Lecture slides

Report
TOURISM
PETER ROBINSON
MICHAEL LÜCK
STEPHEN L. J. SMITH
9
Visitor Attractions
Learning Objectives
•
To understand the importance of attractions
for the tourism industry
•
To describe and classify different types of
attractions
•
To understand different ownership and
management of different types of attractions
•
To appreciate the role of events as
attraction
Classification
• Four main types (Swarbrooke, 2002)
1. Features within the natural environment
2. Human-made buildings, structures and sites that
were designed for a purpose other than attracting
visitors, such as religious worship, but which now
attract substantial numbers of visitors who use
them as leisure amenities
3. Human-made buildings, structures and sites that
are designed to attract visitors and are purposebuilt to accommodate their needs, such as theme
parks
4. Special events
Classification
• Another frequent typology is based on
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–
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Natural features
Man-made features
Cultural features
Any combination of these three
Classification
LOCAL MARKET
OWNERSHIP
PAID
NATIONAL
PRODUCT
resource, catering,
interpretation,
retailing, events,
conferences,
activities
FREE
INTERNATIONAL
BUILT
NATURAL
REGIONAL MARKET
(Leask, 2003, p. 7)
Ownership
• Public
– Central government
– Government agencies
– Local authorities
– State industries
• Voluntary organizations
– Charitable trusts
– Private clubs and associations
• Private
– Individuals and partnerships
– Private companies
– Corporations
Attraction Attributes
(Weaver and Lawton, 2010)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Ownership and orientation
Spatial configuration
Authenticity
Scarcity
Status
Carrying capacity
Accessibility
Market
Context
Non-purpose-built
Attractions
• Created for different purpose, but evolved into
an attraction
–
–
–
–
–
–
Churches (e.g. Notre Dame in Paris)
Shopping malls (e.g. West Edmonton Mall, Canada)
Factories (e.g. Coca Cola in Atlanta)
Industrial sites (e.g. Waihi Gold Mine, New Zealand)
Modern buildings (e.g. Sydney Opera House)
Superstructures (e.g. Golden Gate Bridge in San
Francisco)
World Heritage
• Identified and declared by the United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization (UNESCO)
• Three categories
– Outstanding natural heritage
– Outstanding cultural heritage
– Outstanding natural and cultural heritage
World Heritage
• Issues/challenges
– Managing access (access versus conservation)
– ‘Edutainment’
– Ownership
Events as Attraction
• MICE (Meetings, Incentives, Conferences,
Events)
• Event types
– Festivals
– Tournaments
– Other
Events as Attraction
• Mega-events
– Legacies
– Opportunities
• Infrastructure improvements
• Community involvement/development
Visitor Interpretation
• Various techniques
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Signs and plates
Audio tours
Video screenings
Guidebooks/brochures
Personal interpretation (by tour guide)
• The role of the Tourist Information Centre
References
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Leask, A. (2003) The nature and purpose of visitor attarctions. In: Fyall, A., Garrod, B. and Leask, A.
(eds) Managing Visitor Attractions: New Directions. Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, Amsterdam, pp. 5–
15.
Swarbrooke, J. (2002) The Development & Management of Visitor Attractions, 2nd edn. Butterworth
Heinemann, Oxford, UK.
Weaver, D. and Lawton, L. (2010) Tourism Management, 4th edn. Wiley and Sons, Milton, Australia.

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