TOURISM PETER ROBINSON MICHAEL LÜCK STEPHEN L. J. SMITH 9 Visitor Attractions Learning Objectives • To understand the importance of attractions for the tourism industry • To describe and classify different types of attractions • To understand different ownership and management of different types of attractions • To appreciate the role of events as attraction Classification • Four main types (Swarbrooke, 2002) 1. Features within the natural environment 2. Human-made buildings, structures and sites that were designed for a purpose other than attracting visitors, such as religious worship, but which now attract substantial numbers of visitors who use them as leisure amenities 3. Human-made buildings, structures and sites that are designed to attract visitors and are purposebuilt to accommodate their needs, such as theme parks 4. Special events Classification • Another frequent typology is based on – – – – Natural features Man-made features Cultural features Any combination of these three Classification LOCAL MARKET OWNERSHIP PAID NATIONAL PRODUCT resource, catering, interpretation, retailing, events, conferences, activities FREE INTERNATIONAL BUILT NATURAL REGIONAL MARKET (Leask, 2003, p. 7) Ownership • Public – Central government – Government agencies – Local authorities – State industries • Voluntary organizations – Charitable trusts – Private clubs and associations • Private – Individuals and partnerships – Private companies – Corporations Attraction Attributes (Weaver and Lawton, 2010) • • • • • • • • • Ownership and orientation Spatial configuration Authenticity Scarcity Status Carrying capacity Accessibility Market Context Non-purpose-built Attractions • Created for different purpose, but evolved into an attraction – – – – – – Churches (e.g. Notre Dame in Paris) Shopping malls (e.g. West Edmonton Mall, Canada) Factories (e.g. Coca Cola in Atlanta) Industrial sites (e.g. Waihi Gold Mine, New Zealand) Modern buildings (e.g. Sydney Opera House) Superstructures (e.g. Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco) World Heritage • Identified and declared by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) • Three categories – Outstanding natural heritage – Outstanding cultural heritage – Outstanding natural and cultural heritage World Heritage • Issues/challenges – Managing access (access versus conservation) – ‘Edutainment’ – Ownership Events as Attraction • MICE (Meetings, Incentives, Conferences, Events) • Event types – Festivals – Tournaments – Other Events as Attraction • Mega-events – Legacies – Opportunities • Infrastructure improvements • Community involvement/development Visitor Interpretation • Various techniques – – – – – Signs and plates Audio tours Video screenings Guidebooks/brochures Personal interpretation (by tour guide) • The role of the Tourist Information Centre References • • • Leask, A. (2003) The nature and purpose of visitor attarctions. In: Fyall, A., Garrod, B. and Leask, A. (eds) Managing Visitor Attractions: New Directions. Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, Amsterdam, pp. 5– 15. Swarbrooke, J. (2002) The Development & Management of Visitor Attractions, 2nd edn. Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford, UK. Weaver, D. and Lawton, L. (2010) Tourism Management, 4th edn. Wiley and Sons, Milton, Australia.