and unbundling of cash flows
1-18
Figure 1.3 Building Creates a Complex
Security
1-19
Figure 1.4 Unbundling of Mortgages into
Principal- and Interest-Only Securities
1-20
Recent Trends—Computer Networks
• Online information dissemination
customer's direct access to an on-line broker
• Information is made cheaply and widely
available to the public
• Automated trade crossing
– Direct trading among investors
1-21

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